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Encyclopedia > Anne of Cleves
Anne of Cleves
Queen Consort of England
Anne of Cleves, painted by Hans Holbein the Younger
Born 22 September 1515(1515-09-22)
Düsseldorf, Cleves
Died 16 July 1557 (aged 41)
London, England
Consort January 6, 1540 - July 9, 1540
Consort to Henry VIII of England
Father John III, Duke of Cleves
Mother Maria of Jülich-Berg

Anne of Cleves (22 September 151516 July 1557) was the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England from 6 January 1540 to 9 July 1540. Download high resolution version (829x1106, 148 KB) Anne of Cleves by Hans Holbein the Younger File links The following pages link to this file: Anne of Cleves Wives of Henry VIII ... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Duesseldorf. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... John III The Peaceful, Duke of Kleve-Mark, (Johann III Der Friedfertige, Herzog von Kleve-Jülich-Berg) (10 November 1490 - 6 February 1538/9) was a son of Johann II der Kindermacher Duke of Kleve-Mark and Matilda von Hessen. ... Maria of Jülich-Berg, in her Book of Hours, 1415 Maria of Jülich-Berg (3 August 1491 - 29 August 1543), was born in Of, Jülich, the daughter of Wilhelm IV, Duke of Jülich-Berg and Sibylle of Brandenburg. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... For other uses, see The Six Wives of Henry VIII. // The six wives (queens consort) of Henry VIII of England were, in order: Catherine of Aragon (annulled), Anne Boleyn (beheaded), Jane Seymour (died, childbirth fever), Anne of Cleves (annulled), Catherine Howard (beheaded), and Catherine Parr (survived him). ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...

Contents

Biography

Anne was born at Düsseldorf, Germany, the daughter of John III, ruler of the Duchy of Cleves, who died in 1538. After John's death, her brother William became Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, bearing the promising epithet "The Rich." In 1526, her elder sister Sybille was married to John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, head of the Protestant Confederation of Germany and considered the "Champion of the Reformation." In the mid-1530s, she was briefly betrothed to Francis, son and heir of the Duke of Lorraine. While her brother William was a Catholic, the family's politics made them suitable allies for England's King Henry VIII in the aftermath of the Reformation, and a match with Anne was urged on the king by his chancellor, Thomas Cromwell. (Anne and Henry were seventh cousins twice removed.) The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Duesseldorf. ... John III The Peaceful, Duke of Kleve-Mark, (Johann III Der Friedfertige, Herzog von Kleve-Jülich-Berg) (10 November 1490 - 6 February 1538/9) was a son of Johann II der Kindermacher Duke of Kleve-Mark and Matilda von Hessen. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... William The Rich Wilhelm The Rich, Duke of Jülich-Kleve-Berg (Wilhelm der Reiche, Herzog von Jülich-Kleve-Berg) (28 July 1516 - 05 January 1592) was the only son of Johann III, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and Maria von Geldern and took over rule of his... Sybille of Cleves by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1526. ... Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1531 Johann Friedrich I, Elector of Saxony (30 June 1503 - 3 March 1554), called John the Magnanimous, was head of the Protestant Confederation of Germany (the Schmalkaldic League), Champion of the Reformation. He was the son of John the Steadfast of Saxony and born... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ... The Schmalkaldic League was a defensive league of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire in the mid-16th century. ... Francis I (August 23, 1517 – June 12, 1545) was briefly Duke of Lorraine from 1544 until the following year. ... Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1543 Coat of arms of Antoine, Duke of Lorraine Antoine (June 4, 1489 – June 14, 1544), known as the Good, was Duke of Lorraine from 1508–1544. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Thomas Cromwell: detail from a portrait by Hans Holbein, 1532-3 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex ( 1485 - July 28, 1540) was an English statesman, one of the most important political figures of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ...


Wedding preparations

The artist Hans Holbein the Younger was dispatched to paint portraits of Anne and a selection of other women Henry was considering for the role of his fourth wife. While it was usual for court painters to be flattering in their portrayal of important people, the only truly important person here was the king: Henry hired the artist to be as accurate as possible, not to flatter these sitters. Holbein was a superb portraiture artist and there's every reason to believe his attractive portrayal of Anne was true, since Holbein remained at court and continued to win royal commissions. The portrait is currently displayed in The Louvre in Paris. ladybirds-ladybirds-ladybirds-ladybirds-ladybirds-ladybirds-ladybirds-ladybirds-ladybirds- Negotiations with the Cleves court were in full swing by March 1539. Cromwell oversaw the talks and a marriage treaty was signed on 4 October of the same year. While Henry valued education and cultural sophistication in women, Anne lacked these in her upbringing; she received no formal education as a child, and instead of being taught to sing or play an instrument, she was skilled in needlework. She had learned to read and write, but in German only. Nevertheless, Anne was considered gentle, virtuous, and docile, qualities that made her a realistic candidate for Henry. A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Henry, impatient to finally see his future bride, journeyed to Rochester on New Year’s Day 1540 and walked in on Anne unannounced. Without the benefit of an advance portrait to prepare her for Henry's appearance, Anne's reaction may well have been one of shock or dismay. Whatever transpired between them, the king took an immediate dislike to Anne, reporting back to Cromwell that she was nothing like the glowing reports he had received of her. Henry urged Cromwell to find a legal way to avoid the marriage. By this point, however, evading the marriage was impossible without offending the Germans. , Rochester is a town in Kent, England, at the lowest bridging point of the River Medway about 30 miles (50 km) from London. ...


A doomed marriage

The Six Wives of
King Henry VIII
Catherine of Aragon
Anne Boleyn
Jane Seymour
Anne of Cleves
Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr

The two were married on 6 January 1540 at the royal Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, despite Henry's very vocal misgivings. If his bride had objections, she kept them to herself. The phrase “God send me well to keep” was engraved around Anne’s wedding ring. “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (635x872, 217 KB) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... Image File history File links Anne_boleyn. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... Download high resolution version (801x1300, 189 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the actress, see Jane Seymour (actress). ... Download high resolution version (829x1106, 148 KB) Anne of Cleves by Hans Holbein the Younger File links The following pages link to this file: Anne of Cleves Wives of Henry VIII ... Image File history File links HowardCatherine02. ... Catherine Howard (between 1520 and 1525 – 13 February 1542), also called Katherine Howard [1] was the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England (1540-1542), and sometimes known by his reference to her as the rose without a thorn. Her birth date and place of birth is unknown, (occasionally cited... katherine parr A 16th century painting of Katherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Catherine Parr (c. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Greenwich Palace. ... This page is about Greenwich in England. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and...


Anne was commanded to leave the court on June 24 and on July 6 she was informed of her husband's decision to reconsider the marriage. In a short time, Anne was asked for her consent to an annulment, to which she agreed. The marriage was annulled on July 9, 1540, on the grounds that it had never been consummated -- Henry claimed that he had found his bride so unattractive that he could not bear to sleep with her. She received a generous settlement, including Hever Castle, home of Henry's former in-laws, the Boleyns. Anne of Cleves House, in Lewes, Sussex, is just one of many properties she owned; she never lived there. Made a Princess of England and called "sister" by her former husband, Anne remained in England for the rest of her life. is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Hever Castle Hever Castle, in Kent, England (in the village of Hever), was the seat of the Boleyn family. ... Anne of Cleves House is a 16th century timber-framed Wealden hall-house in Southover High Street in Lewes, East Sussex, UK. It formed part of Anne of Clevess divorce settlement from Henry VIII in 1541. ... This is about Lewes in England. ...


Later life

There is evidence that during the reign of Henry's son, King Edward VI, Anne suffered some financial reverses due to Edward not paying her allowance. She gave up Richmond Castle and Hever and moved to a small country house at Dartford. Her lot improved with the accession of Henry's daughter Mary Tudor to the English throne, and for the short remainder of her life, Anne occupied an honoured place at court. She was the last of Henry's six wives to die, in London, on 16 July 1557, and was buried in Westminster Abbey after a royal funeral. By that time, she had converted to Roman Catholicism and remained on good terms with Queen Mary, her former stepdaughter. Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... </gallery> |- Mary Tudor is the name of both Mary I of England and her fathers sister, [[Mary Tudor |}, Queen of France]]. Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ...


In film

Elsa Lanchester appeared as Queen Anne in the 1933 film The Private Life of Henry VIII opposite Charles Laughton as Henry VIII. In this fanciful comedy of manners, Anne deliberately portrays herself as unattractive and naïve in order to persuade Henry to divorce her, thus enabling her to find love elsewhere. Lanchester in Naughty Marietta Elsa Lanchester (October 28, 1902 - December 26, 1986 in Woodland Hills, California) was an Oscar-nominated English character actress who became a naturalized American citizen in 1950 along with her husband, actor Charles Laughton. ... The Private Life of Henry VIII is a 1933 film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. ... Charles Laughton (1 July 1899 – 15 December 1962) was an English stage and film actor. ...


In 1970, as part of the series The Six Wives of Henry VIII, actress Elvi Hale played the title role in the 90-minute BBC television drama "Anne of Cleves" opposite Keith Michell's Henry VIII. Mollie Sugden played Anne's German lady-in-waiting. In this relatively accurate portrayal, Anne comes to England full of youthful naïveté and joyous hope, only to be horrified upon meeting her future husband (who was, by this time, morbidly obese). She quickly befriends her young stepdaughter, the Princess Elizabeth. Jenny Bos played Anne in the 1972 film Henry VIII and his Six Wives. Catherine Siggins portrayed Anne in David Starkey's documentary on the wives in 2001. In 2003, Pia Girard played Anne of Cleves in the mini-series Henry VIII but appears only once in bed awaiting Henry, and once at the king's funeral seven years later. Not to be confused with The Six Wives of Henry VIII (documentary), a more recent Channel 4 documentary series on the subject by David Starkey. ... Keith Michell (born 1 December 1928) is an Australian actor. ... Mollie Sugden (born Mary Isobel Sugden on 21 July 1922, in Keighley, Yorkshire) is an English comedy actress who found fame as saleswoman Betty Slocombe in the popular British sitcom Are You Being Served? (1972 - 1985). ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Henry VIII and His Six Wives (1972) is the only feature-length film to deal with all six of King Henry VIIIs wives (other television movies have divided the story up into two or six parts. ... David Robert Starkey (born January 3, 1945) is one of Englands best-known historians, and a specialist in the Tudor period. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In fiction

Philippa Gregory has written a novel, The Boleyn Inheritance, told from the viewpoint of three prominent women at the Tudor court of Henry VIII: Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard and Jane Boleyn. Philippa Gregory (born 9 January 1954) is a British novelist, mainly associated with the historical fiction genre. ... The Boleyn Inheritance is a novel by British author Philippa Gregory which was first published in 2006. ... Tudor usually relates to the Tudor period in English history, which refers to the period of time between 1485 and 1558/1603 when the Tudor dynasty held the English throne. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Catherine Howard (between 1520 and 1525 – 13 February 1542), also called Katherine Howard [1] was the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England (1540-1542), and sometimes known by his reference to her as the rose without a thorn. Her birth date and place of birth is unknown, (occasionally cited... Jane Boleyn, Viscountess Rochford (~1505–February 13, 1542) was an English noblewoman who lived in the reign of Henry VIII. She was a sister-in-law of Henrys second wife Anne Boleyn and lady-in-waiting to his fifth wife Catherine Howard, with whom she was executed. ...


A book written by Margaret Campbell Barnes called "My Lady of Cleves" gives the story of how Anne's life might have been like between the time when her portrait was painted by Hans Holbein and when King Henry VIII died.


Historiography

It was Sir Horace Walpole, writing in the 18th century, who resurrected the myth which described Anne as "The Flanders Mare" — a monument to ugliness. This view persisted, and it is still a popular stereotype. Most modern historians, however, disagree with it, and the Holbein portrait certainly contradicts Walpole. Recent viewpoints suggest that it is more likely she found Henry to be the ugly one due to his obesity, and therefore purposely made him dislike her. Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ...


Another theory suggests that they agreed that they simply did not get along well with each other — Anne had been raised in the small provincial court at Düsseldorf and shared none of the musical and humanistic literary tastes of Henry's court. Another theory suggests that shifts in a threatened Catholic French-Spanish alliance removed any diplomatic motivations for their union. Henry and Anne split on amicable terms. This theory is supported by the fact that she received a good settlement.


External links

Preceded by
Jane Seymour
Queen Consort of England
6 January9 July 1540
Succeeded by
Catherine Howard
Persondata
NAME Anne of Cleves
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Queen Consort of Henry VIII
DATE OF BIRTH September 22, 1515
PLACE OF BIRTH Düsseldorf, Duchy of Cleves (now Germany)
DATE OF DEATH July 16, 1557
PLACE OF DEATH London, England

  Results from FactBites:
 
::Anne of Cleves:: (518 words)
Anne of Cleves was Henry VIII’s fourth wife.
Anne of Cleves was chosen from one such portrait.
Anne was so naïve that when Henry kissed her goodnight before leaving her with her maids of honour, she was convinced that she would become pregnant because of this.
Anne of Cleves: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources (3711 words)
Anne of Cleves was the fourth wife of King Henry VIII; it was a very brief marriage, to the astonishment of all observers but the relief of both spouses.
Anne's reaction to Henry's physical charms was not recorded, but she agreed to an annulment very quickly and remained in England for the rest of her life.
Anne was 24 years old, and had spent most of her life at the ducal court of Dusseldorf.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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