FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Ankle" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ankle
Ankle
Lateral view of the human ankle
Latin articulatio talocruralis
Gray's subject #95 349
MeSH Ankle+joint
Dorlands/Elsevier a_64/12161605
For a review of anatomical terms, see Anatomical position and Anatomical terms of location.

In human anatomy, the ankle joint is formed where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle, or talocrural joint, is a synovial hinge joint that connects the distal ends of the tibia and fibula in the lower limb with the proximal end of the talus bone in the foot. The articulation between the tibia and the talus bears more weight than between the smaller fibula and the talus. Image File history File links Ankle_en. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... The anatomical planes The anatomical position is a schematic convention for describing the relative morphology of the human body. ... In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... In common usage, a human leg is the lower limb of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee, and the cnemis. ... Synovial fluid is a thick, stringy fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints. ... This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... For other uses see fibula (disambiguation) The fibula or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. ... FIG. 270– Left talus, from above. ...


Movement

The ankle joint is responsible for dorsiflexion (moving the toes up as when standing only on the heels) and plantar flexion of the foot (moving the toes down, as when standing on the toes), and allows for the greatest movement of all the joints in the foot. The ankle does not allow rotation. In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... In human and zoological anatomy (sometimes called zootomy), several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ...


In plantar flexion, the anterior ligaments of the joint become longer while the posterior ligaments become shorter. The reverse is true for dorsiflexion. A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ...


Articulation

The lateral malleolus of the fibula and the medial malleolus of the tibia along with the inferior surface of the distal tibia articulate with three facets of the talus. These surfaces are covered by cartilage. The lower extremity (distal extremity; external malleolus) of the fibula is of a pyramidal form, and somewhat flattened from side to side; it descends to a lower level than the medial malleolus. ... We dont have an article called Medial malleolus Start this article Search for Medial malleolus in. ... The lower extremity of the tibia, much smaller than the upper extremity of tibia, presents five surfaces; it is prolonged downward on its medial side as a strong process, the medial malleolus. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ...


The anterior talus is wider than the posterior talus. When the foot is dorsiflexed , the wider part of the superior talus moves into the articulating surfaces of the tibia and fibula, creating a more stable joint than when the foot is plantar flexed.


Ligaments

The ankle joint is bound by the strong deltoid ligament and three lateral ligaments: the anterior talofibular ligament, the posterior talofibular ligament, and the calcaneofibular ligament. The medial ligament of talocrural joint (or deltoid ligament) is a strong, flat, triangular band, attached, above, to the apex and anterior and posterior borders of the medial malleolus. ... The anterior talofibular ligament passes from the anterior margin of the fibular malleolus, forward and medially, to the talus, in front of its lateral articular facet. ... The posterior talofibular ligament, runs almost horizontally from the depression at the medial and back part of the fibular malleolus to a prominent tubercle on the posterior surface of the talus immediately lateral to the groove for the tendon of the Flexor hallucis longus. ... The calcaneofibular ligament is a narrow, rounded cord, running from the apex of the fibular malleolus downward and slightly backward to a tubercle on the lateral surface of the calcaneus. ...

  • The deltoid ligament supports the medial side of the joint, and is attached at the medial malleolus of the tibia and connect in four places to the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus, calcaneonavicular ligament, the navicular tuberosity, and to the medial surface of the talus.
  • The anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments support the lateral side of the joint from the lateral malleolus of the fibula to the dorsal and ventral ends of the talus.
  • The calcaneofibular ligament is attached at the lateral malleolus and to the lateral surface of the calcaneus.

The joint is most stable in dorsiflexion and a sprained ankle is more likely to occur when the foot is plantar flexed. This type of injury more frequently occurs at the anterior talofibular ligament. We dont have an article called Medial malleolus Start this article Search for Medial malleolus in. ... At the upper and forepart of the medial surface of the calcaneus is a horizontal eminence, the sustentaculum tali, which gives attachment to a slip of the tendon of the Tibialis posterior. ... The calcaneus is the large bone making up the heel of the human foot. ... The plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (also known as the spring ligament) is a ligament on the underside of the foot that connects the calcaneus with the navicular bone. ... The navicular bone occurs in human and horse anatomy. ... The lower extremity (distal extremity; external malleolus) of the fibula is of a pyramidal form, and somewhat flattened from side to side; it descends to a lower level than the medial malleolus. ... A sprained ankle is a common medical condition where the one or more of the ligaments of the ankle are damaged but not severed. ...


Name derivation

The word ankle or ancle is common, in various forms, to Germanic languages, probably connected in origin with the Latin "angulus", or Greek "αγκυλος", meaning bent. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Related terms

A common variant of the word "ankle" is "cankle", which is commonly used derogatorily to describe the ankles of obese individuals where the ankle and calf may be indistinguishable. Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality. ...


Fractures

Evaluation of ankle injuries for fracture is done with the Ottawa ankle rules, a set of rules that were developed to minimize unnecessary X-rays. A fractured bone in a living person is typically treated by restoring the fractured pieces of bone to their natural positions (if necessary), and maintaining those positions while the bone heals. ... Ligaments of the ankle. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


Additional images

References

  • Calais-Germain, Blandine. "Anatomy of Movement", Eastland Press, 1993. ISBN 0-939616-17-3
  • Martini, Frederic; Timmons, Michael; McKinnley, Michael. "Human Anatomy", 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, 2000. ISBN 0-13-010011-0
  • Marieb, Elaine. "Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology", 6th Edition. Addison Wesley Longman, 2000. ISBN 0-8053-4940-5

See also

Look up Ankle in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... FIG. 268– Bones of the right foot. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ankle

commons:Ankle Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... For the film, see Hair (film). ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ankle definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms (272 words)
The true ankle joint is composed of 3 bones: the tibia which forms the medial (inside) portion of the ankle; the fibula which forms the lateral (outside) portion of the ankle; and the talus underneath.
In medicine, the ankle is the meeting of the leg and the foot; it is strictly the articulation of the tibia, fibula, and the talus.
In popular usage, the ankle is often taken to be the ankle joint proper plus the surrounding region including the lower end of the leg and the tarsus, the start of the flat of the foot.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Ankle pain (873 words)
Ankle pain is often due to an ankle sprain.
Other structures in the ankle that can be damaged and cause pain are tendons (which join muscles to bone), cartilage (which cushions joints), and blood vessels.
In addition to ankle sprains and other injuries, ankle pain can be caused by arthritis, gout, pseudogout, and infection.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m