FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Anna Karenina
? This article or section may contain original research or unverifiable claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.
This article refers to the novel by Tolstoy. For all other references and adaptions in various media, see Anna Karenina (disambiguation)
Anna Karenina

UK Penguin Classic edition cover
Author Leo Tolstoy
Original title Анна Каренина
Translator Constance Garnett initial
Country Russia
Language Russian
Genre(s) Romance
Publisher Ruskii Vestnik
Publication date 1877
Media type Print (Serial)

Anna Karenina (Анна Каренина) is a novel by the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, published in serial installments from 1873 to 1877 in the periodical Ruskii Vestnik (Russian: Русский Вестник, "Russian Messenger"). Tolstoy clashed with its editor Mikhail Katkov over issues that arose in the final installment. Therefore, the novel's first complete appearance was in book form. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the main article on the Leo Tolstoy novel, see Anna Karenina For Film, TV, radio, or theatrical adaptations of the novel see: 1914: Anna Karenina (1914 film), a Russian adaptation directed by Vladimir Gardin. ... Image File history File links LeoTolstoy_AnnaKarenina. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Constance Garnett (née Black) (December 19, 1861 - December 17, 1946) was an English translator whose translations of nineteenth-century Russian classics first introduced them on a wide basis to the English public. ... In political geography and international politics, a country is a political division of a geographical entity, a sovereign territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation and government. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... See also: 1876 in literature, other events of 1877, 1878 in literature, list of years in literature. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... ISBN-13 represented as EAN-13 bar code (in this case ISBN 978-3-16-148410-0) The International Standard Book Number, ISBN, is a unique[1] commercial book identifier barcode. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Mikhail Nikiforovich Katkov (1818-1887) was a conservative Russian journalist influential during the reign of Alexander III. On finishing his course at the Moscow University Katkov devoted himself to literature and philosophy, and showed so little individuality that during the reign of Nicholas I he never once came into disagreeable...

Widely regarded as a pinnacle in realist fiction, Tolstoy considered this book his first true novel. The character of Anna was likely inspired, in part, by Maria Hartung (1832–1919), the elder daughter of the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin.[citation needed] Soon after meeting her at dinner, Tolstoy started reading Pushkin's prose and once had a fleeting daydream of "a bare exquisite aristocratic elbow", which proved to be the first intimation of Anna's character.[citation needed] Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, IPA: ,  ) (June 6 [O.S. May 26] 1799 – February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1837) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1][2][3][4] and the founder of modern Russian literature. ...

Although most Russian critics panned the novel on its publication as a "trifling romance of high life", Fyodor Dostoevsky declared it to be "flawless as a work of art".[citation needed] His opinion is seconded by Vladimir Nabokov, who especially admired "the flawless magic of Tolstoy's style" and the motif of the moving train, which is subtly introduced in the first chapters (the children playing with a toy train) and inexorably developed in subsequent chapters (Anna's nightmare), thus heralding the novel's majestic finale.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Cultural depictions of Fyodor Dostoevsky be merged into this article or section. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ...

According to a recent poll of 125 contemporary authors, published in a book entitled The Top Ten, Anna Karenina is the greatest novel ever written.[1]


Plot summary

The novel is divided into eight parts. The novel begins with one of its most quoted lines, "Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way."

Part 1

We are introduced to the character Prince Stepan Arkadyevitch Oblonsky, "Stiva", a Moscow civil servant who has been unfaithful to his wife Darya Alexandrovna, "Dolly". Stiva's affair shows an amorous personality which he cannot seem to suppress. Stiva summons his married sister, Anna Arkadyevna Karenina, from St. Petersburg to persuade Dolly not to leave him. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...

Meanwhile, Stiva's childhood friend Konstantin Dmitrievich Levin arrives in Moscow to offer his hand in marriage to Dolly's younger sister Ekaterina Alexandrovna Shcherbatsky, "Kitty". The passionate, restless but shy aristocratic landowner lives on a country estate which he manages. Kitty turns him down, expecting a marriage offer from army officer Count Alexei Kirillovich Vronsky. Despite his fondness for Kitty, Vronsky has no intention of marrying her. Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ...

Stiva and Vronsky meet at the railway station to pick up their sister and mother respectively. Upon them arriving at Moscow, a railway worker accidentally falls in front of a train and is killed, which Anna declares to be an "evil omen". Vronsky soon falls in love with Anna after he meets her at the station and later dances the mazurka with her at a ball. Anna successfully initiates a reconciliation between her brother and Dolly, and becomes friends with Kitty. Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... The mazurka (Polish: mazurek, named after Polands Masuria district[1]) is a Polish folk dance in triple metre with a lively tempo, containing a heavy accent on the third or second beat. ...

Anna, shaken by her response and animation to Vronsky, returns at once to St. Petersburg. Vronsky follows her on the same train. Levin returns to his estate farm, abandoning any hope of marriage, and Anna returns to her husband Alexei Alexandrovich Karenin, a senior government official, and their son Sergei ("Seriozha") in Petersburg.

Tatiana Samoilova as Anna in the 1967 Soviet screening of Tolstoy's novel.
Tatiana Samoilova as Anna in the 1967 Soviet screening of Tolstoy's novel.

Image File history File links Samoilova. ... Image File history File links Samoilova. ... Tatiana Samoilova as Anna Karenina. ...

Part 2

The Shcherbatskys consult doctors over Kitty's health which has been failing since she realizes Vronsky has rejected her at the ball. A specialist doctor advises Kitty to go abroad to a health spa to recover. Dolly speaks to Kitty and realizes it is really due to Vronsky and Levin that she has been suffering.

On returning to Petersburg, Anna begin to spend more time with Princess Betsy and her circle, rather than with the morally upright circle which includes Lydia Ivanovna, to whom Anna was previously close. Vronsky continues to follow Anna. Although Anna initially tries to reject him, she eventually succumbs to his courting.

Karenin scolds Anna for talking too much with Vronsky, but after a while she returns Vronsky's affections and becomes pregnant with his child.

Vronsky takes part in a steeplechase event, during which his mare Frou-Frou is unexpectedly killed. Anna shows anguish in the crowd when Vronsky falls from the racehorse, making her feelings obvious in society and prompting her to confess to her husband. This attraction appears repeatedly in the book through the form of a "What if" question. The steeplechase was initially a form of horse-racing, but the term is now applied to similar other events as well. ...

Kitty goes with her mother to a resort at a German spa to recover from the shock. There they meet Madame Stahl and Varenka, her adopted daughter. Influenced by Varenka, Kitty briefly becomes extremely pious, but decides that she can't retain that level of piety without deceiving herself. She returns to Moscow. A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ...

Part 3

Part Three examines Levin's life on his rural farming estate, a setting closely tied to Levin's spiritual thoughts and struggles. Throughout this part, Levin wrestles with the idea of falseness, wondering how he should go about ridding himself of it, and criticizing what he feels is falseness in others.

Stiva leaves Dolly to the country and meets up with Levin where he concludes a deal with a plot of land.

Dolly also meets Levin, and attempts to revive his feelings for Kitty. Dolly seems to have failed, but a chance sighting of Kitty makes Levin realize he still loves her. Back in Petersburg, Karenin exasperates Anna by refusing to separate with her, and threatens not to let her see their son Seryozha ever again if she leaves or misbehaves, exactly what Vronsky asks her to do.

Part 4

Karenin finds the situation intolerable and begins seeking a divorce. Anna's brother Stiva argues against it and persuades Karenin to speak with Dolly first. Again, Dolly seems to be unsuccessful, but Karenin changes his plans after hearing that Anna is dying in childbirth. At her bedside, Karenin forgives Vronsky. Vronsky, embarassed by Karenin's magnanimity, attempts suicide. However, Anna recovers, having given birth to a daughter she names Anna ("Annie"). Stiva finds himself pleading on her behalf for Karenin to divorce. Vronsky at first plans to flee to Tashkent, but changes his mind after seeing Anna, and they leave for Europe without obtaining a divorce after all. Much more straightforward is Stiva's matchmaking with Levin: a meeting he arranges between Levin and Kitty results in their reconciliation and betrothal. For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Part 5

Levin and Kitty marry. A few months later, Levin learns that his brother Nikolai is dying. The couple go to him, and Kitty nurses him until he dies, while also discovering she is pregnant. In Europe, Vronsky and Anna struggle to find friends who will accept them and pursue activities that will amuse them, but they eventually return to Russia. Karenin is comforted – and influenced – by the strong-willed Countess Lidia Ivanovna, an enthusiast of religious and mystic ideas fashionable with the upper classes, who counsels him to keep Seriozha away from Anna. However, Anna manages to visit Seriozha unannounced on his birthday, but is discovered by the furious Karenin, who had told their son that his mother was dead. Shortly afterward, she and Vronsky leave for the country.

Part 6

Dolly visits Anna. At Vronsky's request, she asks Anna to resume seeking a divorce from Karenin. Yet again, Dolly seems unsuccessful; but when Vronsky leaves for several days of provincial elections, a combination of boredom and suspicion convinces Anna she must marry Vronsky. So she writes to Karenin, and leaves with Vronsky for Moscow.

Part 7

The Levins are in Moscow for Kitty's benefit as she gives birth to a son. Stiva, while seeking Karenin's commendation for a new job, again asks him to grant Anna a divorce; but Karenin's decisions are now governed by a "clairvoyant" – recommended by Lidia Ivanovna – who apparently counsels him to decline. Anna and Vronsky become increasingly bitter towards each other. They plan to return to the country, but in a jealous rage Anna leaves early, and in a parallel to part 1, commits suicide by throwing herself in the path of a train. (Tolstoy reportedly was inspired to write Anna Karenina by reading a newspaper report of such a death.)

Part 8

The story after Anna's death continues. Stiva gets the job he wanted, and Karenin takes custody of Annie. Some Russian volunteers, including Vronsky, who does not plan to come back, leave to help in the Serbian revolt that has just broken out against the Turks.-- 12:29, 12 August 2007 (UTC) And in the joys and fears of fatherhood, Levin at last develops faith in the Christian God. Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ...

Characters in "Anna Karenina"

Petr Shelokhonov with Sophie Marceau, after filming a scene for Anna Karenina (1997) on location in Peterhof park, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Anna Arkadyevna Karenina – The title character, sister to Stepan and lover of Vronsky
  • Count Alexei Kirillovich Vronsky – Lover of Anna
  • Prince Stepan Arkadyevitch Oblonsky ("Stiva") – a civil servant
  • Darya Alexandrovna Oblonskaya ("Dolly") – Stepan's wife
  • Alexei Alexandrovich Karenin – Anna's husband
  • Konstantin Dmitrievitch Levin – Kitty's suitor and the novel's other protagonist
  • Nikolai Levin – Konstantin's brother
  • Ekaterina Alexandrovna Shcherbatskaya ("Kitty") – Darya's younger sister
  • Countess Lydia Ivanovna – Interested in all things mystical
  • Countess Vronskaya
  • Kapitonich, Karenin's butler

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 677 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2196 × 1946 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 677 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2196 × 1946 pixel, file size: 1. ... // Petr (Peter) Shelokhonov was born on August 15, 1929 in Belarus. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally Piterhof, Dutch for Peters Court) is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south...


Tolstoy's style in Anna Karenina is considered by many critics to be transitional, forming a bridge between the realist and modernist novel. The novel is narrated from a third-person-omniscient perspective, shifting between the perspectives of several major characters, though most frequently focusing on its dual protagonists (Anna and Levin). As such, each of the novel's eight sections contains internal variations in tone: it assumes a relaxed voice when following Stepan Oblonsky's thoughts and actions and a much more tense voice when describing Levin's social encounters. Much of the novel's seventh section depicts Anna's thoughts fluidly, following each one of her ruminations and associations with its immediate successor. This section is one of the earliest examples of stream-of-consciousness literature. The stream-of-consciousness form would be utilized by such later authors as James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and William Faulkner. Literary realism most often refers to the trend, in early 19th century French literature, towards depictions of contemporary life and society as it is, in the spirit of general Realism, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ... In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique which seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes. ... In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique which seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... For the American childrens writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff Virginia Woolf (née Stephen) (January 25, 1882 – March 28, 1941) was an English novelist and essayist regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ...

Also of significance is Tolstoy's interweaving of real and fictional events throughout his narrative. Characters in Anna Karenina debate significant sociopolitical issues affecting Russia in the latter half of the nineteenth century, such as the proper role of the serfs in society, education reform, and women's rights. Tolstoy's depiction of the characters in these debates, and of their arguments, allows him to anonymously communicate his own political beliefs to his audience. Characters often attend social functions that Tolstoy attended, and he includes in these passages his own observations of the ideologies, behaviors, and ideas running through contemporary Russia through the thoughts of Konstantin Levin. The broad array of situations and ideas depicted in Anna Karenina allows Tolstoy to present a treatise on his era's Russia, and, by virtue of its very breadth and depth, all of human society. This stylistic technique, as well as the novel's use of perspective, greatly contributes to the thematic structure of Anna Karenina.

Major themes

The novel, set among the highest circles of Russian society, is generally thought by the casual reader to be nothing more than the story of a tragic romance. However, Tolstoy was both a moralist and severe critic of the excesses of his aristocratic peers, and Anna Karenina is often interpreted overall as a parable on the difficulty of being honest to oneself when the rest of society accepts falseness.

Anna is the jewel of St. Petersburg society until she leaves her husband for the handsome and charming military officer, Count Vronsky. By falling in love, they go beyond society's external conditions of trivial adulterous dalliances. But when Vronsky's love cools, Anna cannot bring herself to return to the husband she detests, even though he will not permit her to see their son until she does. Unable to return to a life she hates, she kills herself. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...

Vasily Lanovoy as Count Vronsky.

A common way to interpret Anna's tragedy, then, is that she could neither be completely honest nor completely false, showing a Hamlet-like inner conflict that eventually drives her to suicide. ImageMetadata File history File links Lanovoy. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Lanovoy. ... Vasily Semyonovich Lanovoy (Russian: Василий Семенович Лановой) is a Ukrainian-born Russian actor who works in the Vakhtangov Theatre, Moscow. ... Hamlet and Horatio in the cemetery by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...

The novel also contains the parallel and contrasting love story of Konstantin Levin. Levin is a wealthy landowner from the provinces who could move in aristocratic circles, but who prefers to work on his estate in the country. Levin tries unsuccessfully to fit into high society when wooing the young Kitty Shcherbatsky in Moscow; he wins her only when he allows himself to be himself.

The joyous, honest and solid relationship of Levin and Kitty is continually contrasted in the novel with that of Anna and Vronsky, which is tainted by its uncertain status (marriage) resulting in constant upheaval, backbiting, and suspicion. So by the time Anna throws herself under a train at the end of the story, Tolstoy supposedly did not want readers to sympathize with her supposed mistreatment, but rather to recognize that it was her inability to truly commit to her own happiness or self-truth which led to her ignominious end.

Other Themes:

Anna Karenina is filled with themes and imagery that illustrate Tolstoy's disdain of his aristocratic peers, and of a litany of human weaknesses.

Tolstoy skewers religious hypocrisy and insincerity in several characters, especially Karenin, Anna's husband, and the moralizing Countess Lydia Ivanovna. He also draws contrasts between the peace and wholesomeness of the country and the decadence of urban society. But one of the most prominent themes Tolstoy expounds upon in the novel is the relationship between love and honesty, both the different varieties of them as well as the different degrees to which they coexist, and the happiness that does or doesn't result.

In many ways, Anna Karenina was the most personal novel Tolstoy wrote up to that point. The character Levin is recognized as a stand-in for Tolstoy himself, whose first name in Russian is "Lev." He incorporated other details of his life into the character, such as Levin's insistence that Kitty read his journals before they marry, something Tolstoy made his own wife do. Thus scholars usually assume that Levin's thoughts reflect Tolstoy's own.

Embedded in the last section of the novel is an account of the skeptical Levin's conversion, amounting to a profound defense of orthodox Christianity, which is necessarily anti-intellectual because it explicitly rejects the ability of any rational analysis to adequately answer life's most important questions. Throughout the story, Levin has been searching for answers to these questions, and the marriage and birth of his infant son has accelerated this quest. A chance exchange with a peasant supplies an answer, centered on the human goodness and truth which he himself already possesses, and which is obvious to any observer yet impossible to define, measure, or even defend to his intellectual friends. It is this insight, Tolstoy writes, roughly paraphrased as "living for one's soul rather than living for one's self" that overturns his former disbelief and allows him to proceed to live in full faith of the Christian religion.

Anna Karenina and Tolstoy's Confession

Alla Tarasova as Anna Karenina.

Many of the novel's themes can be found in Tolstoy's Confession, his first-person rumination about the nature of life and faith, written just two years after the publication of Anna Karenina. Image File history File links Allatarasova. ... Image File history File links Allatarasova. ... Alla Konstantinovna Tarasova (1898-1973) was a leading actress of Konstantin Stanislavskys Moscow Art Theatre from the late 1920s onward. ...

He describes his real-life dissatisfaction with the hypocrisy of his class:

Every time I tried to display my innermost desires – a wish to be morally good – I met with contempt and scorn, and as soon as I gave in to base desires I was praised and encouraged.

Tolstoy also details the acceptability of adulterous "liaisons" in aristocratic Russian society:

A dear old aunt of mine, the purest of creatures, with whom I lived, was always saying that she wished for nothing as much as that I would have a relationship with a married woman. 'Rien ne forme un jeune homme comme une liaison avec une femme comme il faut.' ("Nothing forms a young man properly like an affair with a married woman.")

Another theme in Anna Karenina is that the aristocratic habit of speaking in French instead of Russian is another form of society's falseness. There is even one passage that could possibly be interpreted as a sign of Anna's eventual redemption in Tolstoy's eyes:

For in the end what are we, who are convinced that suicide is obligatory and yet cannot resolve to commit it, other than the weakest, the most inconsistent and, speaking frankly, the most stupid of people, making such a song and dance with our banalities?

The Confession contains many other autobiographical insights into the themes of Anna Karenina. A public domain version of it is here. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Connections and Allusions

  • Karenin's name is derived from the Ancient Greek word for "head", thus illustrating his pervasive rationality.
  • The novel became a best-seller in the United States in 2004 after a recommendation by TV personality Oprah Winfrey. (ISBN 0-14-303500-2)
  • Anna Karenina also mentioned in R.L. Stine's Goosebumps series The Cuckoo Clock of Doom
  • In an Indonesian 2006 Horror film Hantu Jeruk Purut, there was a character named Anna Karenina
  • Milan Kundera makes multiple references to Anna Karenina in his novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being
  • "Anna Karenina" was used as a title for a Philippine TV show aired around 1996 until 2002, but its story is quite far off from Leo Tolstoy's original novel.[2]
  • Anna Karenina is mentioned by Klaus from the book "A Series of Unfortunate Events, The Slippery Slope''". He uses the main theme from Anna Karenina (Tragedy)as a password to open a locked door.
  • Anna Karenina is mentioned in the film adaptation of "The English Patient," as the plot also involves an adulterous wife.
  • Mikhail Bulgakov makes reference to the Oblonsky household and Tolstoy in "The Master and Margarita".
  • In the short-story "Sleep" by Haruki Murakami, the main character, an insomniac housewife, spends much time reading through and considering "Anna Karenina".
  • Allusions to the book are in Milan Kundera's The Unbearable Lightness of Being, a main character's dog is called Karenin, suggesting a similar attachment to an unwanted life.
  • Former Vice President of the United States, Al Gore and his wife, Tipper's first-born daughter, Karenna, was based on the main character's surname, since Tipper read the book during her pregnancy.
  • In the manga Mahou Sensei Negima the first line is quoted by Evangeline before her fight against Setsuna in the Martial Arts Tournament.
  • Christopher Reeve portrayed Count Vronsky in a 1985 film adaptation of Anna Karenina, including the scene in which Vronsky suffers a rather violent horse racing accident, but fortuitously sustains no major injury. Ten years later, Reeve was paralyzed from the neck down after being thrown from a horse during an equestrian event.

Note: This article contains special characters. ... Oprah Winfrey, (born January 29, 1954) is a multiple-Emmy Award winning host of The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest rated talk show in television history. ... Robert Lawrence Stine (born October 8, 1943), better known as R. L. Stine, is an American writer. ... R. L. Stine with some of his creations. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Horror Movie redirects here. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of television shows and television programs that are produced in the Philippines. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Haruki Murakami , born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... Mary Elizabeth Aitcheson Gore (born August 19, 1948), known as Tipper Gore, is the wife of former Vice President Al Gore and was Second Lady of the United States from 1993 until 2001. ... Al Gore with wife, Tipper, along with their children and son-in-law, Dr. Andrew Schiff (sitting next to Karenna). ... Negima: Magister Negi Magi (魔法先生ネギま! Mahō Sensei Negima) is a manga and anime series by Ken Akamatsu. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Christopher DOlier Reeve[1] (September 25, 1952 – October 10, 2004) was an American actor, director, producer and writer. ...

Further reading


  • Anna Karenina, Translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky (Allen Lane/Penguin, London, 2000)
  • Anna Karénina, Translated by Margaret Wettlin (Progress Publishers, 1978)
  • Anna Karenina, Translated by Joel Carmichael (Bantam Books, New York, 1960)
  • Anna Karenina, Translated by David Magarshack (A Signet Classic, New American Library, New York and Scarborough, Ontario, 1961)
  • Anna Karenin, Translated by Rosemary Edmonds (Penguin Classics, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1954)

Constance Garnett (née Black) (December 19, 1861 - December 17, 1946) was an English translator whose translations of nineteenth-century Russian classics first introduced them on a wide basis to the English public. ... Richard Pevear is an American-born poet and translator who frequently collaborates with his wife, Larissa Volokhonsky, on translations of Russian novels. ... Aylmer Maude (28 March 1858 - 25 August 1938) and Louise Maude (1855-1939) were English translators of Tolstoys work, and Aylmer Maude also wrote his friend Tolstoys biography. ... Nathan Haskell Dole (1852-1935) was an American editor, translator, and author, born at Chelsea, Mass. ...

Biographical and literary criticism

  • Bakhtin, Mikhail, The Dialogic Imagination, ed. Michael Holquist, trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist (University of Texas Press, Austin, 1981)
  • Bayley, John, Tolstoy and the Novel (Chatto and Windus, London, 1966)
  • Berlin, Isaiah, The Hedgehog and the Fox: An Essay on Tolstoy's View of History (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1966; Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1967)
  • Eikhenbaum, Boris, Tolstoi in the Seventies, trans. Albert Kaspin (Ardis, Ann Arbor, 1982)
  • Evans, Mary, Anna Karenina (Routledge, London and New York, 1989)
  • Gifford, Henry, Tolstoy (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1982)
  • Gifford, Henry (ed) Leo Tolstoy (Penguin Critical Anthologies, Harmondsworth, 1971)
  • Leavis, F. R., Anna Karenina and Other Essays (Chatto and Windus, London, 1967)
  • Mandelker, Amy, Framing 'Anna Karenina': Tolstoy, the Woman Question, and the Victorian Novel (Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 1993)
  • Nabokov, Vladimir, Lectures on Russian Literature (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London and Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1981)
  • Orwin, Donna Tussing, Tolstoy's Art and Thought, 1847-1880 (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1993)
  • Speirs, Logan, Tolstoy and Chekhov (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1971)
  • Strakhov, Nikolai, N., "Levin and Social Chaos," in Gibian, ed., (WW. Norton & Company New York, 2005).
  • Steiner, George, Tolstoy or Dostoevsky: An Essay in Contrast (Faber and Faber, London, 1959)
  • Thorlby, Anthony, Anna Karenina (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 1987)
  • Tolstoy, Leo, Correspondence, 2. vols., selected, ed. and trans. by R. F. Christian (Athlone Press, London and Scribner, New York, 1978)
  • Tolstoy, Leo, Diaries, ed. and trans. by R. F. Christian (Athlone Press, London and Scribner, New York, 1985)
  • Tolstoy, Sophia A., The Diaries of Sophia Tolstoy, ed. O. A. Golinenko, trans. Cathy Porter (Random House, New York, 1985)
  • Wasiolek, Edward, Critical Essays on Tolstoy (G. K. Hall, Boston, 1986)
  • Wasiolek, Edward, Tolstoy's Major Fiction (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1978)


  1. ^ The 10 Greatest Books of All Time in Time.com (Lev Grossman)
  2. ^ Anna Karenina at the Internet Movie Database

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...


Anna Karenina, a 1997 British-American production filmed in St. Peterburg, Russia, by director Bernard Rose with Sophie Marceau as Anna Karenina. [1] Anna Karenina is a 1997 film by director Bernard Rose, Starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean. ... Dr Bernard William George Rose (1916-1996), was variously a student at the Royal College of Music, organist, soldier, and composer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Anna Karenina, a critically acclaimed 1935 drama film, directed by Clarence Brown. It is based on the novel Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy. The film stars Greta Garbo, Fredric March, and Maureen O'Sullivan. [2]

External links

Anna Karenina in English

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

Anna Karenina in Russian

  • «Анна Каренина» at LitPortal.ru
  • Full Russian text of Anna Karenina at Alexey Komarov's Internet Library

Related works

  • Tolstoy's Confession
  • Literature at IBN.ru

Leo Tolstoy
v  d  e
Biography | Bibliography | Tolstoyan | Tolstoy | Texts
Novels and novellas: Childhood | Boyhood | Youth | Family Happiness | The Cossacks | War and Peace | Anna Karenina | The Death of Ivan Ilyich | Resurrection | The Forged Coupon | Hadji Murat
Philosophical works: A Confession | What I Believe | The Kingdom of God Is Within You | The Gospel in Brief | What Is Art? | A Calendar of Wisdom
Plays: The Power of Darkness | The Fruits of Culture | The Living Corpse
Short stories: The Raid | Sebastopol Sketches | Ivan the Fool | Polikushka | A Prisoner in the Caucasus | Father Sergius | Kholstomer: The Story of a Horse | What Men Live By | The Three Questions | Wisdom of Children | Where Love is, God is | Quench the Spark | How Much Land Does a Man Need? | Promoting a Devil | Repentance | The Grain | The Kreutzer Sonata | Master and Man | Too Dear! | Work, Death, and Sickness | Alyosha the Pot | God Sees the Truth, But Waits | Croesus and Fate

  Results from FactBites:
Full text and plot summary of Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy (285 words)
Anna Karenina is widely regarded to be an even greater achievement of tragedy and of the novel form than War and Peace had been the decade before.
It is the story of a fashionable married woman, Anna Karenina, who arrives in St Petersberg to meet Stepan Arkadyevitch but meets with him another man. This man, Count Vronsky, is strangely attracted to Anna from the outset and she begins to feel for him too.
Anna is brought down by others’ passions and power over her and she is driven, after many twists and turns in her fortunes and those of her lovers, to throw herself under the wheels of a train.
BBC - Radio 4 - Woman's Hour -Anna Karenina (1877) by Leo Tolstoy (847 words)
Anna Karenina is happily married to the prominent Karenin when she visits her brother to help him sort out his marriage.
Anna, Kitty, and Dolly were a revelation to me that despite the passing of generations, changes or differences in culture, being a woman and the feelings and experiences that entails, hardly seem to alter
Anna's first entrance and last exit are both marked by death beneath the wheels of a train.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m