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Encyclopedia > Anishinaabe

Anishinaabe or more properly Anishinaabeg or Anishinabek (which is the plural form of the word) is a self-description often used by the Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonkin peoples, who all speak closely related Anishinaabemowin/Anishinaabe languages. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Anishinabe. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... This article is about the native North American people. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... The Anishinaabe language or the Ojibwe group of languages or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ...


Not all Anishinaabemowin speakers, however, call themselves Anishinaabeg. The Ojibwa people who moved to what are now the prairie provinces of Canada are known externally as Saulteaux, and refer to themselves as Nakawē(-k) and their form of the Anishinaabe language as Nakawēmowin. The Canadian prairies is a vast area of flat sedimentary land that stretches from Ontario and the Canadian Shield to the Canadian Rockies covering much of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta - the Prairie Provinces. ... The Saulteaux are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, Canada. ...

Anishinaabe and Anishinini distribution around 1800
Anishinaabe and Anishinini distribution around 1800

The definition of "Anishnaabeg" is First- or Original-People. Another possible definition refers to ideas about the good humans, or good people that are on the right road or path given to them by the Creator. Image File history File links Anishinaabe-Anishinini_Map. ... Image File history File links Anishinaabe-Anishinini_Map. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


There are many variant spellings of the Anishinaabe name, depending on the transcription scheme and also on whether the name is singular or plural. So, different spelling systems may indicate vowel length or spell certain consonants differently (Anishinabe, Anicinape); meanwhile, variants ending in -eg/ek (Anishinaabeg, Anishinabek) come from an Algonquian plural, while those ending in an -e come from an Algonquian singular. In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... The Algonquian languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ...


In the eastern Ojibwe and in the Odawa, due to the syncope the word experiences, the name "Anishinaabe" is realised as Nishnaabe. The cognate word Neshnabé comes from Potawatomi, a people long allied with Odawas and Ojibwes in the Council of Three Fires. Identified as Anishinaabe but not part of the Council of Three Fires are the Nipissing, Mississaugas and Algonkin. The Algonkin may use the word Omàmiwinini to distinguish themselves from other Anishinaabe. Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... The Council of Three Fires, also known as the People of the Three Fires, was a long-standing Anishinaabe alliance of the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Native American tribes and First Nations. ... The Nipissing First Nation consists of first nation (i. ... The Mississaugas are a native people located in Southern Ontario. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ...


Closely related to the Ojibwe and speaking a language mutually intelligible with Anishinaabemowin (Anishinaabe language) are the Oji-Cree (also known as "Severn Ojibwe"). However, their most common self-description is Anishinini (plural: Anishininiwag) and their language Anishininiimowin. Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ... The Nishnawbe-Aski, also known as the Oji-Cree, Anishinini or, less correctly, Severn Ojibwe, are a First Nation in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba, residing in a narrow band extending from the Missinaibi River region in Northeastern Ontario at the east to Lake Winnipeg at the west. ... Anishininiimowin (also known as Oji-Cree or Severn Ojibwa) is the language of the Anishinini (Oji-Cree) First Nation of Ontario and Manitoba. ...

Contents

History

According to their tradition, and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, they came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island, and from along the east coast. According to the oral history, seven great miigis (radiant/iridescent) beings appeared to the peoples in the Waabanakiing (Land of the Dawn, i.e. Eastern Land) to teach the peoples of the mide way of life. However, the one of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the peoples in the Waabanakiing whenever the people were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach while the one returned into the ocean. The Ojibwa (Anishinaabe) people of North America had written down complex geometrical patterns and shapes on birch bark scrolls. ... Turtle Island may refer to: A Native American term for the North American continent Another name for Nanuya Levu, a privately owned island of the Yasawa Group in Fiji Another name for Vatoa, in the Lau Group in Fiji Turtle Island, the 1974 book of poetry by Gary Snyder, winner... The Abenaki (also Wabanuok or Wabanaki) are a tribe of Native Americans/First Nations belonging to the Algonquian peoples of northeastern North America. ... The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) is from the term for the Grand Medicine Society of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes, New England and Great Lakes regions in North America. ...


The six great miigis beings then established doodem (clans) for the peoples in the east. Of these doodem, the five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Baswenaazhi (Echo-maker, i.e., Crane), Aan'aawenh (Pintail Duck), Nooke (Tender, i.e., Bear) and Moozoonsii (Little Moose), then these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being stayed, it would have established the Thunderbird doodem. [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Ameiurus nebulosus Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Brown Bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) is a fish of the Ictaluridae family that is widely distributed in North America. ... Genera Grus Anthropoides Balearica Bugeranus Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. ... Binomial name Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 The Pintail or Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe and Asia and across most of Canada, Alaska and the midwestern United States. ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Depiction of a Thunderbird on a Totem Pole The mythological Thunderbird is a mythical creature common to Indigenous spirituality in North America . ...


At a later time, one of these miigis beings appeared in a vision to relate a prophecy. The prophecy stated that if the Anishinaabeg did not move further west, they would not be able to keep their traditional ways alive because of the many new settlements and European immigrants that would arrive soon. Their migration path would be symbolized by a series of smaller Turtle Islands, which was confirmed with miigis shells (i.e., cowry shells). After receiving assurance from the their "Allied Brothers" (i.e., Mi'kmaq) and "Father" (i.e., Abnaki) of their safety in having the Anishinaabeg move inland, they advanced along the St. Lawrence River to the Ottawa River to Lake Nipissing, and then to the Great Lakes. Turtle Island may refer to: A Native American term for the North American continent Another name for Nanuya Levu, a privately owned island of the Yasawa Group in Fiji Another name for Vatoa, in the Lau Group in Fiji Turtle Island, the 1974 book of poetry by Gary Snyder, winner... Species See text. ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Micmac or MicMac) are a First Nations people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ... Abenaki wigwam with birch bark covering The Abenaki (also Wabanaki) are a tribe of Native Americans belonging to the Algonquian peoples of the Northeast portion of North America. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This is about the river in Canada. ... Ominous storm approaching the south of Lake Nipissing Lake Nipissing (French: lac Nipissing) is a lake in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...


First of these smaller Turtle Islands was Mooniyaa, which Mooniyaang (Montreal, Quebec) now stands. At their "third stopping place", the Anishinaabeg divided into six divisions: Algonquin, Nipissing, Mississaugas, Ojibwe, Odawa and Potawatomi. While the Odawa established their long-held cultural centre on Manitoulin Island, the Ojibwe established their long-held cultural centre in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario, Canada. With expansion of trade under partnerships with the French and later the British, fostered by availability of Small arms, members of the Council of Three Fires expanded southward to the Ohio River, southwestward along the Illinois River, and westward along Lake Superior, Lake of the Woods and the northern Great Plains. This article needs cleanup. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Nipissing may refer to the following topics related to the Canadian province of Ontario: Lake Nipissing, The Nipissing First Nation, Nipissing, a former electoral riding, Nipissing—Timiskaming, a current electoral riding, Nipissing District, a census division, Nipissing University in North Bay. ... The Mississaugas are a native people located in Southern Ontario. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Manitoulin Island is the worlds largest freshwater lake island, with an area of 2,766 square kilometres (1068 square miles). ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... Sault Sainte Marie — pronounced Soo Saint Marie (IPA ) — is the name of two cities on the Saint Marys River, which forms part of the boundary between the United States and Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... The Council of Three Fires, also known as the People of the Three Fires, was a long-standing Anishinaabe alliance of the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Native American tribes and First Nations. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... This article is about the river in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... For the the Quebec municipality, see Lac-Supérieur. ... Lake of the Woods from space, May 1998 Lake of the Woods. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ...


As the Anishinaabeg moved inland, through both alliances and conquest, various other closely-related Algonquian peoples were incorporated into the Anishinaabe Nation. These included, but not limited to, the Noquet (originally part of the Menomini Tribe) and Mandwe (originally part of the Fox). Other incorporated groups can generally be identified by the individual's Doodem (Clan). Migizi-doodem (Bald Eagle Clan) generally identifies those whose ancestors were Americans, Awaazisii-doodem (Burbot Clan) as now extinct branch of Sioux occupying the Sault Ste. Marie region of Lake Superior and Ma'iingan-doodem (Wolf Clan) as Santee Sioux. Other Anishinaabe doodem migrated out of the core Anishinaabeg groupings, such as the Nibiinaabe-doodem (Merman Clan) that is now found as the "Water-spirit Clan" of the Winnebagos. The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Menominee (also spelled Menomini; known as Mamaceqtaw, the people in their own language) are a nation of Native Americans living in Wisconsin but also originating in Michigan. ... The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... A totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan or tribe (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [1] and Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition). ... The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Sault Sainte Marie — pronounced Soo Saint Marie (IPA ) — is the name of two cities on the Saint Marys River, which forms part of the boundary between the United States and Canada. ... For the the Quebec municipality, see Lac-Supérieur. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago (as they are commonly called) are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. ...


Anishinaabeg peoples live as tribal governments or bands (First Nations) in both the northern United States and southern Canada, chiefly around the Great Lakes. Through treaties and Indian Removal of the past, some Anishinaabeg are also located in Kansas and Oklahoma. First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ...


Historical relations between the Anishinaabeg and other indigenous groups

Historical relations between the Anishinaabeg and Settlers

Historically, the great majority of Anishinaabe people dealt with the European settlers peacefully. However, we must exclude the Anishinaabeg from the Three Fires Confederation from their Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, southern Ontario, Pennsylvania and Quebec lands, for they were from the more easterly lands of the Anishinaabeg, which simply means they were the first of the Anishinaabeg to carry on contact with the invading European settlers. Countless numbers of eastern Anishinaabe warriors and civilians, laid down their lives fighting these settlers who dared to squat on their beloved land. Presently, there are no correct estimate for exactly how many Anishinaabeg became a casualty during their war against these settlers, yet it must have been significant. Overall, most contact between the Anishinaabeg and the European settlers were through peaceful means. In addition, traders were known to entice the Anishinaabeg straight into serious debt, either taking the individual into claims court or having restitution specifically written into treaties. The Council of Three Fires, also known as the People of the Three Fires, the Three Fires Confederacy, the United Nations of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Indians, or Niswi-mishkodewin in the Anishinaabe language, is a long-standing Anishinaabe alliance of the Ojibwe (or Chippewa), Ottawa (or Odawa), and Potawatomi...


In French North America

In British North America

In regards to the Anishinabeg relationship with the British, it was no more different than their relationship with their French brethren. However, the Anishinabeg of the Three Fires Confederation likely looked upon their British brethren with greater suspicion and distrust, than they had for the French. When it comes down to it, the leaders of the Three Fires Confederation only went so far in their relationship with the English, as to acquire those necessary modern day weapons of war, so they could defend their land against their white Americans, in the first phase of their relationship with their English brethren. During the American Revolutionary War, through the War of 1812, the Anishinabeg of the east of their vast country, sent their warriors out to attempt to halt the advance of the Americans, while forming an uneasy military alliance with England. Once the Anishinabeg of the east of their vast country had been defeated by the United States, the door was then open for both England and the United States, to force the remaining Anishinabeg to cede land to them. England would eventually demand of the Anishinabeg of Canada to cede almost all of the land.


In the United States

The relationship between the Anishinaabe and the American government have not always been a pleasant one. Beginning with the Northwest Indian War caused in part by American settlers colonizing areas between the original Thirteen Colonies and Mississippi River and ending with the signing of the Treaty of Greenville of 1795, the government of the United States had attempted to relocate tribes from the United States to the west of the Mississippi River. Many Anishinaabe refugees from the conflict, particularly Odawa and Potawatomi migrated north to British-held areas. Combatants United States Western Lakes Confederacy Commanders Josiah Harmar Arthur St. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... This depiction of the treaty negotiations may have been painted by one of Anthony Waynes officers. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Ottawa (also Odawa or Odaawa) are a Native American people. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ...


Those who remained were subjected to the Indian Removal policy of the United States, which the Anishinaabeg affected the Potawatomi the most. The Odawa were removed from the settlers' paths, so only a handful of communities experienced removal. For the Ojibwa, removal attempts culminated in the Sandy Lake Tragedy and resulted in several hundred deaths, while a few families were removed to Kansas as part of the Potawatomi removal. For the Potawatomi, survival without removal meant escaping into Ojibwa-held areas and hiding from the officials of the United States. Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa or Odaawa) are a Native American people. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... The Sandy Lake Tragedy was the death of several hundred Ojibwe during the US Governments attempt at removal of the tribe in 1850. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


After the Sandy Lake Tragedy, the goal of the government changed to instead moved the tribes onto reservations, often consolidating whole groups of communities. However, after the Dakota War of 1862, many Anishinaabe communities in Minnesota were relocated and further consolidated. This article is about Native Americans. ... Chief Taoyateduta, known as Chief Little Crow Settlers escaping the violence. ...


In Canada

Population estimates indicates that the American Anishinabeg population are more numerous than Canada's Anishinabeg population, but accounting for mixed blood and the fact that many of Canada's Anishinabeg are not counted during census time as a result of laws this might be the other way around. In the United States, the Anishinabeg population is approaching near 200,000. Apparently, the accepted Canadian Anishinabeg population is under 100,000. [citation needed]


Canadian Anishinabeg have withstood the efforts of their white brethren to force them to only speak English, which the Anishinabeg in the United States were not capable of doing. 50,000 or more Canadian Anishinabeg speak in the Anishinabeg dialects they were born to speak in. From Quebec, to the eastern lands of British Columbia, there are Anishinabeg Reserves, which, are for the most part, small in size but have kept the Canadian Anishinabeg well organized, and their language alive.


The Canadian Anishinabeg are descended from the northern Lake Superior Anishinabeg, whose original homeland was probably in the vicinity of the eastern upper peninsula of Michigan, where they would eventually separate, with one group going down into Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, southern Ontario and Pennsylvania, while another group migrated straight westward, while the ancestors of the Canadian Anishinabeg then commenced to the north, and then to the west, where they would eventually migrate to eastern British Columbia in the 19th century. Future scholars of the Anishinabeg will eventually learn if all Anishinabeg are descended from those Anishinabeg of the eastern upper peninsula of Michigan, or if they are descended from the Algonkin Anishinabeg of Quebec. Today, we truly can't determine the true origins of the Anishinabeg people, but history does point to the upper peninsula of Michigan as their birth lands, but the Algonkins need further intensive study to determine if all Anishinabeg people are directly descended from them.


Relations today between the Anishinaabeg and their neighbours

Anishinaabe Reserves/Reservations in North America, with diffusion rings if an Anishinaabe language is spoken. Cities with Anishinaabe population also shown.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 816 pixel, file size: 565 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Location of all Anishinaabe Reservations/Reserves in North America, with diffusion rings about communities speaking an Anishinaabe language. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 816 pixel, file size: 565 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Location of all Anishinaabe Reservations/Reserves in North America, with diffusion rings about communities speaking an Anishinaabe language. ...

Other indigenous groups

Canada

United States

The relationships between the various Anishinaabe communities in the United States with the United States government have been steadily improving since the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act; however, several Anishinaabe communities still experience tensions with the State governments, County governments and with non-Native American individuals and their groups. Major issues facing the various Anishinaabe communities are: The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act or informally, the Indian New Deal, was a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. ...

  • cultural and language preservation or revitalization
  • full and independent Federal recognision: some Anishinaabe communities are recognized by County or State governments, or are recognized by the Federal government only as part of another tribe
  • treaty rights: traditional means of support (hunting, fishing and gathering), establishment of reservations or upholding of the reservation boundaries per treaties and their amendments
  • personal health: diabetes and asthma affect many Anishinaabe communities at a higher than the general population
  • social disparity: poor education, high unemployment, substance abuse/addiction and domestic violence often affect many Anishinaabeg at a higher rates than the general population

This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...

Anishinaabe in popular culture

A fictional Anishinaabe clan in Ontario, the Mtigwaki, are featured in the comic strip For Better or For Worse from 2005-2006. Government Canada Ontario Geographical characteristics Area     City km² Population     City (2005) 350   (not counting the dogs) Time zone   Summer (DST) EST (UTC-5) EDT (UTC-6) Website: http://www. ... For Better or For Worse is a comic strip by Lynn Johnston that began in September 1979. ...


See also

This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Algonquin (or Algonkin) is an Algonquian language closely related to Ojibwe. ... The Midewiwin (also spelled Midewin and Medewiwin) is from the term for the Grand Medicine Society of the aboriginal groups of the Maritimes, New England and Great Lakes regions in North America. ... The Mississaugas are a native people located in Southern Ontario. ... The Nipissing First Nation consists of first nation (i. ... The Nishnawbe-Aski, also known as the Oji-Cree, Anishinini or, less correctly, Severn Ojibwe, are a First Nation in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba, residing in a narrow band extending from the Missinaibi River region in Northeastern Ontario at the east to Lake Winnipeg at the west. ... Anishininiimowin (also known as Oji-Cree or Severn Ojibwa) is the language of the Anishinini (Oji-Cree) First Nation of Ontario and Manitoba. ... This article is about the native North American people. ... Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ... This is a list of various names the Ojibwa have been recorded. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... The Odawa language, Daawaamwin or Nishnaabemwin is a dialect of Anishinaabemowin spoken by the Odawa/Ottawa peoples. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie; in Potawatomi Bodéwadmimwen or Bodéwadmi Zheshmowen or Neshnabémwen) is a Central Algonquian language and is spoken around the Great Lakes in Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as in Kansas in the United States, and in southern Ontario in Canada, by fewer than 50... This is a list of various names the Potawatomi have been recorded. ... The Saulteaux are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, Canada. ...

External links

References

  • Aaron Payment / Chairman Sault Tribe Chippewa Indians
  • Bento-Banai, Edward (2004). Creation- From the Ojibwa. The Mishomis Book.
  • Warren, William W. History of the Ojibway People. Borealis Books (St. Paul, MN: 1984).
  • White, Richard (July 31, 2000). Chippewas of the Sault. The Sault Tribe News.

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