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Encyclopedia > Anna Freud
Part of a series of articles on
Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis

Constructs
Psychosexual development
Psychosocial development
ConsciousPreconscious • Unconscious
Id, ego, and super-ego
LibidoDrive
TransferenceSublimationResistance pychoanalysis today comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind; the term also refers to a specific type of treatment where the analyst, upon hearing the thoughts of the analysand (analytic patient), formulates and then explains the unconscious bases for the patients symptoms and character problems. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1944 KB) Its hard to imagine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Psychosocial development as articulated by Erik Erikson describes eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The Preconscious is a structure of the mind, postulated by Sigmund Freud, containing all memories that can be easily accessed by the conscious mind. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of ego and id, see EGO and ID. The ego is not sharply separated from the id; its lower portion merges into it. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... Look up Motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. ... In psychology, sublimation is a coping mechanism. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


Important Figures
Sigmund FreudCarl Jung
Alfred AdlerOtto Rank
Anna FreudMargaret Mahler
Karen HorneyJacques Lacan
Ronald FairbairnMelanie Klein
Harry Stack Sullivan
Erik EriksonNancy Chodorow
Susan Sutherland Isaacs
Ernest Jones Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Margaret Schönberger Mahler (May 10, 1897 – October 2, 1985) was a Hungarian physician, who later became interested in psychiatry. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney [horn-eye], born Danielsen (September 16, 1885, – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn (1889-1964) was a noted Scottish psychoanalyst and is generally regarded as the father of British object relations theory. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Herbert Harry Stack Sullivan (February 21, 1892, Norwich, New York - January 14, 1949, Paris, France) was an American psychiatrist whose work in psychoanalysis was based on direct and verifiable observation (versus the more abstract conceptions of the unconscious mind favored by Sigmund Freud and his disciples). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ... Susan Sutherland Isaacs (née Fairhurst) (1885–1948) was an educational psychologist and psychoanalyst from the United Kingdom. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ...


Important works
The Interpretation of Dreams
Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis
"Beyond the Pleasure Principle"
Civilization and Its Discontents A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is an enlish Launguage translation of the works of Jaques Lacan. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ...


Schools of Thought
Self psychologyLacanian
Analytical psychologyObject relations
InterpersonalRelational
AttachmentEgo psychology Self psychology is a school of psychoanalytic theory and therapy developed in the United States. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ... Interpersonal psychoanalysis is based on the theories of Harry Stack Sullivan, an American psychiatrist who believed that the details of patients interpersonal interactions with others provided insight into the causes and cures of mental disorder. ... Relational psychoanalysis is a school of psychoanalysis in the United States that emphasizes the role of real and imagined relationships with others in mental disorder and psychotherapy. ... Mother and child. ... Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ...

Psychology Portal
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Anna Freud and Sadie Burkard (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Julia. Born in Vienna, she followed the path of her father and contributed to the newly born field of psychoanalysis. Compared to her father, Anna Freud's work emphasized the importance of the ego, and its ability to be trained socially. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... pychoanalysis today comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind; the term also refers to a specific type of treatment where the analyst, upon hearing the thoughts of the analysand (analytic patient), formulates and then explains the unconscious bases for the patients symptoms and character problems. ... eGO is a company that builds electric motor scooters which are becoming popular for urban transportation and vacation use. ...

Contents

The Vienna years

Anna did not have a very close bond with her mother and had difficulties getting along with her siblings, specifically with her sister Sophie Freud. Sophie, who was the prettiest child, represented a threat in the struggle for the affection of their father. Apart from this rivalry between the two sisters, Anna had some other difficulties growing up. Out of correspondence between father and daughter, it can be concluded today that Anna suffered from a depression which caused eating disorders. The relationship between Anna and her father was different from the rest of her family; they were very close. She was a lively child with a reputation for mischief. Freud wrote to his friend Wilhelm Fliess in 1899: "Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness... ", Sigmund was very proud of his daughter. It was found that he mentioned her in his diaries more than others in the family. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Wilhelm Fliess (1858–1928) was a German otorhinolaryngologist who practiced in Berlin. ...


Anna began school in 1901, later on Anna would say that she didn’t learn much in school but all the more from her father and his guests at home. This way she picked up languages as Hebrew, German, English, French and Italian. At the age of 15, she started reading her father’s work. At a young age she started to tell her father her dreams and he would publish them in his book Interpretation of Dreams. Anna finished her education at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna in 1912. Suffering from a depression, she was very insecure about what to do in the future. Subsequently, she went to Italy to stay with her grandmother. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In 1914, she started teaching at her old school, the Cottage Lyceum. In 1918 her father started psychoanalysis on her and she became seriously involved with this new profession. Her analysis was completed in 1922 and thereupon she presented the paper "Beating Fantasies and Daydreams" to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society, subsequently becoming a member. In 1923 she began her own psychoanalytical practice with children and two years later she was teaching at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis. From 1925 until 1934 she was the Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association while she continued child analysis and seminars and conferences on the subject. In 1935 Anna became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute and in the following year she published her influential study of the "ways and means by which the ego wards off displeasure and anxiety", The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. It became a founding work of ego psychology and established Anna’s reputation as a pioneering theoretician. pychoanalysis today comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind; the term also refers to a specific type of treatment where the analyst, upon hearing the thoughts of the analysand (analytic patient), formulates and then explains the unconscious bases for the patients symptoms and character problems. ... The Internal Psychoanalytical association (API) is an association including 11 000 psychoanalysts as members and works with 57 associations, or schools, in 34 different countries. ... Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ...


1938 and later: Anna in London

In 1938 the Freuds had to flee from Austria as a consequence of the Nazis' continuous harassment of Jews in Vienna. Her father's health was getting bad due to a severe jaw cancer infection, so she had to organize the family's emigration to London. Here she continued her work and took care of her father, who finally died in the autumn of 1939. When Anna arrived in London, a conflict emerged between her and Melanie Klein regarding developmental theories of children. This conflict threatened to split the British Psycho-analytical Society, but ended in training courses given from two different points of view. Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ...


The war gave Anna opportunity to observe the effect of deprivation of parental care on children. She set up a centre for young war victims, called "The Hampstead War Nursery". Here the children got foster care although mothers were encouraged to visit as often as possible. The underlying idea was to give children the opportunity to form attachments by providing continuity of relationships. This was continued, after the war, at the Bulldogs Bank home, which was an orphanage, run by colleagues of Anna and was taking care of children who survive concentration camps. Based on these observations Anna published a series of studies with her lifelong friend, Dorothy Burlingham on the impact of stress on children and the ability to find substitute affections among peers when parents cannot give them. In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ...


In 1947 Anna Freud and Kate Friedlaender established the Hampstead Child Therapy Courses. Five years later, a children's clinic was added. Here they worked with Anna's theory of the developmental lines. Furthermore Anna started lecturing on child psychology. Until then Child analysis had remained a quite uncharted territory. Siegfried Bernfeld and August Aichorn, who both had practical experience of dealing with children, mentored her in this. Developmental lines Definition: In her developmental theory, Anna Freud uses the metaphor of developmental lines to stress the continuous and cumulative character of childhood development. ... Developmental psychology is the scientific study of age related changes in behavior across the life span. ...


From the 1950s until the end of her life Anna Freud travelled regularly to the United States to lecture, to teach and to visit friends. During the 1970s she was concerned with the problems of emotionally deprived and socially disadvantaged children, and she studied deviations and delays in development. At Yale Law School she taught seminars on crime and the family: this led to a transatlantic collaboration with Joseph Goldstein and Albert Solnit on children and the law, published as Beyond the Best Interests of the Child(1973).


Anna Freud died in London on October 9, 1982. She was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium and her ashes placed in a marble shelf next to her parents' ancient Greek funeral urn. Her lifelong friend Dorothy Burlingham and several other members of the Freud family also rest there. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Golders Green Crematorium and Mausoleum is one of the oldest crematoria in Britain and opened in 1901 having been designed by the architect Sir Ernest George. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ...


One year after Anna Freud's death a publication of her collected works appeared. She was mentioned as "a passionate and inspirational teacher" and in 1984 the Hampstead Clinic was renamed the Anna Freud Centre. Furthermore her home in London for forty years was in 1986, as she had wished, transformed into the Freud Museum, dedicated to her father and the psychoanalytical society.


Major contributions to psychoanalysis

Anna Freud moved away from the classical position of her father, who was concentrating on the unconscious Id (a perspective she found to be restrictive) and instead emphasized the importance of the ego, the constant struggle and conflict it is experiencing by the need to answer contradicting wishes, desires, values and demands of reality. By this, she established the importance of the ego functions and the concept of defense mechanisms. Focusing on research, observation and treatment of children, Freud established a group of prominent child developmental analysts (which included Erik Erikson, Edith Jacobson and Margaret Mahler) who noticed that children's symptoms were ultimately analogue to personality disorders among adults and thus often related to developmental stages. At that time, these ideas were revolutionary and Anna provided us with a comprehensive developmental theory and the concept of developmental lines, which combined her father's important drive model with more recent object relations theories of development, which emphasize the importance of parents in child development processes. Look up ID, Id, id in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... eGO is a company that builds electric motor scooters which are becoming popular for urban transportation and vacation use. ... In psychoanalytic theory, a defence mechanism is an unconscious way to protect ones personality from unpleasant thoughts which may otherwise cause anxiety. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Edith Jacobson (September 10, 1897-December 8, 1978) was a German psychoanalyst. ... Margaret Schönberger Mahler (May 10, 1897 – October 2, 1985) was a Hungarian physician, who later became interested in psychiatry. ... Developmental lines Definition: In her developmental theory, Anna Freud uses the metaphor of developmental lines to stress the continuous and cumulative character of childhood development. ... Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ...


As such, the formation of the fields of child psychoanalysis and child developmental psychology can be attributed to Anna Freud. Anna Freud furthermore developed different techniques of assessment and treatment of children disorders, thereby contributing to our understanding of anxiety and depression as significant problems among children. what up?? Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


Anna Freud about essential personal qualities in Psychoanalysts

"Dear John ..., You asked me what I consider essential personal qualities in a future psychoanalyst. The answer is comparatively simple. If you want to be a real psychoanalyst you have to have a great love of the truth, scientific truth as well as personal truth, and you have to place this appreciation of truth higher than any discomfort at meeting unpleasant facts, whether they belong to the world outside or to your own inner person.


Further, I think that a psychoanalyst should have...interests...beyond the limits of the medical field...in facts that belong to sociology, religion, literature, ,[and] history,...[otherwise]his outlook on...his patient will remain too narrow. This point contains...the necessary preparations beyond the requirements made on candidates of psychoanalysis in the institutes. You ought to be a great reader and become acquainted with the literature of many countries and cultures. In the great literary figures you will find people who know at least as much of human nature as the psychiatrists and psychologists try to do.


Does that answer your question?


Yours sincerely, Anna Freud[1]


Notes

  1. ^ from a letter written by Anna Freud. The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis And Bulletin of the International Psycho-Analytical Association, Volume 49 1968, Article of Heinz Kohut HEINZ KOHUT: The evaluation of applicants for psychoanalytic training Pages 548-554 (P. S.552, 553)

The Century of the Self is an acclaimed documentary by filmmaker Adam Curtis released in 2002. ...

Publications by Anna Freud:

  • Freud, Anna (1966-1980). The Writings of Anna Freud: 8 Volumes. New York: IUP. (These volumes include most of Anna Freud's papers.)
    • Vol. 1. Introduction to Psychoanalysis: Lectures for Child Analysts and Teachers (1922-1935)
    • Vol. 2. Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)
    • Vol. 3. Infants Without Families Reports on the Hampstead Nurseries by Anna Freud
    • Vol. 4. Indications for Child Analysis and Other Papers (1945-1956)
    • Vol. 5. Research at the Hampstead Child-Therapy Clinic and Other Papers: (1956-1965)
    • Vol. 6. Normality and Pathology in Childhood: Assessments of Development (1965)
    • Vol. 7. Problems of Psychoanalytic Training, Diagnosis, and the Technique of Therapy (1966-1970)
    • Vol. 8. Psychoanalytic Psychology of Normal Development

Biographies

  • Coles, Robert (1992). Anna Freud: The Dream of Psychoanalysis. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-57707-0. 
  • Peters, Uwe Henrik (1985). Anna Freud: A Life Dedicated to Children. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-3910-3. 
  • Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth (1988). Anna Freud: A Biography. New York: Summit Books. ISBN 0-671-61696-X. 

Elisabeth Young-Bruehl (born 1946 as Elisabeth Young) is an American academic and psychotherapist, currently a practicing psychoanalyst in New York City and on the faculty of the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Anna Freud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1161 words)
Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud.
Anna Freud moved away from the classical position of her father, who was concentrating on the unconscious Id (a perspective she found to be restrictive) and instead emphasized the importance of the ego, the constant struggle and conflict it is experiencing by the need to answer contradicting wishes, desires, values and demands of reality.
Anna Freud furthermore developed different techniques of assessment and treatment of children disorders, thereby contributing to our understanding of anxiety and depression as significant problems among children.
Sigmund Freud - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5409 words)
Freud's death was by a physician-assisted morphine overdose.
According to some of his successors, including his daughter Anna Freud, the goal of therapy is to allow the patient to develop a stronger ego; according to others, notably Jacques Lacan, the goal of therapy is to lead the analysand to a full acknowledgment of his or her inability to satisfy the most basic desires.
When Freud spoke of religion as an illusion, he maintained that it is a fantasy structure from which a man must be set free if he is to grow to maturity; and in his treatment of the unconscious he moved toward atheism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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