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Encyclopedia > Animation

Image:Animexample3edit.png
The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames.
Image:Animexample.gif
This animation moves at 10 frames per second. Image File history File links Animexample3edit. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. It is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in a number of ways. The most common method of presenting animation is as a motion picture or video program, although several other forms of presenting animation also exist. An optical illusion. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... According to the theory of persistence of vision, the perceptual processes of the brain or the retina of the human eye retains an image for a brief moment. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ...


Animation can sometimes refer to a way of activating a community, i.e. 'animating' the users. This means actions which encourages users to interact with a given service and is connected to moderation. Look up Moderation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History

Further information: History of animation

// Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion. ...

Early Examples

Fantasmagorie by Emile Cohl, 1908
Animated sequence of a race horse galloping. Photos taken by Eadweard Muybridge, first published in 1887 at Philadelphia
Animated sequence of a race horse galloping. Photos taken by Eadweard Muybridge, first published in 1887 at Philadelphia

Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion. Image File history File links Fantasmagorie. ... Image File history File links Fantasmagorie. ... Image File history File links Muybridge_race_horse_animated. ... Muybridges The Horse in Motion. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ...


The phenakistoscope, zoetrope and praxinoscope, as well as the common flip book, were early popular animation devices invented during the 1800s. These devices produced movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but animation did not really develop much further until the advent of motion picture film. A phenakistoscope disc by Eadweard Muybridge (1893). ... A modern replica of a Victorian zoetrope. ... The Praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. ... A flip book is a book with a series of pictures varying gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate, simulating motion or some other change. ... This article is about motion pictures. ...


There is no single person who can be considered the "creator" of the art of film animation, as there were several people doing several projects which could be considered various types of animation all around the same time.


Georges Méliès was a creator of special-effect films; he was generally one of the first people to use animation with his technique. He discovered a technique by accident which was to stop the camera rolling to change something in the scene, and then continue rolling the film. This idea was later known as stop-motion animation. Méliès discovered this technique accidentally when his camera broke down while shooting a bus driving by. When he had fixed the camera, a horse happened to be passing by just as Méliès restarted rolling the film, his end result was that he had managed to make a bus transform into a horse. This was just one of the great contributors to animation in the early years. Georges Méliès (December 8, 1861 – January 21, 1938), full name Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, was a French filmmaker famous for leading many technical and narrative developments in the earliest cinema. ...


J. Stuart Blackton was possibly the first American filmmaker to use the techniques of stop-motion and hand-drawn animation. Introduced to filmmaking by Edison, he pioneered these concepts at the turn of the 20th century, with his first copyrighted work dated 1900. Several of his films, among them The Enchanted Drawing (1900) and Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) were film versions of Blackton's "lightning artist" routine, and utilized modified versions of Méliès' early stop-motion techniques to make a series of blackboard drawings appear to move and reshape themselves. 'Humorous Phases of Funny Faces' is regularly cited as the first true animated film, and Blackton is considered the first true animator. James Stuart Blackton (January 5, 1875 - August 13, 1941), usually known as J. Stuart Blackton, was an American film producer of the Silent Era, the founder of Vitagraph Studios and among the first filmmakers to use the techniques of stop-motion and drawn animation. ... Edison is the last name of a famous United States inventor: Thomas Edison Other people known by the name Edison: Charles Edison – son of Thomas Edison and Governor of New Jersey Edison Chen – popular Hong Kong teen idol Edison Carter, character in the television show Max Headroom A number of... The Enchanted Drawing is a silent film made in 1900. ... Humorous Phases of Funny Faces is a silent cartoon by J. Stuart Blackton in the year 1906. ... A blackboard, with multiple colors of chalk A blackboard or chalkboard is a reusable writing surface on which text or drawings are made with chalk or other erasable markers. ... An animator is an artist who creates multiple images called frames that form an illusion of movement called animation when rapidly displayed. ...


Another French artist, Émile Cohl, began drawing cartoon strips and created a film in 1908 called Fantasmagorie. The film largely consisted of a stick figure moving about and encountering all manner of morphing objects, such as a wine bottle that transforms into a flower. There were also sections of live action where the animator’s hands would enter the scene. The film was created by drawing each frame on paper and then shooting each frame onto negative film, which gave the picture a blackboard look. This makes Fantasmagorie the first animated film created using what came to be known as traditional (hand-drawn) animation. Émile Cohl (January 4, 1857 - January 20, 1938), born Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet, was a French caricaturist of the largely-forgotten Incoherent movement, cartoonist, and animator, called The Father of the Animated Cartoon and The Oldest Parisian. The Courtet family has been traced back to the 10th century... A stick figure. ... Color, positive picture (A) and negative (B), monochrome positive picture (C) and negative (D) In photography, a negative is a rectangle of material (nowadays usually photographic film) coated with chemicals that, upon photographic exposure, cause the material to record the colors or monochromatic shades of the scene in inverse, negative... Traditional animation, also referred to as classical animation, cel animation, or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ...


Following the successes of Blackton and Cohl, many other artists began experimenting with animation. One such artist was Winsor McCay, a successful newspaper cartoonist, who created detailed animations that required a team of artists and painstaking attention for detail. Each frame was drawn on paper; which invariably required backgrounds and characters to be redrawn and animated. Among McCay's most noted films are Little Nemo (1911), Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) and The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918). Winsor McCay Winsor McCay (September 26, 1867(?) – July 26, 1934) was a prolific artist and pioneer in the art of comic strips and animation. ... Little Nemo is the main fictional character in a series of weekly comic strips by Winsor McCay (1871-1934) that appeared in the New York Herald and William Randolph Hearsts New York American newspapers from October 15, 1905–April 23, 1911 and April 30 1911–1913; respectively. ... Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 short animated film by Winsor McCay that inspired many generations of animators to bring their cartoons to life. ... The Sinking of the Lusitania, released in 1918 is an animated short film by renowned American artist Winsor McCay. ...


The production of animated short films, typically referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own during the 1910s, and cartoon shorts were produced to be shown in movie theaters. The most successful early animation producer was John Randolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process which dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. A typical megaplex (AMC Rolling Hills 20 in Rolling Hills Estates, California). ... John Randolph Bray (25 August 1879, Detroit - 10 October 1978, Bridgeport, Connecticut) produced the first animation film in color The Debut of Thomas Katt (1920) in Brewster Color, developed by Percy D. Brewster of Newark, New Jersey. ... An animator is an artist who creates multiple images called frames that form an illusion of movement called animation when rapidly displayed. ... Earl Hurd (September 14, 1880 – September 28, 1940) was a pioneering American animator and film director. ... Traditional animation, sometimes also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ...


Techniques

Traditional animation

An example of traditional animation, a horse animated by rotoscoping from Edward Muybridge's 19th century photos.
Main article: Traditional animation

(Also called cel animation) Traditional animation was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, which are first drawn on paper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. The animators' drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one onto motion picture film against a painted background by a rostrum camera. Image File history File links Animhorse. ... Image File history File links Animhorse. ... Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ... The Horse in Motion Eadweard Muybridge (April 9, 1830 – May 8, 1904) was a British-born photographer, known primarily for his early use of multiple cameras to capture motion. ... Traditional animation, also referred to as classical animation, cel animation, or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ... Traditional animation, sometimes also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ... See Cel programming language for the programming language A cel, short for celluloid, is a transparent sheet on which objects are drawn or painted for traditional, hand-drawn animation. ... A rostrum camera is a specially adapted camera used in television and film to animate a still picture or object. ...


The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. Today, animators' drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system. Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects. The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery mediums, including traditional 35 mm film and newer media such as digital video. The "look" of traditional cel animation is still preserved, and the character animators' work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. Some animation producers have used the term "tradigital" to describe cel animation which makes extensive use of computer technology. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... 35 mm film frames. ... Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ... Character animation is a special aspect of the animation process, in which life is breathed into an artificial character. ...


Examples of traditionally animated feature films include Pinocchio (United States, 1940), Animal Farm (United Kingdom, 1954), and Akira (Japan, 1988). Traditional animated films which were produced with the aid of computer technology include The Lion King (US, 1994) Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi (Spirited Away) (Japan, 2001), and Les Triplettes de Belleville (2003). Pinocchio is the second animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1988 animated film. ... This article is about Disneys 1994 film. ... Spirited Away , literally Sen and Chihiros Spiriting Away) is an Academy Award winning 2001 film by the Japanese anime studio Studio Ghibli, written and directed by famed animator Hayao Miyazaki. ... Les Triplettes de Belleville is an award-winning 2003 animated feature film written and directed by Sylvain Chomet. ...

  • Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films, which regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement. Fully animated films can be done in a variety of styles, from realistically designed works such as those produced by the Walt Disney studio, to the more "cartoony" styles of those produced by the Warner Bros. animation studio. Many of the Disney animated features are examples of full animation, as are non-Disney works such as An American Tail (US, 1986) and The Iron Giant (US, 1999)
  • Rotoscoping is a technique, patented by Max Fleischer in 1917, where animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame. The source film can be directly copied from actors' outlines into animated drawings, as in The Lord of the Rings (US, 1978), used as a basis and inspiration for character animation, as in most Disney films, or used in a stylized and expressive manner, as in Waking Life (US, 2001) and A Scanner Darkly (US, 2006).

Walt Disney Animation Studios is the animation studio that makes up a key element of The Walt Disney Company, and the oldest existing animation studio in the world. ... Warner Bros. ... This is a list of theatrical animated feature films produced by Walt Disney Productions/The Walt Disney Company: // Official canon The following is a list of the forty-five feature films officially part of the Walt Disney Feature Animation (WDFA) canon. ... An American Tail is an animated film produced by Steven Spielbergs Amblin Entertainment, and directed by Don Bluth, originally released in movie theatres on November 21, 1986. ... The Iron Giant is a 1999 animated science fiction film, directed by Brad Bird, produced by Warner Bros. ... Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ... United Productions of America, better known as UPA, was an animation studio of the 1940s through 1970s, and a distributor of Japanese films from Toho Studios from the 1970s onward. ... Gerald McBoing-Boing is a 1951 animated short film about a little boy who can only speak in sound effects. ... For the song, see Yellow Submarine (song). ... Animé redirects here. ... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ... The first Filmation logo. ... This article is about the Internet An internet is suggested by some to be a more general term for any set of interconnected computer networks that are connected by internetworking Graphic representation of the WWW information network structure around Wikipedia, as represented by hyperlinks The Internet, or simply the Net... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rotoscoping is a technique where animators trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ... Max Fleischer (July 19, 1883–September 11, 1972) was an important pioneer in the development of the animated cartoon. ... In film, video production, animation, and related fields, a frame is one of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... Waking Life is a digitally rotoscoped and animated film, directed by Richard Linklater and made in 2001. ... A Scanner Darkly is a 2006 film by Richard Linklater based on the Philip K. Dick novel of the same name. ...

Stop motion

  • Stop-motion animation, used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the type of media used to create the animation.
A clay animation scene from a TV commercial.
A clay animation scene from a TV commercial.
  • Clay animation, often abbreviated as claymation, uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. The figures may have an armature or wire frame inside of them, similar to the related puppet animation (below), that can be manipulated in order to pose the figures. Alternatively, the figures may be made entirely of clay, such as in the films of Bruce Bickford, where clay creatures morph into a variety of different shapes. Examples of clay-animated works include The Gumby Show (US, 1957-1967) Morph shorts (UK, 1977-2000), Wallace and Gromit shorts (UK, 1989-1995 and 2000 - ?), Jan Švankmajer's Dimensions of Dialogue (Czechoslovakia, 1982), The Amazing Mr. Bickford (US, 1987), and The Trap Door (UK, 1984).
  • Graphic animation uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs, newspaper clippings, magazines, etc.) which are sometimes manipulated frame-by-frame to create movement. At other times, the graphics remain stationary, while the stop-motion camera is moved to create on-screen action.
  • Object animation refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, as opposed to specially created items. One example of object animation is the brickfilm, which incorporates the use of plastic toy construction blocks such as LEGOs.
  • Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters. This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the ground, and other such effects. Examples of pixilation include Norman McLaren's Neighbours (Canada, 1952).
  • Puppet animation typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting with each other in a constructed environment, in contrast to the real-world interaction in model animation. The puppets generally have an armature inside of them to keep them still and steady as well as constraining them to move at particular joints. Examples include Le Roman de Renard (The Tale of the Fox) (France, 1937), the films of Jiří Trnka, The Nightmare Before Christmas (US, 1993), and the TV series Robot Chicken (US, 2005-present).
    • Puppetoon, created using techniques developed by George Pál, are puppet-animated films which typically use a different version of a puppet for different frames, rather than simply manipulating one existing puppet.

Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... Image File history File links Claychick. ... Image File history File links Claychick. ... Clay animation is one of many forms of stop motion animation; specifically, it is the form where each animated piece, either character or background, is deformable, i. ... Armature can mean: Armature (sculpture) Armature (electrical engineering) Armature (computer animation) Category: ... Bruce Bickford is an expert claymation artist. ... Gumby is a green clay humanoid figure who was the subject of a series of television shows totaling 223 episodes over a three-and-a-half decade period, animated using stop motion photography, known as claymation. ... Morph is an animated Plasticine stop-motion character who appeared with Tony Hart starting from 1977 on several of his UK TV programs, notably Take Hart and Hart Beat. ... Gromit redirects here. ... Dimensions of Dialogue, 1982 Jan Å vankmajer (born 4 September 1934 in Prague) is a Czech surrealist artist. ... The Amazing Mr. ... The Trap Door is a childrens claymation-style animated television series, shown in the United Kingdom in 1984. ... Scene from Yuriy Norshteyns upcoming feature film, The Overcoat Cutout animation is a unique technique for producing animations using flat characters, props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric or even photographs. ... Terrence Vance Gilliam (born November 22, 1940) is an American-born British filmmaker, animator, and member of the Monty Python comedy troupe. ... This article is about the television series. ... This article is about the 1973 film. ... Tale of Tales (Russian: , Skazka skazok) is a 1979 Soviet animated film directed by Yuriy Norshteyn and produced by the Soyuzmultfilm studio in Moscow. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Silhouette animation is one of many forms of stop motion and is also a simplified variation of graphic animation, which involves the frame-by-frame moving of cut out graphic shapes. ... The Adventures of Prince Achmed (German: ) (Arabic: ‎) is a 1926 feature-length animated film by the German animator Lotte Reiniger. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Princes et princesses (2000) is a silhouette animation by Michel Ocelot, his second feature-length film. ... GRAPHIC ANIMATION is a variation of stop motion (and possibly more conceptually associated with traditional flat cel animation and paper drawing animation, but still TECHNICALLY qualifying as stop motion) consisting of the animation of photographs (in whole or in parts) and other NON-DRAWN flat visual graphic material, such as... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Matte refers to the following: the surface surrounding a framed picture, between the picture itself and the frame; usually made from coloured card a surface with a non-glossy finish (also matt or mat) a filmmaking technique a smelted sulfide material in extractive metallurgy a form of the name Matthew... Ray Harryhausen, with creations from Clash of the Titans. ... Jason and the Argonauts (1963) is a fictional fantasy adventure movie based upon the characters Jason and the Argonauts of Greek mythology, regarded by many critics as one of the best fantasy films ever made. ... Willis OBrien with his Academy Award. ... This is about the original movie and novel. ... Go motion is a variation of stop motion animation, and was co-developed by Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett for the film Dragonslayer. ... This amusement ride moved during the exposure. ... Industrial Light & Magic original logo, designed by Drew Struzan Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is a motion picture special visual effects company, founded in May 1975 by George Lucas and owned by Lucasfilm Ltd. ... Phil Tippett (born 1951) is a movie director and an award-winning Visual effects Supervisor and Producer, who specializes in creature design and character animation. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... Movie poster Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back is the sequel to the first released Star Wars movie, and the second film released in the original trilogy. ... One of many forms of stop motion animation. ... Brickfilming is the practice of stop-motion animation with LEGO or other similar plastic construction toys. ... For other uses, see Lego (disambiguation). ... Pixilation (from pixilated) is a stop motion technique where live actors are used as a frame-by-frame subject in an animated film, by repeatedly posing while one or more frame is taken and changing pose slightly before the next frame or frames. ... Norman McLaren, C. C., C. Q. (b. ... Neighbours (French title: Voisins) is an award-winning 1952 short film by Scottish-Canadian filmmaker Norman McLaren. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Armature can mean: Armature (sculpture) Armature (electrical engineering) Armature (computer animation) Category: ... The Tale of the Fox (French: , German: ) was stop-motion animation pioneer Ladislas Starevichs first feature film. ... Jiří Trnka (24 February 1912 Plzeň - 30 December 1969) was Czech puppet maker, illustrator, motion-picture animator and film director, renowned for his puppet animations. ... Halloween Town redirects here. ... Robot Chicken is an Emmy award-winning American stop motion animated comedy television series created by Seth Green and Matthew Senreich, who are the executive producers. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... George Pál in 1979 George Pal (February 1, 1908 – May 2, 1980) (birth name: Györgi Pál Marczincsák) was a Hungarian-born animator and film producer, principally associated with the science fiction genre. ...

Computer animation

A short gif animation
Main article: Computer animation

Like stop motion, computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying idea being that the animation is created digitally on a computer. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An example of a GIF image. ... See also: Computer-generated imagery Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ...

2D animation
Figures are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D vector graphics. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques such as of tweening, morphing, onion skinning and interpolated rotoscoping.
Examples: Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends, Jib Jab, Mickey the Squirrel
3D animation
Digital models manipulated by an animator. In order to manipulate a mesh, it is given a digital armature (sculpture). This process is called rigging. Various other techniques can be applied, such as mathematical functions (ex. gravity, particle simulations), simulated fur or hair, effects such as fire and water and the use of Motion capture to name but a few. Many 3D animations are very believable and are commonly used as special effects for recent movies.
Examples: The Incredibles, Shrek, Finding Nemo, Flatland
3D animation terms

For the use of the term raster in radio regulation, see frequency raster. ... Example showing effect of vector graphics versus raster graphics. ... This animated GIF demonstrates the effects of Adobe Flash shape, motion and color tweening. ... 3 Frames from a morph from George W. Bush to Arnold Schwarzenegger showing the mid-point between the two extremes Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and animations that changes (or morphs) one image into another through a seamless transition. ... Onion skinning is a 2D computer graphics term for a technique used in creating animated cartoons and editing movies to see several frames at once. ... This article is about interpolation in mathematics. ... Fosters Home for Imaginary Friends is an Emmy Award winning American animated television series created and produced at Cartoon Network Studios by animator Craig McCracken, creator of The Powerpuff Girls. ... The JibJab logo, with its Victorian era appearance, illustrates the influence of Terry Gilliam on the duos animation JibJab is a website featuring Macromedia Flash cartoons. ... Simple animation in Flash MX; a square moving across the screen in a motion tween, one of the basic functions of Flash. ... A screenshot showing PowerPoint 2003s Custom Animation. ... The rewrite of this article is being devised at Talk:3D computer graphics/Temp. ... Armature for a classical pose of a figure holding a lyre. ... Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique of digitally recording the movements of real things — usually humans — it originally developed as an analysis tool in biomechanics research, but has grown increasingly important as a source of motion data for computer animation. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... The Incredibles is a 2004 American Academy Award winning computer-animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures, centering around a family of superheroes. ... For other uses, see Shrek (disambiguation). ... Finding Nemo is a 2003 Academy Award-winning computer-animated film. ... For various uses of the term Flatlander, see Flatlander (disambiguation) Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions is a 1884 novella by Edwin Abbott Abbott, still popular among mathematics and computer science students, and considered useful reading for people studying topics such as the concept of other dimensions. ... Object with a basic cel-shader (also known as a toon shader) and border detection. ... Morph target animation (or per-vertex animation) is a method of 3D computer animation that is sometimes used in alternative to skeletal animation. ... A technique in computer animation, particularly the animation of vertebrates, where a character is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called the skin) and a hierarchical set of bones used for animation only (called the skeleton). ... Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique of digitally recording the movements of real things — usually humans — it originally developed as an analysis tool in biomechanics research, but has grown increasingly important as a source of motion data for computer animation. ... Crowd simulation is the process of simulating the movement of a large number of objects or characters, now often appearing in 3D computer graphics for film. ...

Other animation techniques

  • Drawn on film animation: a technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock, for example by Norman McLaren and Len Lye.
  • Paint-on-glass animation: a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow drying oil paints on sheets of glass.
  • Pinscreen animation: makes use of a screen filled with movable pins, which can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. The screen is lit from the side so that the pins cast shadows. The technique has been used to create animated films with a range of textural effects difficult to achieve with traditional cel animation.
  • Sand animation: sand is moved around on a backlighted or frontlighted piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film. This creates an interesting effect when animated because of the light contrast.

Drawn on film animation (also known as direct animation) is an animation technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on filmstock, as opposed to cel animation where the images are created on separate sheets of plastic before being photographed onto filmstock. ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... Norman McLaren, C. C., C. Q. (b. ... Len Lye, born Leonard Charles Huia Lye (July 5, 1901 - May 15, 1980), was a New Zealand sculptor, artist, writer and film-maker. ... Aleksandr Petrovs 1999 The Old Man and the Sea (Academy Award for Animated Short Film) Paint-on-glass animation is a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow-drying oil paints on sheets of glass. ... View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer. ... This article is about the material. ... Pinscreen animation makes use of a screen filled with movable pins, which can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. ... Sand animation is a term which has two meanings. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Look up Contrast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Other techniques and approaches

Character animation is a special aspect of the animation process, in which life is breathed into an artificial character. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A hand-drawn sketch created using a Tablet PC or digitizing tablet like Wacom to create improvised progressive line sketches which are captured to video. ... Special effects animation (or simply effects animation) is a specialization of the traditional animation and computer animation processes. ...

See also

Look up animation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Annie Awards for animation Sunday; Wikinews will be there

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Animation software is software that is used either for computer animation or to assist animators with the considerable work needed to create more traditional pieces of animation. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... See also Avars (Race of people) An Avar or Animation Variable is a variable controlling the position of part of an animated object, such as a character. ... The seawater creature in The Abyss marked CGIs acceptance in the visual effects industry. ... In film theory, genre refers to the primary method of film categorization. ... The International Tournée of Animation was an annual touring program of animated films selected and assembled from films from many countries around the world and which existed from about 1970 to the late 1980s. ... This is list of animation Studios, animation studio is a studio that is a production facilities, or a financial entitles and is in general similar in organistions to artists studios, and most of them are based in United States of America. ... This is a list of film-related topics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Slideshow animation is a type of animation using images synchronized to music. ... A stick figure. ... A wire frame model is a visual presentation of an electronic representation of a three dimensional or physical object used in 3D computer graphics. ... Animé redirects here. ...

References

  • Ball, R., Beck, J., DeMott R., Deneroff, H., Gerstein, D., Gladstone, F., Knott, T., Leal, A., Maestri, G., Mallory, M., Mayerson, M., McCracken, H., McGuire, D., Nagel, J., Pattern, F., Pointer, R., Webb, P., Robinson, C., Ryan, W., Scott, K., Snyder, A. & Webb, G. (2004) Animation Art: From Pencil to Pixel, the History of Cartoon, Anime & CGI. Fulhamm London.: Flame Tree Publishing. ISBN 1-84451-140-5
  • Crafton, Donald (1982). Before Mickey. Cambridge, Massachusetts.: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-03083-7
  • Solomon, Charles (1989). Enchanted Drawings: The History of Animation. New York.: Random House, Inc. ISBN 0-394-54684-9

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Type of animations

There are at least three distinctive types of animation:


- process animation: is the type of animation used to present a process of defined work method in stages. This includes the types of training animation, instruction animation and the likes.


- effect animation: are the type of animation used to stress or emphasize. powerpoint presentations are a typical usage of effect animations where the animation serves to emphasize the message or process.


- story animation: are the type of typical cartoon animations where stories are told using simple animation that are less expensive to produce, are simpler and more direct in delivering the message and due to the simplistic factor, are usable and last for a long time unlike videos that are more age and era specific.


Further reading

Franklin Thomas (September 5, 1912, Fresno, California - September 8, 2004, Flintridge, California) was one of Walt Disneys team of animators known as the Nine Old Men. ... Oliver Martin Johnston, Jr. ... The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation (ISBN 0786860707) is an acclaimed book by two of Disneys The Nine Old Men, Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas. ... For other persons named Richard Williams, see Richard Williams (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Animation at the Open Directory Project
  • Animation: An Interdisciplinary Journal
  • Experimental Animation Techniques
  • Chronology of Animation
  • How An Animated Cartoon is Made
  • 28 Principles of Animation
  • Focus on Animation - A National Film Board of Canada Web site that explains animation techniques discussed in this article and presents viewable animation classics as examples.
  • "Animando", a 12-minute film demonstrating 10 different animation techniques (and teaching how to use them).
  • Aniboom animation online animation festival.
  • Flash Animatin Flash animation Caterpillart.
  • Advanced Digital Animation Sequence Managing System.
  • Animation Research Centre
The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion. ... A computer-animated film commonly refers to feature films that have been computer-animated to appear three dimensional on a movie screen. ... This is a list of animated feature-length films from around the world organised alphabetically under the year of release (the year during which the completed film was first released to the public). ... This is a list of package films. ... The following is a list of theatrical short film series produced by means of animation. ... This is a list of stop-motion films from around the world organised in order of release date; theatrical releases as well as made-for-TV and direct-to-video movies. ... Animated series redirects here. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Traditional animation, also referred to as classical animation, cel animation, or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ... Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ... Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ... See also: Computer-generated imagery Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ... Drawn on film animation (also known as direct animation) is an animation technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on filmstock, as opposed to cel animation where the images are created on separate sheets of plastic before being photographed onto filmstock. ... Aleksandr Petrovs 1999 The Old Man and the Sea (Academy Award for Animated Short Film) Paint-on-glass animation is a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow-drying oil paints on sheets of glass. ... Pinscreen animation makes use of a screen filled with movable pins, which can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. ... Sand animation is a term which has two meanings. ... Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... Clay animation is one of many forms of stop motion animation; specifically, it is the form where each animated piece, either character or background, is deformable, i. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Scene from Yuriy Norshteyns upcoming feature film, The Overcoat Cutout animation is a unique technique for producing animations using flat characters, props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric or even photographs. ... Silhouette animation is one of many forms of stop motion and is also a simplified variation of graphic animation, which involves the frame-by-frame moving of cut out graphic shapes. ... GRAPHIC ANIMATION is a variation of stop motion (and possibly more conceptually associated with traditional flat cel animation and paper drawing animation, but still TECHNICALLY qualifying as stop motion) consisting of the animation of photographs (in whole or in parts) and other NON-DRAWN flat visual graphic material, such as... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Go motion is a variation of stop motion animation, and was co-developed by Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett for the film Dragonslayer. ... One of many forms of stop motion animation. ... Pixilation (from pixilated) is a stop motion technique where live actors are used as a frame-by-frame subject in an animated film, by repeatedly posing while one or more frame is taken and changing pose slightly before the next frame or frames. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Simple animation in Flash MX; a square moving across the screen in a motion tween, one of the basic functions of Flash. ... A screenshot showing PowerPoint 2003s Custom Animation. ... An animator is an artist who creates multiple images called frames that form an illusion of movement called animation when rapidly displayed. ... An animation director is the director in charge of all aspects of the animation process during the production of an animated film or animated segment for a live-action film. ... This is a list of major animation festivals. ... This is list of animation Studios, animation studio is a studio that is a production facilities, or a financial entitles and is in general similar in organistions to artists studios, and most of them are based in United States of America. ... An animated cartoon is a short, hand-drawn (or made with computers to look similar to something hand-drawn) film for the cinema, television or computer screen, featuring some kind of story or plot (even if it is a very short one). ... An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less. ... Independent animation is a term used to describe animated short cartoons and feature films produced outside the professional Hollywood animation industry. ... Adult animation is animation that is targeted at adults. ... Character animation is a special aspect of the animation process, in which life is breathed into an artificial character. ... Cartoon physics is a joking reference to the fact that animation allows regular laws of physics to be ignored in humorous ways for dramatic effects. ...

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The use of computer animation as a way of achieving the otherwise impossible in conventionally shot movies has led to the term "computer generated imagery" being used, though the term has become hard to distinguish from computer animation as it is now used in referring to 3D movies that are entirely animated.
Animation is also celebrated as an artform (sometimes it receives government funding; this was especially common in Eastern Europe in the Communist era), and is showcased in many film festivals worldwide.
Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce, the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios.
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