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Annam, literally meaning "Pacified South", is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bộ, meaning "Central Boundary", it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French by 1884 and was part of the French-ruled federation of French Indochina from 1887 until its collapse in 1954 as a result of the French defeat in the First Indochina War. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 116 BC 115 BC 114 BC 113 BC 112 BC - 111 BC - 110 BC 109 BC... For the city in Vietnam, see Huế A hue refers to the gradation of color within the optical spectrum, or visible spectrum, of light. ... 1884 is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar). ... French Indochina was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in Southeast Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search The First Indochina War (also called the French Indochina War) was fought in Southeast Asia from 1946 through 1954 between the nation of France and the resistance movement led by Ho Chi Minh, called the Viet Minh. ...


The other two Vietnamese regions that were federatated into French Indochina after the Franco-Chinese War were Cochin China (also known as Nam Bộ) and Tongking (also known as Tonkin or Đông Kinh). Jump to: navigation, search The Franco-Chinese War was a war fought between the French Third Republic and Qing Empire that lasted from September 1884 to June 1885. ... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ...

Flag of Annam Protectorate
Flag of Annam Protectorate

Annam comprises a sinuous strip of territory measuring between 750 and 800 miles in length, with an approximate area of 52,000 square miles. It has a rich, well-watered soil which yields tropical crops, and is rich in naturally-occuring minerals. Image File history File links AnnamFlag. ... Image File history File links AnnamFlag. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ...


The country consists chiefly of a range of plateaus and wooded mountains, running north and south and declining on the coast to a narrow band of plains varying between 12 and 50 miles in breadth. The mountains are cut transversely by short narrow valleys, through which run rivers, most of which are dry in summer and torrential in winter. The Song Ma and the Song Ca in the north, and the Song Ba, Don Nai and Se Bang Khan in the south, are the only rivers of any size in the region. The chief harbour is that afforded by the bay of Tourane (also known as Đà Nẵng) at the centre of the coastline. South of this point, the coast curves outwards and is broken by peninsulas and indentations; to the north it is concave and bordered in many places by dunes and lagoons. For alternate uses of the term, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... Plains is the name of several places in the United States of America and one in Scotland: Plains, Georgia Plains, Kansas Plains, Montana Plains, Pennsylvania Plains, Texas Plains, North Lanarkshire Jamaica Plains There are also The Plains, Ohio; Plainsboro, New Jersey; and Plainville, Kansas You might also be looking for... Đà Nẵng is a region and city in central Vietnam near the ancient capital of Huế. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Danang, Vietnam be merged into this article or section. ... A peninsula is a geographical formation consisting of an extension of land from a larger body that is surrounded by water on three sides. ... This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ... See lagoon (disambiguation) for other possible meanings. ...

Contents


Climate

In Annam, the rainy season begins during September and lasts for three or four months, corresponding with the northeastern monsoon and also with a period of typhoons. During the rains the temperature varies from 59 degrees or even lower to 75 degrees F. June, July and August are the hottest months, the thermometer often reaching 85 degrees or 90 degrees, though the heat of the day is to some degree compensated by the freshness of the nights. The southwest monsoon which brings rain in Cochin China coincides with the dry season in Annam, the reason probably being that the mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries retain the precipitation. The wet season and the rainy season are terms used to describe seasons in which the average rainfall in a region is significantly increased. ... Jump to: navigation, search For the band Monsoon see Sheila Chandra Monsoon in the Vindhya, a mountain chain in central India A monsoon is a periodic wind, especially in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...


Agriculture and other industries

This section is out of date.

The chief industries of Annam are:

  • the cultivation of rice, which is grown mainly in the small deltas along the coast and in some districts gives two crops a year.
  • fishing, fish-salting and the preparation of nước mắm

Silk spinning and weaving are carried on in antiquated lines, and silkworms are reared in a desultory fashion. In additon to rice, the crops of Annam include tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, precious woods and rubber. Coffee, pepper, sugarcane and jute are also cultivated to a minor extent. The exports comprise tea, raw silk and small quantities of cotton, rice and sugarcane. The imports include rice, iron goods, flour, wine, opium and cotton goods. There are coal-mines at Nong Son, near Tourane, and gold, silver, lead, iron and other metals which occur in the mountains. Trade, which is controled by the Chinese, is mostly carried out on the sea, with the chief ports being Tourane and Qui Nhon, which are open to European commerce. Jump to: navigation, search Binomial name Oryza sativa L. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a species of grass in the genus Oryza, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia, where it grows in wetlands. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Jump to: navigation, search Fish sauce is a condiment derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For the band named Silkworm, see Silkworm (band). ... Jump to: navigation, search A cup of hot tea A tea bush. ... Jump to: navigation, search Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America or to the dried and cured leaves. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. ... Jump to: navigation, search Binomial name Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Cassia (Indonesian cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of a number of plants but can also be produced synthetically. ... Jump to: navigation, search Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee is a beverage, usually served hot, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ... Look up Pepper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary There are several completely different plants referred to by the name of pepper; most are used in food for the hot sensation that the chemical piperine or capsaicin induces on the tongue. ... Jump to: navigation, search Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugar cane Saccharum officinarum at Kew Gardens, London Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of between 6–37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall... Jump to: navigation, search Jute matting being used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established. ... Jump to: navigation, search A cup of hot tea A tea bush. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Look up flour on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jump to: navigation, search A glass of red wine Wine is an alcoholic beverage that is made by fermenting grapes or grape juice. ... Jump to: navigation, search Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ... Jump to: navigation, search Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by deep mining, coal mining (open-pit mining or strip mining). ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... This article is about the continent. ...


Administration

This section is out of date.

Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, assisted by the "comat" or secret council, composed of the heads of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself. The resident superior, stationed at Huế, is the representative of France and the virtual ruler of the country. He presides over a council (Conseil de Protectorat) composed of the chiefs of the French services in Annam, together with two members of the "comat"; this body deliberates on questions of taxation affecting the budget of Annam and on local public works. A native governor (Tong Doc or Tuan Phu), assisted by a native staff, administers each of the provinces into which the country is divided, and native officials of lower rank govern the areas into which these provinces are subdivided. The governors take their orders from the imperial government, but they are under the eye of French residents. Native officials are appointed by the court, but the resident superior has power to annul an appointment. The mandarinate or official class is recruited from all ranks of the people by competitive examination. In the province of Tourane, a French tribunal alone exercises jurisdiction, but it administers native law where natives are concerned. Outside this territory the native tribunals survive. The Annamese village is self-governing. It has its council of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs the interior affairs of the community--policing, recruiting, the assignment and collection of taxes, &c.--and has judicial power in less important suits and crimes. More serious cases come within the purview of the an sat, a judicial auxiliary of the governor. An assembly of notables from villages grouped together in a canton chooses a cantonal representative, who is the mouthpiece of the people and the intermediary between the government and its subjects. The direct taxes, which go to the local budget of Annam, consist primarily of a poll-tax levied on all males over eighteen and below sixty years of age, and of a land-tax levied according to the quality and the produce of the holding.


Education is available to every person in the community. The primary school, in which the pupils learn only Chinese writing and the precepts of Confucius, stands at the base of this system. Next above this is the school of the district capital, where a half-yearly examination takes place, by means of which are selected those eligible for the course of higher education given at the capital of the province in a school under the direction of a doc hoc, or inspector of studies. Finally a great triennial competition decides the elections. The candidate whose work is notified as très bien is admitted to the examinations at Huế, which qualify for the title of doctor and the holding of administrative offices. The education of a mandarin includes local history, cognizance of the administrative rites, customs, laws and prescriptions of the country, the ethics of Confucius, the rules of good breeding, the ceremonial of official and social life, and the practical acquirements necessary to the conduct of public or private business. Annamese learning goes no farther. It includes no scientific idea, no knowledge of the natural sciences, and neglects even the most rudimentary instruction conveyed in a European education. The complications of Chinese writing greatly hamper education. The Annamese Mandarin must be acquainted with Chinese, since he writes in Chinese characters. But the character being ideographic, the words which express them are dissimilar in the two languages, and official text is read in Chinese by a Chinese, in Annamese by an Annamese. Jump to: navigation, search [edit] Confucius (traditionally September 28 551 BCE–479 BCE) was a famous thinker and social philosopher of China, whose teachings have deeply influenced East Asia for centuries. ...


The chief towns of Annam are Huế (seat both of the French and native governments), Tourane, Phan Thiết in the extreme south, Qui Nhon, and Fai Fo (a commercial centre to the south of Tourane). A road popularly known as the "Mandarin Road" follows the coast from Cochin China to Tongking, and passes through or near the chief towns of the provinces. This forms the main artery of communication in the country apart from the railways (see French Indo-China). The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...


History

Annam actually was the name of Giao Chi called by Chinese only. The ancient tribe of the Giao Chi, who dwelt on the confines of south China, and in what is now Tongking and northern Annam, are regarded by the Annamese as their ancestors, and tradition ascribes to their first rulers descent from the Chinese imperial family. These sovereigns were succeeded by another dynasty, under which, at the end of the 3rd century B.C., the Chinese invaded the country, and eventually established there a supremacy destined to last, with little intermission, till the 10th century A.D. In 968 Dinh Bo Linh succeeded in ousting the Chinese and founded an independent dynasty of Dinh. Till this period the greater part of Annam had been occupied by the Chams, a Hindu civilization, which has left many monuments to testify to its greatness, but the encroachment of the Annamese during the next six centuries at last left to it only a small territory in the south of the country. Three lines of sovereigns followed that of Dinh, under the last of which, about 1407, Annam again fell under the Chinese yoke. In 1428, an Annamese general Le Loi succeeded in freeing the country once more, and founded a dynasty which lasted till the end of the 18th century. During the greater part of this period, however, the titular sovereigns were mere puppets, the reality of power being in the hands of the family of Trinh in Tongking and that of Nguyễn in southern Annam, which in 1568 became a separate principality under the name of Cochin China. Towards the end of the 18th century a rebellion overthrew the Nguyễn, but one of its members, Emperor Gia Long, by the aid of a French force, in 1801 acquired sway over the whole of Annam, Tongking and Cochin China. This force was procured for him by Pigneau de Béhaine, bishop of Adran in France, who saw in the political condition of Annam a means of establishing French influence in Indo-China and counterbalancing the English power in India. Before this, in 1787, Gia Long had concluded a treaty with Louis XVI., whereby in return for a promise of aid he ceded Tourane and Pulo-Condore to the French. That treaty marks the beginning of French influence in Indochina. Cham statue from Cham Museum in Danang, Vietnam The Cham people are descendants of the kingdom of Champa. ... Jump to: navigation, search A Hindu is an adherent of Hinduism, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural systems of Bharat (India) and Nepal. ... Gia Long born Nguyen Phuc Anh was an emperor of Annam born about the half of the 18th century and died in 1820. ...



The earliest printed book of Vietnam was published in 1335: the 20-volume An Nam Chí Lược (The Concise Records of Annam, 《安南志略》), written by Lê Tắc (黎崱 li4 ce4). Events Abu Said dies and the Ilkhan khanate ends Slavery abolished in Sweden Charles I of Hungary allies with Poland against the Hapsburgs and Bohemians Carinthia and Carniola come under Habsburg rule. ...


The name gave rise to the Annamitic Chain (la Chaîne Annamitique), a 1100-km mountain range with a height ranging up to 2958 metres, that divides Vietnam and Laos. A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Jump to: navigation, search The metre or (in American English) meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ...


References

See also Legrand de la Liraye, Notes historiques sur la nation annamite (Paris, 1866?); C. Gosselin, L'Empire d'Annam (Paris, 1904); E. Sombsthay, Cours de législation et d' administration annamites (Paris, 1898).


See also

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (presently known as Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Outer Manchuria is in light red on this map. ... Jump to: navigation, search Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...




edit Former French colonies, protectorate and possessions
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French colonisation of the Americas

  Results from FactBites:
 
Annam - LoveToKnow 1911 (2539 words)
In Annam the rainy season begins during September and lasts for three or four months, corresponding with the northeast monsoon and also with a period of typhoons.
The family is the base of the social system in Annam and is ruled by its head, who is also priest and judge.
Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, assisted by the " comat " or secret council, composed of the heads of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself.
Annam - Encyclopedia.com (1471 words)
The ridge of the Annamese Cordillera separated N and central Annam from Laos on the west; the ridge then swung southeastward and ran along the coast of S Annam, which included the plateaus that stretched to the borders of Cambodia and Cochin China.
The narrow coastal plains of N and central Annam were interrupted by spurs of mountains that almost reached the sea, as at Porte d'Annam, a pass important in Annamese history.
Southern Annam was occupied by the kingdom of the Chams, or Champa, from the late 2d cent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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