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Encyclopedia > Annie Jump Cannon

Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose cataloguing work was instrumental in the development of contemporary stellar classification. With Edward C. Pickering, she is credited with the creation of the Harvard Classification Scheme, which was the first serious attempt to organise and classify stars based on their temperatures. Image File history File links Annie_jump_cannon. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ... Edward Charles Pickering (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist, brother of William Henry Pickering. ...



The daughter of shipbuilder and state senator Wilson Lee Cannon and his second wife, Mary Elizabeth Jump, Annie grew up in Dover, Delaware. Mary gave birth to two more daughters after Annie, in addition to the four step-children she inherited in the marriage. Annie's mother had a childhood interest in star-gazing, and she passed that interest along to her daughter. , : The State Capital since 1777 United States Delaware Kent 22. ...


 At the time when Annie was a young woman, 19th century, it wasn’t the best idea for women to enter the scientific field. However Annie had a few things on her side. First was that other astronomers were more familiar with Annie’s endeavors than some of the men. Second was that her father made sure that she got into the collage of her choice, Wellesley College in Massachusetts? Third was that a sudden mass of work appeared that needed to be done and it involved classifying stars. Forth, a job opportunity for women as “computers” opened (meaning people who didn’t need computers for scientific work). 

While at Wellesley Annie studied astronomy and physics. In 1884 she graduated and returned to Delaware for 10 years. Soon she was impatient to study and lean astronomy again. In 1894 she went deaf after a ‘bout’ with scarlet fever, her mother died, and she moved back to the Wellesley to work as a junior physics teacher. She soon became a “special student” at Radcliff.

In 1894 Annie became a member of “Pickering’s women,” they were women hired by Harvard college director Edward Pickering to carry out astronomical calculations and to reduce data. Pickering’s approach to every science was to accumulate all the facts.

A fund was set up that supported the accumulating. Anna Draper was the widow of Henry Draper, a wealthy physician, and an amateur scientist. Pickering made the Henry Draper a long term project to obtain the optical spectra of as many stars as possible, also to index and classify stars by spectra. Measurements were hard enough, the devolvement of a reasonable classification as much as a problem in theory as fact accumulation.

Analysis began in 1896 by Nettie Farrer whose place was taken after a few months by Williamina Fleming because nettle went away to be wed. Williamina examined the spectra of many stars and developed a classification system this work was carried on by Antonia Maury, she soon after developed a classification system of her own. However Pickering couldn’t sympathize with Maury’s insistence on theorectical worry’s that would undo her system.

Annie was left to continue with the project. She started by examining the bright southern hemisphere stars. To these stars she applied a third system, a division of stars into the spectral classes O, B, F, G, K, M, and so on.

Annie’s work was “theory laced” but simplified. How she could see the stars or stellar spectra was extraordinary. Her draper catalogues that listed nearly 400,000 were valued as the work of a single observer .Annie also published many other catalogues of variable stars including 300 that she discovered. Her career lasted more than 40 years in which time women won acceptance into science. Annie received many honorary awards and degrees. Annie jump cannon died April 13, 1941 after receiving a regular Harvard appointment with William C. Bond Astronomer, also receiving the draper medal which only one other female has won and she shared it with her male partner after Annie died many good things were said about her such as, “she was generally interested in all people” and “she had a priceless ability of being good company for anyone around.”

Awards and honors

Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The League of Women Voters is a United States non-partisan political organization founded in 1920 by Carrie Chapman Catt during a meeting of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Henry Draper Medal was established by the widow of Henry Draper, and is awarded by the US National Academy of Sciences for contributions to astrophysics. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Astronomical Society (AAS) is a US society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC. The main aim of the AAS is provide a political voice for its members and organise their lobbying. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cannon is a lunar crater that is located near the east-northeastern limb of the Moons near side. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Annie Jump Cannon Summary (0 words)
Annie Jump Cannon was born in Dover, Delaware, on December 11, 1863, the daughter of Wilson Lee Cannon and Mary Elizabeth Jump Cannon.
Annie Jump Cannon was born in Dover, Delaware, in 1863.
Cannon was the most famous female astronomer of her lifetime and was called the "Census Taker of the Sky." Cannon's successes inspired other women to pursue astronomical investigations, despite gender biases demonstrated by many male astronomers.
Upto11.net - Wikipedia Article for Annie Jump Cannon (519 words)
Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863 – April 13, 1941), US astronomer, was born to shipbuilder and state senator, Wilson Cannon, and his second wife, Mary Jump, in Dover, Delaware.
In 1896, Cannon was hired by Professor Edward Charles Pickering, director of the Harvard College Observatory, to catalogue variable stars and classify the spectra of Southern stars.
On average, Cannon classified three stars a minute in sparsely populated regions of the sky, and her speed was half that for denser regions of the sky.
  More results at FactBites »



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