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Encyclopedia > Animated movie

An animated cartoon is a moving picture generated by photographing drawings frame-by-frame, as opposed to a normal movie, which is produced by shooting 24 frames a second of actual moving persons or objects. Films are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects. ... Drawing is a means of making an image, using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques. ... A strip of 16 mm film consisting of many frames A film frame, or just frame, is one of the many single photographic images in a movie. ...

Contents


History

Main article: History of animation

The first examples of trying to capture motion into a drawing can already be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting depicting a sense of motion. The history of film animation begins with the earliest days of silent film and continues through the present day. ... In physics, motion means a change in the position of a body with respect to time, as measured by a particular observer in a particular frame of reference. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... or rock paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ...


The phenakistoscope, zoetrope and praxinoscope, as well as the common flip book, were early animation devices to produce movement in drawings using technological means, but animation did not really develop much further until the advent of motion picture film. The phenakistoscope (also spelled phenakistiscope) was an early animation device, the predecessor to the zoetrope. ... A modern replica of a Victorian zoetrope. ... The Praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. ... A flip book is a book with a series of pictures varying gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate, simulating motion or some other change. ... Films are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects. ...


The first animated cartoon (in the traditional sense, i.e. on film) was "Fantasmagorie" by the French director Émile Cohl. Émile Cohl (January 4, 1857 - January 20, 1938), born Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet, was a French caricaturist of the largely-forgotten Incoherent movement, cartoonist, and animator, called The Father of the Animated Cartoon and The Oldest Parisian. The Courtet family has been traced back to the 10th century...


One of the very first successful animated cartoons was "Gertie the Dinosaur" by Winsor McKay. It is considered the first example of true character animation. Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 animated film short that inspired a generation of animators to bring their cartoons to life. ... Winsor McCay (September 26, 1871 - July 26, 1934) was a prolific artist and pioneer in the art of animation. ... Character animation is a special aspect of the animation process, in which life is breathed into an artificial character. ...


In the 1930s to 1960s, theatrical cartoons were produced in huge numbers, and usually shown before a feature film in a movie theater. MGM, Disney and Warner Brothers were the largest studios producing these 5 to 10-minute "shorts". A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... A typical megaplex (AMC Ontario Mills 30 in Ontario, California). ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Jaime Batkin in the best singer in the world. ... Warner Bros. ...

Further information: Hollywood Animation: The Golden Age

Competition from television drew audiences away from movie theaters in the late 1950s, and the theatrical cartoon began its decline. Today, animated cartoons are produced mostly for television. The 1930s and 1940s During the Great Depression of the 1930s in America, the popularity of the cinema led to a corresponding rise in popularity of animated shorts. ...


Technologies

A horse animated by rotoscoping from Edweard Muybridge's 19th century photos. The animation consists of 8 drawings, which are "looped", i.e. repeated over and over.
Enlarge
A horse animated by rotoscoping from Edweard Muybridge's 19th century photos. The animation consists of 8 drawings, which are "looped", i.e. repeated over and over.

The advent of film technology opened opportunities to develop the art of animation. The basic animation process is decribed in the article Animation , and the classic, hand-drawn technology in Traditional animation . A rotoscope is a device that enables animators to trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animation. ... The Horse in Motion Eadweard Muybridge (April 9, 1830 – May 8, 1904) was a British-born photographer, known primarily for his early use of multiple cameras to capture motion. ... Animation is the illusion of motion created by the consecutive display of images of static elements. ... Traditional animation, sometimes also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ...


At first, animated cartoons were black-and-white and silent. Felix the Cat is a notable example. Black-and-white (or variations including Black and White) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... The famous Felix pace as seen in Oceantics (1930) Felix the Cat is a cartoon character from the silent-film era. ...


The first cartoon with synchronized sound is often identified as Walt Disney's Steamboat Willie, starring Mickey Mouse in 1927, but Max Fleischer's 1926 My Old Kentucky Home is less popularly but more correctly credited with this innovation. Fleischer also patented rotoscoping, whereby animation could be trace from a live action film. A sound film (or talkie) is a motion picture with synchronized sound, as opposed to a silent movie. ... Walt Disney For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie (1928) Steamboat Willie, released on November 18, 1928, is an animated cartoon featuring Mickey Mouse. ... Mickeys most recognizable look has him wearing red shorts and yellow shoes. ... Max Fleischer (July 19, 1883–September 11, 1972) was an important pioneer in the development of the animated cartoon. ... My Old Kentucky Home, originally released on April 13, 1926, by Max Fleischers Out of the Inkwell Films company, was one of the Song Car-Tunes series. ... A rotoscope is a device that enables animators to trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animation. ... In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ...


Disney also produced the first full-color cartoon in Technicolor, "Flowers and Trees", in 1931, although other producers had earlier made films using inferior, 2-color processes instead of the 3-color process offered by Technicolor. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor, now a division of Thomson. ... Flowers and Trees was the first animated cartoon to be produced in the full-color three-strip Technicolor process. ...


Later, other movie technologies were adapted for use in animation, such as stereophonic sound in Disney's Fantasia in 1941, and later, widescreen processes (e.g. CinemaScope), and even 3D. Stereophonic sound, commonly called stereo, is the reproduction of sound, using two independent audio channels, through a pair of widely separated speaker systems, in such a way as to create a pleasant and natural impression of sound heard from various directions as in natural hearing. ... Look up Fantasia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Fantasia may refer to one of several things. ... Cinemascope, or more strictly CinemaScope, was a widescreen movie format used from 1953 to 1967. ... For 3D computer graphics and related software, see 3D computer graphics. ...


Today, animation is commonly produced with computers, giving the animator new tools not available in hand-drawn traditional animation. See Computer animation for further information of the specific technologies. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An animator is one who is involved in the process of animation. ... Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ...


Note, however, that some types of animation cannot be called "cartoons", which implies something that resembles a drawing. Clay animation and other forms of stop motion filming, are not cartoons in the strict sense of the word. Claymation is a moviemaking technique created by taking pictures of a clay object. ... Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ...


Feature films

Although other full-length animated films had been produced before 1937, Disney's "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" is considered to be the first successful animated feature film. To date, Disney has produced 44 "Classic" hand-drawn animated features. It appears that no more will be produced, since the studio has closed all its facilities for this type of animation. They will, however, continue making computer-animated features. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is the first animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ...


Other studios also produced huge numbers of animated features, a list can be found here.


The name "animated cartoon" is often not used when referring to full-length animated productions, since the term more or less implies a "short".


Notable artists and producers

Further information: Animation

Frederick Bean Tex Avery (February 26, 1908 – August 26, 1980) was an animator, cartoonist, and director, famous for producing animated cartoons during the Golden Age of Hollywood. ... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ... Walt Disney For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Max Fleischer (July 19, 1883–September 11, 1972) was an important pioneer in the development of the animated cartoon. ... Charles Martin Chuck Jones (September 21, 1912–February 22, 2002) was an American animator, cartoon artist, screenwriter, producer, and director of animated films, most memorably of Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts for the Warner Brothers cartoon studio. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Animation is the illusion of motion created by the consecutive display of images of static elements. ...

Television

A frame from an animated cartoon, a TV commercial for Raid
A frame from an animated cartoon, a TV commercial for Raid

The term "illustrated radio" became a popular moniker for the ubiquitous saturday morning cartoon (animated TV programs for children aired during daytime hours). The animation in such shows is often very simple, due to economic constraints. However, some studios endeavour to produce high-quality programming in spite of limited budgets and tight schedules. Image File history File links Raidcartoon. ... Image File history File links Raidcartoon. ... Raid is a brand name insecticide produced by SC Johnson, first launched in 1956. ... Saturday morning cartoon is the colloquial term for the typical television animation programming that was typically scheduled on Saturday mornings on the major American television networks since the mid 1960s. ...


Hanna-Barbera's 1960s show, "The Flintstones" was one of the first truly successful primetime series and has been on the air ever since. Today, "The Simpsons" tops the popularity lists. Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ... The Flintstones, a Hanna-Barbera animated series, is one of the most successful animated television series of all time, originally running in American prime time for six seasons, from 1960 to 1966, on the ABC network. ... PrimeTime is a television newsmagazine from ABC News. ... Homer, a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, is a generally well-meaning buffoon whose short attention span often draws him into outrageous schemes and adventures. ...


Commercial animation

Animation has been very popular in television commercials, both due to its graphic appeal, and the humor it can provide. Some animated characters in commercials have survived for decades, such as Snap, Crackle and Pop in advertisements for Kellogg's cereals. A television commercial (often called an advert in the United Kingdom) is a form of advertising in which goods, services, organizations, ideas, etc. ... Snap, Crackle and Pop as they are usually portrayed today. ... For other things with Kellogg in the name, see Kellogg (disambiguation). ...


Genres of animated cartoons

Funny animals

The first animated cartoons often depicted funny animals in various adventures. This was the mainstream genre from the early 1900s until the 1940s, and the backbone of Disney's series of cartoons. Funny animal is a slang term used to describe a genre of cartoons and comics in which the main characters are anthropomorphic animals. ... Mainstream is, generally, the common current of thought. ...


Zany humor

Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck of Warner Brothers, and the various films of Tex Avery at MGM introduced this popular form of animated cartoons. It usually involved acts such as being characters being crushed by massive boulders or going over the edge of a cliff but floating in mid air for a few seconds. The Road Runner cartoons are great examples of these actions. Disney never really mastered this genre. The article Cartoon physics describes typical antics of zany cartoon characters. Bugs Bunny, as seen in the Looney Tunes short Rabbit Transit. ... Daffy Duck in Duck Amuck. ... Warner Bros. ... Frederick Bean Tex Avery (February 26, 1908 – August 26, 1980) was an animator, cartoonist, and director, famous for producing animated cartoons during the Golden Age of Hollywood. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Cartoon physics is a joking reference to the fact that animation allows regular laws of physics to be ignored in humorous ways. ...


Sophistication

As the medium matured, more sophistication was introduced, albeit keeping the humorous touch. Classical music was often spoofed, a notable example is "What's Opera, Doc" by Chuck Jones. Classical musicis a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to musicproduced in, or rooted in the traditions of, Europeanart, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... A still from Whats Opera, Doc?. Whats Opera, Doc? is a 1957 short animated film directed by Chuck Jones in which Elmer Fudd chases Bugs Bunny through a six-minute operatic production of Wagners Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung). ... Charles Martin Chuck Jones (September 21, 1912–February 22, 2002) was an American animator, cartoon artist, screenwriter, producer, and director of animated films, most memorably of Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts for the Warner Brothers cartoon studio. ...


Limited animation

In the 1950s, UPA and other studios refined the art aspects of animation, by using extremely limited animation as a means of expression. The UPA opening title card from How Now Boing Boing (1954) The legacy of the United Productions of America animation studio, better known as UPA, has largely been forgotten in the wake of the animation renaissance of the 1990s; it has been overshadowed by the commercialization of Warner Bros. ... Resources ArtLex. ... Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ...


Modernism

Graphic styles continued to change in the late 1950s and 1960s. At this point, the design of the characters became more angular, while the quality of the character animation declined. Character animation is a special aspect of the animation process, in which life is breathed into an artificial character. ...


Japanese styles

Anime and Hentai became very popular among young adults in the late 20th century. A scene from Cowboy Bebop (1998) Anime (アニメ) is Japanese animation, sometimes referred to by the portmanteau Japanimation. ... Hentai (変態), a Japanese word meaning abnormal or perverted, is used in many western countries to refer to anime, manga, and computer games with explicit sexual or pornographic content (see Japanese pornography). ...


Animated Music videos

Popular with the advent of MTV and similar music channels, they often contain animation, sometimes rotoscoped, i.e. based on live action performers. A music video (also video clip, promo) is a short film or video meant to present a visual representation of a popular music song. ... MTV (abbreviation for Music Television) is a cable television network which was originally devoted to music videos, especially popular rock music. ... A rotoscope is a device that enables animators to trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animation. ... In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ...


Animutation

A form of animation using Macromedia Flash to create pop culture influenced videos of non-English, independent, or (more rarely) mainstream music. The style was invented and popularized by Neil Cicierega. The style commonly involves cutting out and moving photographic images around. Animutation is a form of art using Macromedia Flash to create pop culture influenced videos of foreign-language, independent, or (more rarely) mainstream music. ... Macromedia Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both a multimedia authoring program and the Macromedia Flash Player, written and distributed by Macromedia (to be acquired by Adobe Systems), that uses vector and raster graphics, a native scripting language called ActionScript and bidirectional streaming of video and audio. ... Neil Cicierega (born August 23, 1986), a. ...


See also

Animation is the illusion of motion created by the consecutive display of images of static elements. ... A cartoon is any of several forms of art, with varied meanings that evolved from one to another. ... Traditional animation, sometimes also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ...

External links

The making of an animated cartoon


  Results from FactBites:
 
Animation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (575 words)
However, there is growing use of instructional animation and educational animation to support explanation and learning.
The "classic" form of animation, the "animated cartoon", as developed in the early 1900s and refined by Walt Disney and others, requires up to 24 distinct drawings for one second of animation.
Animation Studios, like Movie Studios may be production facilities, or financial entities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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