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Encyclopedia > Annexation
Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii.
Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii.

Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous). Usually, it is implied that the territory and population being annexed is the smaller, more peripheral or weaker of the two merging entities. It can also imply a certain measure of coercion, expansionism or unilateralism on the part of the stronger of the merging entities. Because of this, more positive words like political union or reunification are sometimes preferred. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 473 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 473 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Raising of the American Flag at Iolani Palace, Hawaii. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 473 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 473 pixel, file size: 100 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Raising of the American Flag at Iolani Palace, Hawaii. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... Unilateralism, (one+side-ism) is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action. ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ... Several articles deal with the theme of reunification: Chinese reunification German reunification Irish Reunification Korean reunification Polish reunification Cyprus reunification Vietnam reunification Yemen unification This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

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Annexation and international law after 1948

The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) of 1949, emphasised an important change in international law. The United Nations Charter (June 26, 1945) had prohibited war of aggression (See articles 1.1, 2.3, 2.4) and GCIV Article 47, the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the territorial gains which could be made through war by stating: Wikisource has original text related to this article: Fourth Geneva Convention The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...

Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory.

Article 48 prohibits mass movement of people out of or into occupied territory:

Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive. ... The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.

Protocol I (1977): "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts" has additional articles which cover military occupation but it should be noted that many countries including the U.S. are not signatory to this additional protocol. Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ... Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


Examples of annexation after 1948

Goa

In 1961 the former Portuguese colony of Goa was annexed by India. The ancient Hindu city of Goa, of which hardly a fragment survives, was built at the southernmost point of the island, and it was famous in early Hindu legend and history. ...


East Timor

Following an Indonesian invasion in 1975, East Timor was annexed by Indonesia and was known as Timor Timur. It was regarded by Indonesia as the country's 27th province, but this was never recognised by the United Nations or Portugal. The people of East Timor resisted Indonesian forces in a prolonged guerilla campaign. (See: Indonesian rule in East Timor). Following a referendum held in 1999, under a UN sponsored agreement between Indonesia and Portugal, in which its people rejected the offer of autonomy within Indonesia, East Timor achieved independence in 2002 and is now officially known as Timor-Leste. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Motto Honra, Pátria e Povo(Portuguese) Honour, Homeland and People Anthem Pátria Capital (and largest city) Dili Official languages Tetum, Portuguese1 Government Republic  -  President Xanana Gusmão  -  Prime Minister José Ramos Horta Independence from Portugal2   -  Declared November 28, 1975   -  Recognized May 20, 2002  Area  -  Total 14,609 km...


Western Sahara

In 1975, Morocco invaded the former Spanish colony of Western Sahara and proclaimed it part of the kingdom. This has never been recognized internationally, and a nationalist movement, the Polisario Front, representing the evicted Sahrawi native population, persists in claiming the area for an exiled Sahrawi republic. A United Nations peace process was initiated in 1991, but it has been stalled, and the resumption of hostilities remain a possibility. The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro) is a Sahrawi movement working for the independence of... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Golan

In 1981, Israel extended its "laws, jurisdiction and administration" to the Golan Heights (including the Shebaa Farms/Har Dov), which it captured from Syria in the 1967 Six Day War. This not entirely clear "annexation" declaration was declared "null and void and without international legal effect" by United Nations Security Council Resolution 497. The Golan Heights (Hebrew: Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a plateau on the border of Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. ... Map of the Shebaa Farms. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 calls on Israel to rescind its annexation of the Golan Heights. ...


Kuwait

After being allied with Iraq during the Iran – Iraq War (largely due to desiring Iraqi protection from Islamic Iran), Kuwait was invaded and annexed by Iraq (under Saddam Hussein) in August 1990. Hussein's primary justifications included a charge that Kuwaiti territory was in fact an Iraqi province, and that annexation was retaliation for "economic warfare" Kuwait had waged through slant drilling into Iraq's oil supplies. The monarchy was deposed after annexation, and an Iraqi governor installed. Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 60 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Directional drilling. ...


United States President George H. W. Bush ultimately condemned Hussein's actions, and moved to drive out Iraqi forces. Authorized by the UN Security Council, an American-led coalition of 34 nations fought the Persian Gulf War to reinstate the Kuwaiti Emir. Hussein's invasion (and annexation) was deemed illegal and Kuwait remains an independent nation today. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ...


Germany

The incorporation of the German Democratic Republic into the Federal Republic of Germany was accomplished by means of a mutually agreed annexation. This was in contrast with the unifications of Vietnam and Yemen in which both states were dissolved to create a single new successor state. “East Germany” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ...


Disputed Examples of Annexation after 1949

Jerusalem

In the aftermath of the 1967 Six Day War, in which Israel had captured East Jerusalem as well as the West Bank, Gaza and the Golan Heights, Israel declared East and West Jerusalem one united city, incorporating the eastern part into one municipality and awarding its residents with citizenship, but soon after declaring to the UN that its measures were not annexation. In 1980 Israel passed the Jerusalem Law, which redeclared the unity of Jerusalem as Israel's capital, but did not declare its borders. Some consider the latter act annexation, but without explicit declaration of sovereignty this is in doubt. The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza. ... The Golan Heights (Hebrew: Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a plateau on the border of Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ...


Tibet

Tibetan nationalists have argued that Tibet was occupied and annexed by People's Republic of China in 1959. This position is disputed by the PRC government and Chinese nationalists who argue that has exercised sovereignty over Tibet since at least the 18th century, and that this sovereignty had been internationally recognized since at least the 20th century. Hence they would argue that the action in 1959 was an internationally acceptable example of a central government reasserting control over an internal region. Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...



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Annexation and international law before 1949

Annexation may be the consequence of a voluntary cession from one state to another through purchase or other treaty, or of conversion from a protectorate or sphere of influence, or occupation through military conquest. A city might annex unincorporated areas or a country might annex other disputed territories. The assumption of a protectorate over another state, or of a sphere of influence, is not strictly annexation, the latter implying the complete displacement in the annexed territory of the government or state by which it was previously ruled. Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ...


In international relations the term annexation is usually applied when the emphasis is placed on the fact that territorial possession is achieved by force and unilaterally rather than through treaties or negotiations. The cession of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany by France, although brought about by the war of 1870, was for the purposes of international law a voluntary cession. Under the treaty of December 17, 1885, between the French Republic and the queen of Madagascar, a French protectorate was established over this island. In 1896 this protectorate was converted by France into an annexation, and Madagascar then became "French territory." The formal annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary (October 5, 1908) was an unauthorized conversion of an "occupation" authorized by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), which had, however, for years operated as a de facto annexation. A case of conquest was that effected by the South African War (Second Boer War) of 1899 – 1902, in which the Transvaal Republic and the Orange Free State were extinguished, first de facto by occupation of the whole of their territory, and then de jure by terms of surrender entered into by the Boer generals acting as a government. International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (279th in leap years). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek), often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, not to be confused with the Republic of South Africa, occupied the area later known as the province of Transvaal, first from 1857 to 1877, and again, after a successful Afrikaner rebellion against British rule... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ...


By annexation, as between civilized peoples, the annexing state takes over the whole succession with the rights and obligations attaching to the ceded territory, subject only to any modifying conditions contained in the treaty of cession. These, however, are binding only as between the parties to them. In the case of the annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic and Orange Free State, a rather complicated situation arose out of the facts, on the one hand, that the ceding states closed their own existence and left no recourse to third parties against the previous ruling authority, and, on the other, that, having no means owing to the de facto British occupation, of raising money by taxation, the dispossessed governments raised money by selling certain securities, more especially a large holding of shares in the South African Railway Company, to neutral purchasers. The British government repudiated these sales as having been made by a government which the British government had already displaced. The question of at what point, in a war of conquest, the state succession becomes operative is one of great delicacy. As early as January 6, 1900, the high commissioner at Cape Town issued a proclamation giving notice that the British government would "not recognize as valid or effectual" any conveyance, transfer or transmission of any property made by the government of the Transvaal republic or Orange Free State subsequently to October 10, 1899, the date of the commencement of the war. A proclamation forbidding transactions with a state which might still be capable of maintaining its independence could obviously bind only those subject to the authority of the state issuing it. Like paper blockades and fictitious occupations of territory, such premature proclamations are viewed by international jurists as not being jure gentium. The proclamation was succeeded, on March 9, 1900, by another of the high commissioner at Cape Town, reiterating the notice, but confining it to "lands, railways, mines or mining rights." And on September 1, 1900 Lord Roberts proclaimed at Pretoria the annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic to the British dominions. That the war continued for nearly two years after this proclamation shows how fictitious the claim of annexation was. The difficulty which arose out of the transfer of the South African Railway shares held by the Transvaal government was satisfactorily terminated by the purchase by the British government of the total capital of the company from the different groups of shareholders (see on this case, Sir Thomas Barclay, Law Quarterly Review, July 1905; and Professor Westlake, in the same Review, October 1905). The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or company (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a joint stock company. ... The Law Quarterly Review (often abbreviated to LQR) is an academic legal periodical published by Sweet & Maxwell. ...


In a judgment of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1899 (Cook v. Sprigg, A.C. 572), Lord Chancellor Halsbury made an important distinction as regards the obligations of state succession. The case in question was a claim of title against The Crown, represented by the government of Cape Colony. It was made by persons holding a concession of certain rights in eastern Pondoland from a native chief. Before the grantees had taken up their grant by acts of possession, Pondoland was annexed to Cape Colony. The colonial government refused to recognize the grant on different grounds, the chief of them being that the concession conferred no legal rights before the annexation and therefore could confer none afterwards, a sufficiently good ground in itself. The judicial committee, however, rested its decision chiefly on the allegation that the acquisition of the territory was an act of state and that "no municipal court had authority to enforce such an obligation" as the duty of the new government to respect existing titles. "It is no answer," said Lord Halsbury, "to say that by the ordinary principles of international law private property is respected by the sovereign which accepts the cession and assumes the duties and legal obligations of the former sovereign with respect to such private property within the ceded territory. All that can be meant by such a proposition is that according to the well-understood rules of international law a change of sovereignty by cession ought not to affect private property, but no municipal tribunal has authority to enforce such an obligation. And if there is either an express or a well-understood bargain between the ceding potentate and the government to which the cession is made that private property shall be respected, that is only a bargain which can be enforced by sovereign against sovereign in the ordinary course of diplomatic pressure." In an editorial note on this case the Law Quarterly Review of January 1900 (p. 1), dissenting from the view of the judicial committee that "no municipal tribunal has authority to enforce such an obligation," the writer observes that "we can read this only as meant to lay down that, on the annexation of territory even by peaceable cession, there is a total abeyance of justice until the will of the annexing power is expressly made known; and that, although the will of that power is commonly to respect existing private rights, there is no rule or presumption to that effect of which any court must or indeed can take notice." So construed the doctrine is not only contrary to international law, but according to so authoritative an exponent of the common law as Sir F. Pollock, there is no warrant for it in English common law. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


An interesting point of United States constitutional law arose out of the cession of the Philippines to the United States, through the fact that the federal constitution does not lend itself to the exercise by the federal congress of unlimited powers, such as are vested in the British parliament. The sole authority for the powers of the federal congress is a written constitution with defined powers. Anything done in excess of those powers is null and void. The Supreme Court of the United States, on the other hand, declared that, by the constitution, a government is ordained and established "for the United States of America" and not for countries outside their limits (Ross's Case, 140 U.S. 453, 464), and that no such power to legislate for annexed territories as that vested in the British Crown in Council is enjoyed by the president of the United States (Field v. Clark, 143 U.S. 649, 692). Every detail connected with the administration of the territories acquired from Spain under the Treaty of Paris (December 10, 1898) gave rise to minute discussion. Note: this article name (or a redirect to it) is a homophone with session. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Examples of annexation before 1949

Antofagasta and Tarapaca

In the War of the Pacific, Chile, occupies Peru and forces Bolivia to give up. Victorious, Chile annexed the territories of Tarapaca (Peru), Antofagasta (Bolivia) and Tacna, which was given back to Peru in 1929. Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Bolivia Republic of Chile Commanders Juan Buendía Andrés Cáceres Miguel Grau Manuel Baquedano Patricio Lynch Juan Williams Strength Peru-Bolivian Army 7,000 soldiers in 1878 Peruvian Navy 2 ironclad, 1 corvette, 1 gunboat Army of Chile 4,000 soldiers in... Tarapacá is Chiles northernmost administrative region. ... Antofagasta is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the west and steep hills to the east Street in Antofagasta   () is a port city and episcopal see in northern Chile, about 700 miles north of Santiago. ... Tacna is a city in southern Peru, located only 35 km (21 mi) north from the border with Chile. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Austria

On March 12, 1938, Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. Austria's annexation marked the first major steps in Adolf Hitler's long-desired expansion of Germany. The country was liberated from Nazi power at the end of World War II by the Allied Forces. March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ...


Bosnia-Herzegovina

On October 5, 1908 Bosnia-Herzegovina was annexed by Austria-Hungary. October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (279th in leap years). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


Czechoslovakia

In 1938 Nazi Germany annexed the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia with the agreement of the United Kingdom, Italy and France and invaded the rest of the nation later that year forming the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak puppet state.-1... Sudetenland (German; Sudety in Czech and Polish) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Politcal structure Protectorate Reichsprotector  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting) Staatspresident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13, 1945 Currency Bohemian and Moravian...


Ethiopia

On May 9, 1936, Ethiopia was annexed by Italy, only to be liberated during the Allied East African Campaign. May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 28, 1941. ...


Hawaii

In 1898, Hawaii (having moved from a Kingdom to a Republic four years earlier after the overthrow of Queen Lili'uokalani in 1893) was annexed by a treaty enacted as a joint resolution by the U.S. Congress. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto: Ua mau ke ea o ka ʻāina i ka pono Anthem: HawaiÊ»i PonoÊ»i Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 LiliuÊ»okalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History... Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii. ...


Korea

On August 22, 1910, Korea was effectively annexed by Japan with the Korea – Japan Annexation Treaty signed by Lee Wan-Yong, Prime Minister of Korea, and Masatake Terauchi, Japanese Resident-General in Korea who became the Governor-General of Korea. While the legitimacy of the treaty is still being asserted by Japan, it is considered to be null and void in basis of the fact that the Korean Emperor refused to give the treaty his assent, an act required by Korean law at the time, and that Japanese troops surrounded the Imperial Palace during the procedure, presenting a threat of retribution. Korea continued to be ruled by Japan until Japan's surrender to the Allied Forces on 15 August 1945. See Korea under Japanese rule for further information. August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or ì¡°ì„ , see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty was signed on August 22, 1910 by Korean Emperor Sunjong and Japanese Government. ... Lee Wan-Yong is a Korean politician, who had an instrumental role in putting Korea under the de facto Japanese occupation in 1910. ... Terauchi Masatake (寺内 正毅 February 5, 1852–November 3, 1919) was a Japanese politician and the 18th Prime Minister of Japan from October 9, 1916 to September 29, 1918. ... During the period between 1910 and 1948 there were various Governors of Korea. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Flag of the Japanese Resident General of Korea Anthem: Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910 - 1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912 - 1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925 - 1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910 - 1916 Masatake Terauchi...


Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia

In June 1940, the Soviet Union occupied and subsequently, on August 3, 5 and 6th respectively, forcibly annexed Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. These annexations were a direct consequence of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact and have not been been recognized de jure by most Western states [1][2]. This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. // History of the occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Moldova

In June 1940, the Soviet Union forcibly occupied and then annexed Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, two regions of Romania. Northern Bukovina has been integrated to the Ukrainian SSR. Bessarabia has been dismantled. Most of it, along with Transnistria, was to form the Moldovan SSR. The rest (including the entire Black Sea shore of Bessarabia) was given to the Ukrainian SSR. This annexation was a direct consequence of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Ukrainian; Buchenland or Bukowina in German; Bukowina in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Romania and Ukraine. ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Ukrainian; Buchenland or Bukowina in German; Bukowina in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Romania and Ukraine. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


Texas

Main article: Texas Annexation

In 1836, the people of Texas voted to request that the United States annex Texas. Concerned with the constitutionality of annexation and for fear of offending the controlling power, Mexico, however, the Van Buren Administration rejected the request, which was eventually withdrawn. In 1843, the United States became concerned with British designs on Texas. A new president, John Tyler, became a proponent of annexation. Following acceptance of the terms of annexation by the people of Texas, the young nation became a part of the United States in 1846. Republic of Texas The Texas Annexation of 1845 was the voluntary annexation of the Republic of Texas by the United States of America as Texas, the 28th state, and additional land that later became major parts of the states of New Mexico and Colorado, where the headwaters of the Rio... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the 8th President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... John Tyler, Jr. ...


Wales

Wales was annexed to the legal system of England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 to create a single jurisdiction, but references in legislation for 'England' were still taken as excluding Wales. The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 meant that in all future laws, 'England' would by default include Wales (and Berwick-upon-Tweed). In 1967 the Wales and Berwick Act insofar as it applied to Wales was repealed. For many administrative and judicial purposes they are still treated as the single entity England and Wales. This article is about the country. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 was an act of Parliament explicitly expressing that all future laws applying to England would likewise also be applicable to Wales and Berwick unless the body of the law explicitly stated otherwise. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ...


Municipal Annexation in the United States

See also: Amalgamation (politics)

Annexation of sovereign governments is a different matter than annexation by municipal corporations. In the United States, all local governments are considered "creatures of the state" according to Dillon's Rule, which resulted from the work of John Forrest Dillon on the law of municipal corporations. Dillon's Rule implies, among other things, that the boundaries of any jurisdiction falling under state government can be modified by state government action. For this reason, examples of municipal annexation are separated from annexations involving sovereign governments. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... John Forrest Dillon (December 25, 1831 – May 6, 1914) was an American jurist who served on both federal and Iowa state courts, and who authored a highly influential treatise on the power of states over municipal governments. ... John Forrest Dillon (December 25, 1831 – May 6, 1914) was an American jurist who served on both federal and Iowa state courts, and who authored a highly influential treatise on the power of states over municipal governments. ...


Atlanta

In 1909 the U.S. city of Atlanta, Georgia, then located only in Fulton County, annexed into part of neighboring DeKalb County (from which Fulton County had originally been divided). The situation continues to provide some problems, such as when police arrest suspects on charges set forth in Georgia state law, and city police must determine which county's jail they must be taken to. Further annexations occurred during the 1950s, but interest in annexation ceased after Atlanta elected its first black mayor. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Hotlanta redirects here. ... Fulton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... DeKalb County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


New York City

In 1898, following the results of a referendum New York City annexed the city of Brooklyn, along with the counties of Queens, Richmond, and The Bronx. Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, NY redirects here. ... Brooklyn (named after the Dutch city Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. ... Queens Borough in New York City, in yellow Queens is one of the five boroughs of New York City, USA. Geographically the largest borough in the city, Queens is home to many immigrants and two of New Yorks major airports. ... For other uses, see Staten Island (disambiguation) Staten Island, shown in an enhanced satellite image Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, located on an island of the same name on the west side of the Narrows at the entrance of New York Harbor. ... The Bronx is New York Citys northernmost borough. ...


Cleveland

Ohio City, a suburb and fierce rival of Cleveland was peacefully annexed to the city on June 5, 1854. Ohio City (City of Ohio) Originally part of Brooklyn Township, Ohio City, is one of Cleveland, Ohios oldest neighborhoods, Located immediately to the west of the Cuyahoga River. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


For a historical discussion of municipal annexation, see Kenneth T. Jackson's Crabgrass Frontier (Oxford 1987).


See also

Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ... Lebensraum (German for habitat or living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ... Several articles deal with the theme of reunification: Chinese reunification German reunification Irish Reunification Korean reunification Polish reunification Cyprus reunification Vietnam reunification Yemen unification This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... At various times in Canadian history, groups and individuals have campaigned in favour of Canadas partial or total annexation by the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ Dehousse, Renaud (1993). "The International Practice of the European Communities: Current Survey". European Journal of International Law 4 (1): 141. Retrieved on 2006-12-09. 
  2. ^ European Parliament (January 13, 1983). "Resolution on the situation in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania". Official Journal of the European Communities C 42/78. 

1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  • Carman F. Randolph, Law and Policy of Annexation (New York and London, 1901)
  • Charles Henry Butler, Treaty-making Power of the United States (New York, 1902), vol. i. p. 79 et seq.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Annexation Information (664 words)
The Kirkland City Council is carefully considering the annexation of the Finn Hill, Upper Juanita and Kingsgate neighborhoods and is conducting an Annexation Study.
Annexation is when people in an unincorporated area vote or petition to become part of a larger city and receive city services such as police, parks and roads.
PHASE 3: If annexation is pursued, continue providing public information and responding to Phase 2 input; continue operational planning; establish proposed zoning and submit to King County Boundary Review Board; conduct election, proceed to Phase 4 if the vote is affirmed and the City Council confirms annexation and establishes and effective date.
Handbook of Texas Online: (704 words)
The annexation of Texas to the United States became a topic of political and diplomatic discussion after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and became a matter of international concern between 1836 and 1845, when Texas was a republic.
In September 1836 Texas voted overwhelmingly in favor of annexation, but when the Texas minister at Washington, D.C., proposed annexation to the Martin Van Buren administration in August 1837, he was told that the proposition could not be entertained.
Annexation then became an issue in the presidential election of 1844; James K. Polk, who favored annexation, was elected.
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