FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Animal testing
Enos the space chimp before insertion into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in 1961.

Animal testing or animal research is the use of non-human animals in scientific experimentation. It is estimated that 50 to 100 million vertebrate animals worldwide — from zebrafish to non-human primates — are used annually.[1] Although much larger numbers of invertebrates are used and the use of flies and worms as model organisms is very important, experiments on invertebrates are largely unregulated and not included in statistics. Most animals are euthanized after being used in an experiment. Sources of laboratory animals vary between countries and species; while most animals are purpose-bred, others may be caught in the wild or supplied by dealers who obtain them from auctions and pounds.[2] Image File history File links NASAchimp. ... Image File history File links NASAchimp. ... Enos being prepared for insertion into the Mercury-Atlas 5 capsule in 1961. ... Mercury-Atlas 5 was an American unmanned spaceflight of the Mercury program. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The name zebrafish applies to several different kinds of fish with striped bodies considered to resemble a zebra: Brachydanio rerio, also called Danio rerio or the Zebra Danio, is a commonly used model organism in studies of biological development. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Dog Pound redirects here. ...


The research is conducted inside universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, farms, defense establishments, and commercial facilities that provide animal-testing services to industry.[3] It includes pure research such as genetics, developmental biology, behavioural studies, as well as applied research such as biomedical research, xenotransplantation, drug testing and toxicology tests, including cosmetics testing. Animals are also used for education, breeding, and defense research. Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour (particularly of social animals such as primates and canids), and is a branch of zoology. ... Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... (xeno- from the Greek meaning foreign) is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another such as from pigs to humans (see Medical grafting). ... U.S. and Canadian products that carry this Coalition for Consumer Information on Cosmetics (CCIC) logo do not test their products or ingredients on animals Testing cosmetics on animals is controversial. ...


The topic is highly controversial. Supporters of the practice, such as the British Royal Society, argue that virtually every medical achievement in the 20th century relied on the use of animals in some way,[4] with the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences arguing that even sophisticated computers are unable to model interactions between molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms, and the environment, making animal research necessary in some areas.[5] The U.S. and British governments both support the advancement of medical and scientific goals using animal testing, provided that the testing minimizes animal use and suffering.[6][7] Others, such as the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, question the necessity of it, these opponents make a range of arguments: that it is cruel, poor scientific practice, cannot reliably predict effects in humans, poorly regulated, that the costs outweigh the benefits, or that animals have an intrinsic right not to be used for experimentation.[8] For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ...

Contents

Definitions

The terms animal testing, animal experimentation, animal research, in vivo testing, and vivisection have similar denotations but different connotations. Literally, "vivisection" means the "cutting up" of a living animal, and historically referred only to experiments that involved the dissection of live animals. The term is now used to refer to any experiment using living animals; for example, the Encyclopaedia Britannica defines "vivisection" as: "Operation on a living animal for experimental rather than healing purposes; more broadly, all experimentation on live animals."[9] For others, the word has a pejorative connotation, implying torture and suffering.[10] The word "vivisection" is preferred by those opposed to this research, whereas scientists typically use the term "animal experimentation."[11][12] Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ... This word has distinct meanings in other fields: see denotation (semiotics) and connotation and denotation. ... Connotation is a subjective cultural and/or emotional coloration in addition to the explicit or denotative meaning of any specific word or phrase in a language, i. ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ...


History

An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump, from 1768, by Joseph Wright.
An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump, from 1768, by Joseph Wright.

The earliest references to animal testing are found in the writings of the Greeks in the second and fourth centuries BCE. Aristotle (Αριστοτέλης) (384-322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304-258 BCE) were among the first to perform experiments on living animals.[13] Galen, a physician in second-century Rome, dissected pigs and goats, and is known as the "father of vivisection."[14] One of Pavlov’s dogs with a saliva-catch container and tube surgically implanted in his muzzle. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1491, 228 KB) Summary An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump by Joseph Wright of Derby, 1768. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1491, 228 KB) Summary An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump by Joseph Wright of Derby, 1768. ... An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump is a 1768 oil-on-canvas painting by Joseph Wright of Derby which depicts a recreation of one of Robert Boyles air pump experiments. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Erasistratus of Chios (330? BC - 250? BC) was a Greek anatomist. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ...


Animals have been used throughout the history of scientific research. In the 1880s, Louis Pasteur convincingly demonstrated the germ theory of medicine by inducing anthrax in sheep.[15] In the 1890s, Ivan Pavlov famously used dogs to describe classical conditioning.[16] Insulin was first isolated from dogs in 1922, and revolutionized the treatment of diabetes.[17] On November 3, 1957, a Russian dog, Laika, became the first of many animals to orbit the earth. In the 1970s, antibiotic treatments and vaccines for leprosy were developed using armadillos,[18] then given to humans.[19] The ability of humans to change the genetics of animals took a large step forwards in 1974 when Rudolf Jaenisch was able to produce the first transgenic mammal, by integrating DNA from the SV40 virus into the genome of mice.[20] This genetic research progressed rapidly and, in 1996, Dolly the sheep was born, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell.[21] Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Belka and Strelka orbited the Earth and returned safely on Korabl-Sputnik-5 During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. ... For other uses, see Laika (disambiguation). ... Squirrel monkey Baker rode a Jupiter missile (modeled above) into space in 1959 Animals in space originally served to test the survivability of spaceflight before manned space missions were attempted. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... For other uses, see Armadillo (disambiguation). ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rudolf Jaenisch (1942- ) is a German pioneer of transgenic science, in which an animal’s genetic makeup is altered. ... GMO redirects here. ... SV40 is an abbreviation for Simian vacuolating virus 40 or Simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. ... Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. ...

Claude Bernard, regarded as the "prince of vivisectors" and one of the greatest men of science, argued that experiments on animals are "entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man,".
Claude Bernard, regarded as the "prince of vivisectors"[22] and one of the greatest men of science, argued that experiments on animals are "entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man,".[23]

Toxicology testing became important in the 20th century. In the 19th century, laws regulating drugs were lax. For example, in the U.S., the government could only ban a drug after a company had been prosecuted for selling products that harmed customers. However, in response to a tragedy in 1937 where a drug labeled “Elixir of Sulfanilamide” killed more than 100 people, the U.S. congress passed laws that required safety testing of drugs on animals before they could be marketed. Other countries enacted similar legislation.[24] In the 1960s, in reaction to the Thalidomide tragedy, further laws were passed requiring safety testing on pregnant animals before a drug can be sold.[25] For the 17th Century Roman Catholic priest who popularized the Memorare, see Father Claude Bernard. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ... The Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster was a mass poisoning in the United States in 1937. ... This article is about the drug. ...


The controversy surrounding animal testing dates back to the 17th century. In 1655, the advocate of Galenic physiology Edmund O'Meara said that "the miserable torture of vivisection places the body in an unnatural state."[26][27] O'Meara and others argued that animal physiology could be affected by pain during vivisection, rendering results unreliable. There were also objections on an ethical basis, contending that the benefit to humans did not justify the harm to animals.[27] Early objections to animal testing also came from another angle — many people believed that animals were inferior to humans and so different that results from animals could not be applied to humans.[27] For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Edmund OMeara (1614-1681) Irish physiologist. ... Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ...


On the other side of the debate, those in favor of animal testing held that experiments on animals were necessary to advance medical and biological knowledge. Claude Bernard, known as the "prince of vivisectors"[22] and the father of physiology — whose wife, Marie Françoise Martin, founded the first anti-vivisection society in France in 1883[28] — famously wrote in 1865 that "the science of life is a superb and dazzlingly lighted hall which may be reached only by passing through a long and ghastly kitchen".[29] Arguing that "experiments on animals ... are entirely conclusive for the toxicology and hygiene of man...the effects of these substances are the same on man as on animals, save for differences in degree,"[23] Bernard established animal experimentation as part of the standard scientific method.[30] In 1896, the physiologist and physician Dr. Walter B. Cannon said “The antivivisectionists are the second of the two types Theodore Roosevelt described when he said, ‘Common sense without conscience may lead to crime, but conscience without common sense may lead to folly, which is the handmaiden of crime.’ ”[31] These divisions between pro- and anti- animal testing groups first came to public attention during the brown dog affair in the early 1900s, when hundreds of medical students clashed with anti-vivisectionists and police over a memorial to a vivisected dog.[32] For the 17th Century Roman Catholic priest who popularized the Memorare, see Father Claude Bernard. ... -1... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Brown Dog affair was a controversy and cause célèbre for a brief period in Edwardian England, from 1903 to 1910, and revolving around vivisection and a statue erected in memory of a dog killed in the cause of medical research. ...

One of Pavlov’s dogs with a saliva-catch container and tube surgically implanted in his muzzle. Pavlov Museum, 2005
One of Pavlov’s dogs with a saliva-catch container and tube surgically implanted in his muzzle. Pavlov Museum, 2005

In 1822, the first animal protection law was enacted in the British parliament, followed by the Cruelty to Animals Act (1876), the first law specifically aimed at regulating animal testing. The legislation was promoted by Charles Darwin, who wrote to Ray Lankester in March 1871: "You ask about my opinion on vivisection. I quite agree that it is justifiable for real investigations on physiology; but not for mere damnable and detestable curiosity. It is a subject which makes me sick with horror, so I will not say another word about it, else I shall not sleep to-night."[33][34] Opposition to the use of animals in medical research first arose in the United States during the 1860s, when Henry Bergh founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), with America's first specifically anti-vivisection organization being the American AntiVivisection Society (AAVS), founded in 1883. Antivivisectionists of the era generally believed the spread of mercy was the great cause of civilization, and vivisection was cruel. However, in the USA the antivivisectionists' efforts were defeated in every legislature, overwhelmed by the superior organization and influence of the medical community. Overall, this movement had little legislative success until the passing of the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act, in 1966.[35] Image File history File linksMetadata One_of_Pavlov's_dogs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata One_of_Pavlov's_dogs. ... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... A cannula (pl. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Ray Lankester, by Leslie Ward, 1905. ... Henry Bergh (August 29, 1811 - March 12, 1888) founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1866. ... American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (usually referred to as the ASPCA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing the abuse of animals. ...


Care and use of animals

See also: Animal testing regulations, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, and Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees are of central importance to the application of laws to animal research in the United States. ... The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (ASPA) is a law passed by the U.K. parliament in 1986, which regulates the use of laboratory animals in the U.K. Fundamentally, actions that have the potential of causing pain, distress or lasting harm to animals are illegal in the U.K. under...

Regulations

The regulations that apply to animals in laboratories vary across species. In the U.S., under the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act and the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the Guide), any procedure can be performed on an animal if it can be successfully argued that it is scientifically justified. In general, researchers are required to consult with the institution's veterinarian and its Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), which every research facility is obliged to maintain.[36] The IACUC must ensure that alternatives, including non-animal alternatives, have been considered, that the experiments are not unnecessarily duplicative, and that pain relief is given unless it would interfere with the study. Larry Carbone, a laboratory animal veterinarian, writes that, in his experience, IACUCs take their work very seriously regardless of the species involved, though the use of non-human primates always raises what he calls a "red flag of special concern."[37] National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ... Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees are of central importance to the application of laws to animal research in the United States. ...


Mice, rats, and birds are not included in the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act (though they are included in the Guide) and over the years, the definition of "animal" used by Congress and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has changed several times to ensure that certain animals are included in protective legislation and that others, particularly farm animals, are excluded.[38] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... USDA redirects here. ...


Numbers

Types of vertebrates used in animal testing in Europe in 2005: a total of 12.1 million animals were used.[39]

Accurate global figures for animal testing are difficult to obtain. The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) estimates that 100 million vertebrates are experimented on around the world every year, 10–11 million of them in the European Union.[40] The Nuffield Council on Bioethics reports that global annual estimates range from 50 to 100 million animals. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ...


None of the figures, including those given in this article, include invertebrates, such as shrimp and fruit flies.[41] Animals bred for research then killed as surplus, animals used for breeding purposes, and animals not yet weaned (which most laboratories do not count)[42] are also not included in the figures.


According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the total number of animals used in that country in 2005 was almost 1.2 million,[43] but this does not include rats and mice, which make up about 90% of research animals.[44][45] In 1995, researchers at Tufts University Center for Animals and Public Policy estimated that 14-21 million animals were used in American laboratories in 1992, a reduction from a high of 50 million used in 1970.[46] In 1986, the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment reported that estimates of the animals used in the U.S. range from 10 million to upwards of 100 million each year, and that their own best estimate was at least 17 million to 22 million.[47]


In the UK, Home Office figures show that nearly three million procedures were carried out in 2004 on just under the same number of animals.[48] It is the third consecutive annual rise and the highest figure since 1992.[49] Most animals are used in only one procedure: animals either die because of the experiment or are euthanized afterwards.[48][41] A "procedure" refers to an experiment that might last minutes, several months, or years.

Fruit flies are commonly used.
Fruit flies are commonly used.

Image File history File links Drosophila melanogaster This image shows a 0. ... Image File history File links Drosophila melanogaster This image shows a 0. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ...

Species

  • Invertebrates
Main article: Animal testing on invertebrates

Although many more invertebrates than vertebrates are used, these experiments are largely unregulated by law. The most used invertebrate species are Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, and Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode worm. In the case of C. elegans, the worm's body is completely transparent and the precise lineage of all the organism's cells is known,[50] while studies in the fly D. melanogaster can use an amazing array of genetic tools.[51] These animals offer great advantages over vertebrates, including their short life cycle and the ease with which large numbers may be studied, with thousands of flies or nematodes fitting into a single room. However, the lack of an adaptive immune system and their simple organs prevent worms from being used in medical research such as vaccine development.[52] Similarly, flies are not widely used in applied medical research, as their immune system differs greatly from that of humans,[53] and diseases in insects can be very different from diseases in more complex animals.[54] Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used for animal experimentation. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... Binomial name Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...

  • Rodents, fish, and rabbits
Main articles: Animal testing on rodents and Draize test

In the U.S., the numbers of rats and mice used is estimated at 20 million a year.[45] Other rodents commonly used are guinea pigs, hamsters, and gerbils. Mice are the most commonly used vertebrate species because of their size, low cost, ease of handling, and fast reproduction rate.[55] Mice are widely considered to be the best model of inherited human disease and share 99% of their genes with humans.[55] With the advent of genetic engineering technology, genetically modified mice can be generated to order and can provide models for a range of human diseases.[55] Rats are also widely used for physiology, toxicology and cancer research, but genetic manipulation is much harder in rats than in mice, which limits the use of these rodents in basic science.[56] A white Wistar lab rat. ... A rabbit allegedly going through a Draize test. ... A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Elements of genetic engineering Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that are applied to the direct manipulation of an organisms genes. ...

A white Wistar lab rat.
A white Wistar lab rat.

Nearly 200,000 fish and 20,000 amphibians were used in the UK in 2004.[57] The main species used is the zebrafish, Danio rerio, which are translucent during their embryonic stage, and the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Over 20,000 rabbits were used for animal testing in the UK in 2004.[57] Albino rabbits are used in eye irritancy tests because rabbits have less tear flow than other animals, and the lack of eye pigment make the effects easier to visualize.[57] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2700 × 1800 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2700 × 1800 pixel, file size: 2. ... Binomial name (Berkenhout, 1769) Brown Rat range The brown rat, common rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat or wharf rat (Rattus norvegicus) is one of the best-known and common rats, and also one of the largest. ... Binomial name Danio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) The Zebra Danio or Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio or Danio rerio) is a tropical fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). ... Binomial name Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as platanna) is a species of South African aquatic frog of the genus Xenopus. ... Albinism is a genetic condition resulting in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. ...

  • Cats and dogs
See also: Laika and Russian space dogs

Cats are most commonly used in neurological research. Over 25,500 cats were used in the U.S. in 2000, around half of whom were used in experiments that caused "pain and/or distress".[58] For other uses, see Laika (disambiguation). ... Belka and Strelka orbited the Earth and returned safely on Korabl-Sputnik-5 During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. ...


Dogs are widely used in biomedical research, testing, and education — particularly beagles, because they are gentle and easy to handle. They are commonly used as models for human diseases in cardiology, endocrinology, and bone and joint studies, research that tends to be highly invasive, according to the Humane Society of the United States.[59] The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal Welfare Report for 2005 shows that 66,000 dogs were used in USDA-registered facilities in that year.[43] In the U.S., some of the dogs are purpose-bred, while most are supplied by so-called Class B dealers licensed by the USDA to buy animals from auctions, shelters, newspaper ads, and who are sometimes accused of stealing pets.[60] HSUS logo The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) is a Washington, D.C-based animal welfare advocacy group. ...

Around 65,000 primates are used each year in the U.S. and Europe.
Around 65,000 primates are used each year in the U.S. and Europe.
  • Non-human primates
Main article: Animal testing on non-human primates

Non-human primates (NHPs) are used in toxicology tests, studies of AIDS and hepatitis, studies of neurology, behavior and cognition, reproduction, genetics, and xenotransplantation. They are caught in the wild or purpose-bred. In the U.S. and China, most primates are domestically purpose-bred, whereas in Europe the majority are imported purpose-bred.[61] Rhesus monkeys, cynomolgus monkeys, squirrel monkeys, and owl monkeys are imported; around 12,000 to 15,000 monkeys are imported into the U.S. annually.[62] In total, around 70,000 NHPs are used each year in the United States and European Union.[43][39] Most of the NHPs used are macaques;[63] but marmosets, spider monkeys, and squirrel monkeys are also used, and baboons and chimpanzees are used in the U.S; in 2006 there were 1133 chimpanzees in U.S. primate centers.[64] Notable studies on non-human primates have been part of the polio vaccine development, and development of Deep Brain Stimulation, and their current heaviest non-toxicological use occurs in the monkey AIDS model, SIV.[4][65][63] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... (xeno- from the Greek meaning foreign) is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another such as from pigs to humans (see Medical grafting). ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... Type species Simia jacchus Linnaeus, 1758 Species 18 species, see text Marmosets are New World monkeys in the genus Callithrix, which contains 18 species. ... Type species Simia paniscus Linnaeus, 1758 Species Ateles paniscus Ateles belzebuth Ateles chamek Ateles hybridus Ateles marginatus Ateles fusciceps Ateles geoffroyi Spider monkeys are New World monkeys of the family Atelidae, subfamily Atelinae. ... Type species Simia sciurea Linnaeus, 1758 Species Saimiri oerstedii Saimiri sciureus Saimiri ustus Saimiri boliviensis Saimiri vanzolini The squirrel monkeys are the New World monkeys of the genus Saimiri. ... For other uses, see Baboon (disambiguation). ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... In neurotechnology, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device called a brain pacemaker, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Sources

Main articles: Laboratory animal sources and International trade in primates

Animals used by laboratories are largely supplied by specialist dealers. Sources differ for vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Most laboratories breed and raise flies and worms themselves, using strains and mutants supplied from a few main stock centers.[66] For vertebrates, sources include breeders who supply purpose-bred animals; businesses that trade in wild animals; and dealers who supply animals sourced from pounds, auctions, and newspaper ads. Animal shelters also supply the laboratories directly.[67] Large centers also exist to distribute strains of genetically-modified animals; the National Institutes of Health Knockout Mouse Project, for example, aims to provide knockout mice for every gene in the mouse genome.[68] The international trade in primates sees 32,000 wild-caught primates sold on the international market every year. ... Dog Pound redirects here. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ... Knockout mice A knockout mouse is a genetically engineered mouse that has had one or more of its genes made inoperable through a gene knockout. ...


In the U.S., Class A breeders are licensed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to sell animals for research purposes, while Class B dealers are licensed to buy animals from "random sources" such as auctions, pound seizure, and newspaper ads. Some Class B dealers have been accused of kidnapping pets and illegally trapping strays, a practice known as bunching.[69] It was in part out of public concern over the sale of pets to research facilities that the 1966 Laboratory Animal Welfare Act was ushered in — the Senate Committee on Commerce reported in 1966 that stolen pets had been retrieved from Veterans Administration facilities, the Mayo Institute, the University of Pennsylvania, Stanford University, and Harvard and Yale Medical Schools.[70] The USDA recovered at least a dozen stolen pets during a raid on a Class B dealer in Arkansas in 2003.[71]


Four states in the U.S. — Minnesota, Utah, Oklahoma, and Iowa — require their shelters to provide animals to research facilities. Fourteen states explicitly prohibit the practice, while the remainder either allow it or have no relevant legislation.[72] Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In the European Union, animal sources are governed by Council Directive 86/609/EEC, which requires lab animals to be specially bred, unless the animal has been lawfully imported and is not a wild animal or a stray. The latter requirement may also be exempted by special arrangement.[73] In the UK, most animals used in experiments are bred for the purpose under the 1988 Animal Protection Act, but wild-caught primates may be used if exceptional and specific justification can be established.[74][75] The United States also allows the use of wild-caught primates; between 1995 and 1999, 1,580 wild baboons were imported into the U.S. Over half the primates imported between 1995 and 2000 were handled by Charles River Laboratories, Inc., or by Covance, which is the single largest importer of primates into the U.S.[76] Charles River Laboratories, Inc. ... Covance (NYSE: CVD), formerly Hazleton Laboratories, with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... The international trade in primates sees 32,000 wild-caught primates sold on the international market every year. ...


Pain and suffering

Main article: Pain and suffering in laboratory animals
Further information: Animal cognition

The extent to which animal testing causes pain and suffering, and the capacity of animals to experience and comprehend them, is the subject of much debate.[77] Animal cognition, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals other than humans. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ...


According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in 2006 about 670,000 animals (not including rats, mice, birds, or invertebrates) were used in procedures that did not include more than momentary pain or distress. About 420,000 were used in procedures in which pain or distress was relieved by anesthesia, while 84,000 were used in studies that would cause pain or distress that would not be relieved.[43]


In the UK, research projects are classified as mild, moderate, and substantial in terms of the suffering the researchers conducting the study say they may cause; a fourth category of "unclassified" means the animal was anesthetized and killed without recovering consciousness, according to the researchers. In December 2001, 39 percent (1,296) of project licenses in force were classified as mild, 55 percent (1,811) as moderate, two percent (63) as substantial, and 4 percent (139) as unclassified.[78] Although there have been suggestions of systemic underestimation of procedure severity[79] Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...


The idea that animals might not feel pain as human beings feel it traces back to the 17th-century French philosopher, René Descartes, who argued that animals do not experience pain and suffering because they lack consciousness.[80][41] Bernard Rollin of Colorado State University, the principal author of two U.S. federal laws regulating pain relief for animals,[81] writes that researchers remained unsure into the 1980s as to whether animals experience pain, and that veterinarians trained in the U.S. before 1989 were simply taught to ignore animal pain.[82] In his interactions with scientists and other veterinarians, he was regularly asked to "prove" that animals are conscious, and to provide "scientifically acceptable" grounds for claiming that they feel pain.[82] Carbone writes that the view that animals feel pain differently is now a minority view. Academic reviews of the topic are more equivocal, noting that although the argument that animals have at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings has strong support,[83] some critics continue to question how reliably animal mental states can be determined.[84][41] The ability of invertebrate species of animals, such as insects, to feel pain and suffering is also unclear.[85][86] René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Colorado State University is a public institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. ...


The defining text on animal welfare regulation, "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" defines the parameters that govern animal testing in the USA. It states "The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom...Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals."[87] The Guide states that the ability to recognize the symptoms of pain in different species is vital in efficiently applying pain relief and that it is essential for the people caring for and using animals to be entirely familiar with these symptoms. On the subject of analgesics used to relieve pain, the Guide states "The selection of the most appropriate analgesic or anesthetic should reflect professional judgment as to which best meets clinical and humane requirements without compromising the scientific aspects of the research protocol". Accordingly, all issues of animal pain and distress, and their potential treatment with analgesia and anesthesia, are required regulatory issues in receiving animal protocol approval.


Euthanasia

Further information: Euthanasia and Animal euthanasia

There is general agreement that animal life should not be taken wantonly, and regulations require that scientists use as few animals as possible.[88] However, while policy makers consider suffering to be the central issue and see animal euthanasia as a way to reduce suffering, others, such as the RSPCA, argue that the lives of laboratory animals have intrinsic value.[89] Regulations focus on whether particular methods cause pain and suffering, not whether their death is undesirable in itself.[90] Researchers call the killing of laboratory animals after an experiment "euthanasia" — literally "good death" — a term applied to all animals, including the young and healthy, although the same term is used of human beings only when the death will end severe suffering that cannot otherwise be relieved.[90] The animals are euthanized at the end of studies for sample collection or post-mortem examination; during studies if their pain or suffering falls into certain categories regarded as unacceptable, such as depression, infection that is unresponsive to treatment, or the failure of large animals to eat for five days;[91] or when they are unsuitable for breeding or unwanted for some other reason.[92] For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... // This article is about euthanasia of animals. ... The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is a charity in England and Wales that promotes animal welfare. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ...


Methods of euthanizing laboratory animals are chosen to induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress.[93] The methods that are preferred are those published by councils of veterinarians. The animal can be made to inhale a gas, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, by being placed in a chamber, or by use of a face mask, with or without prior sedation or anesthesia. Sedatives or anesthetics such as barbiturates can be given intravenously, or inhalant anesthetics may be used. Amphibians and fish may be immersed in water containing an anesthetic such as tricaine. Physical methods are also used, with or without sedation or anesthesia depending on the method. Recommended methods include decapitation (beheading) for small rodents or rabbits. Cervical dislocation (breaking the neck or spine) may be used for birds, mice, and immature rats and rabbits. Maceration (grinding into small pieces) is used on 1 day old chicks. High-intensity microwave irradiation of the brain can preserve brain tissue and induce death in less than 1 second, but this is currently only used on rodents. Captive bolts may be used, typically on dogs, ruminants, horses, pigs and rabbits. It causes death by a concussion to the brain. Gunshot may be used, but only in cases where a penetrating captive bolt may not be used. Some physical methods are only acceptable after the animal is unconscious. Electrocution may be used for cattle, sheep, swine, foxes, and mink after the animals are unconscious, often by a prior electrical stun. Pithing (inserting a tool into the base of the brain) is usable on animals already unconscious. Slow or rapid freezing, or inducing air embolism are acceptable only with prior anesthesia to induce unconsciousness.[94] Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Cervical Dislocation. ... Maceration (from Latin maceratus, past participle of macerare, to soften) may refer to: extreme leanness usually caused by starvation or disease a solution prepared by soaking plant material in vegetable oil or water the steeping of grape skins and solids in must, where alcohol acts as a solvent to extract... Irradiation is the process by which an item is exposed to radiation. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The term electrocution can mean either: murder, accidental death or suicide by electric shock deliberate execution by electric shock, usually involving an electric chair; the word electrocution is a portmanteau for electrical execution The term is often used incorrectly to refer to a non-fatal event of electric shock. ... Pithing is a slaughtering technique in which the brain of the animal is scrambled with a tool inserted through the hole in the skull created by captive bolt stunning. ... An air embolism, or more WITCH generally gas embolism, is a medical condition caused by gas bubbles in the bloodstream (embolism in a medical context refers to any large moving mass or defect in the blood stream). ...


Research classification

Animal testing

Main articles
Animal testing
Alternatives to animal testing
Testing on: invertebrates ·
Frogs · Primates · Rabbits · Rodents
Animal testing regulations
History of animal testing
History of model organisms
IACUC
Laboratory animal sources
Pain and suffering in lab animals
Testing cosmetics on animals
Toxicology testing
Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2700 × 1800 pixel, file size: 2. ... Most scientists and governments say they agree that animal testing should cause as little suffering as possible, and that alternatives to animal testing need to be developed. ... Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used for animal experimentation. ... Frogs have been used in animal tests throughout the history of biomedical science. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... A rabbit allegedly going through a Draize test. ... A white Wistar lab rat. ... One of Pavlov’s dogs with a saliva-catch container and tube surgically implanted in his muzzle. ... This history of model organisms began with the idea that certain organisms can be studied and used to gain knowledge of other organisms or as a control (ideal) for other organisms of the same species. ... Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees are of central importance to the application of laws to animal research in the United States. ... U.S. and Canadian products that carry this Coalition for Consumer Information on Cosmetics (CCIC) logo do not test their products or ingredients on animals Testing cosmetics on animals is controversial. ...

Issues
Biomedical Research
Animal rights/Animal welfare
Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act
Great ape research ban
International trade in primates
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ... The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (ASPA) is a law passed by the U.K. parliament in 1986, which regulates the use of laboratory animals in the U.K. Fundamentally, actions that have the potential of causing pain, distress or lasting harm to animals are illegal in the U.K. under... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The international trade in primates sees 32,000 wild-caught primates sold on the international market every year. ...

Controversial experiments
Britches · Brown Dog affair
Cambridge University primates
Pit of despair
Silver Spring monkeys
Unnecessary Fuss
Britches after being removed from the laboratory by the Animal Liberation Front Britches was the name given by researchers to a stumptail macaque monkey who was born into a breeding colony at the University of California, Riverside in March 1985. ... The Brown Dog affair was a controversy and cause célèbre for a brief period in Edwardian England, from 1903 to 1910, and revolving around vivisection and a statue erected in memory of a dog killed in the cause of medical research. ... A marmoset inside Cambridge University, filmed by BUAV. [1] Cambridge University primate experiments are licensed by the British government for the purpose of research into brain function. ... Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ... Domitian, one of the Silver Spring monkeys, in a restraint chair. ... Unnecessary Fuss is the name of a film produced by Ingrid Newkirk and Alex Pacheco of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), showing footage shot inside the University of Pennsylvanias Head Injury Clinic in Philadelphia, described by the university as the longest standing and most respected center...

Companies
Charles River Laboratories, Inc.
Covance · Harlan
Huntingdon Life Sciences
UK lab animal suppliers
Nafovanny · Shamrock
Charles River Laboratories, Inc. ... Covance (NYSE: CVD), formerly Hazleton Laboratories, with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... Harlan is an international company that supplies animals and other services for experimentation. ... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ... The animal liberation movement in the UK has historically been a prominent one compared to the rest of the world. ... Nafovannys maternity clinic. ... Shamrock Farm was Britains only primate importation and quarantine centre, located in Small Dole, West Sussex. ...

Groups/campaigns
Americans for Medical Progress
AALAS · AAAS
Boyd Group · BUAV
Dr Hadwen Trust · PETA
Foundation For Biomedical Research
National Anti-Vivisection Society
Physicians Committee
for Responsible Medicine

Primate Freedom Project
Pro-Test · SPEAK
Research Defence Society
Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty
Americans for Medical Progress (AMP) is a charity that aims to protect and advocate for societys investment in medical research. ... The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS), a 501(c)3 nonprofit membership association, was formed in 1950 as a forum for the exchange of information and expertise in the care and use of laboratory animals. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... The Boyd Group is a British based, independent think tank considering issues relating to animal experimentation. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... The Dr Hadwen Trust is a registered medical research charity which has been developing alternatives to replace animal experiments for 30 years. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... The Foundation for Biomedical Research is a American lobby group. ... The National Anti-Vivisection Society is an anti-vivisection group founded in 1875, and has campaigned for the abolition of experiments on animals for over 100 years. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ... The Primate Freedom Project is a 501(c)3 not for profit grassroots abolitionist animal rights organization based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Pro-Test is a British group that promotes and supports animal testing in medical research. ... SPEAK, the Voice for the Animals is a British animal rights campaign that aims to end animal experimentation and vivisection in the UK. Its current focus is opposition to a new animal testing center being built by Oxford University. ... The Research Defence Society is a British lobby group reportedly funded by the pharmaceutical industry and universities. ... A monkey inside Huntingdon Life Sciences in the United States. ...

Writers/activists
Colin Blakemore · Carl Cohen
Gill Langley · Ingrid Newkirk
Neal Barnard · Jerry Vlasak
Simon Festing · Tipu Aziz
Colin Blakemore is a neurobiologist specialising in vision. ... Carl Cohen is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. He is co-author of The Animal Rights Debate (Rowman and Littlefield, 2001), a point-counterpoint volume with Prof. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... PETAs president and co-founder Ingrid Newkirk Ingrid Newkirk (born July 11, 1949) is a British-born animal rights activist, author, and president of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the worlds largest animal rights organization. ... Neal D. Barnard is a medical doctor, author, clinical researcher, and president of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), a national network of physicians and lay supporters that supports preventive medicine. ... Jerry Vlasak is a U.S. physician and prominent member of several controversial nonprofit organizations, including Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. ... Simon Festing is the executive director of the Research Defence Society (RDS), [1] a British lobby group funded by the pharamaceutical industry and universities. ... Professor Tipu Aziz Tipu Aziz is a professor of neurosurgery at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, and a lecturer at Magdalen College, Oxford and the Imperial College London medical school. ...

Categories
Animal testing · Animal rights
Animal welfare

Related templates
Template:Animal rights

This box: view  talk  edit

Pure research

Basic or pure research investigates how organisms behave, develop, and function. Those opposed to animal testing object that pure research may have little or no practical purpose, but researchers argue that it may produce unforeseen benefits, rendering the distinction between pure and applied research — research that has a specific practical aim — unclear.[95]


Pure research uses larger numbers and a greater variety of animals than applied research. Fruit flies, nematode worms, mice and rats together account for the vast majority, though small numbers of other species are used, ranging from sea slugs through to armadillos.[96] Binomial name Aplysia californica (James Graham Cooper, 1863) The California sea slug (Aplysia californica), also called the California sea hare, is a species of sea hare which belongs to the class Gastropoda in the phylum Mollusca. ... For other uses, see Armadillo (disambiguation). ...


Examples of the types of animals and experiments used in basic research include:

  • Studies on embryogenesis and developmental biology. Mutants are created by adding transposons into their genomes, or specific genes are deleted by gene targeting.[97][98] By studying the changes in development these changes produce, scientists aim to understand both how organisms normally develop, and what can go wrong in this process. These studies are particularly powerful since the basic controls of development, such as the homeobox genes, have similar functions in organisms as diverse as fruit flies and man.[99][100]
  • Experiments into behavior, to understand how organisms detect and interact with each other and their environment, in which fruit flies, worms, mice, and rats are all widely used.[101][102] Studies of brain function, such as memory and social behavior, often use rats and birds.[103][104] For some species, behavioral research is combined with enrichment strategies for animals in captivity because it allows them to engage in a wider range of activities.[105]
  • Breeding experiments to study evolution and genetics. Laboratory mice, flies, fish, and worms are inbred through many generations to create strains with defined characteristics.[106] These provide animals of a known genetic background, an important tool for genetic analyses. Larger mammals are rarely bred specifically for such studies due to their slow rate of reproduction, though some scientists take advantage of inbred domesticated animals, such as dog or cattle breeds, for comparative purposes. Scientists studying how animals evolve use many animal species to see how variations in where and how an organism lives (their niche) produce adaptations in their physiology and morphology. As an example, sticklebacks are now being used to study how many and which types of mutations are selected to produce adaptations in animals' morphology during the evolution of new species.[107][108]

Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... A DNA composite transposon. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Gene targeting is a genetic technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene. ... A homeobox is a DNA sequence found within genes that are involved in the regulation of development (morphogenesis) of animals, fungi and plants. ... An Asian elephant in a zoo manipulating a suspended ball provided as environmental enrichment. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Comparative genomics is the study of relationships between the genomes of different species or strains. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. A shorthand definition is that a niche is how an organism makes a living. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... Genera Apeltes Culaea Gasterosteus Pungitius Spinachia The Gasterosteidae are a family of fishes including the Sticklebacks. ...

Applied research

Applied research aims to solve specific and practical problems. Compared to pure research, which is largely academic in origin, applied research is usually carried out in the pharmaceutical industry, or by universities in commercial partnerships. These may involve the use of animal models of diseases or conditions, which are often discovered or generated by pure research programmes. In turn, such applied studies may be an early stage in the drug discovery process. Examples include: This is a list of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are major manufacturers on global or national markets : Abbott Laboratories Able Laboratories Akzo Nobel Allergan Almirall Prodesfarma Alphapharm Altana (previously Byk Gulden) ALZA, part of Johnson & Johnson Amgen AstraZeneca, formed from the merger of Astra AB and Zeneca Group PLC... Animal model refers to a non-human animal with a disease that is similar to a human condition. ... In medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are discovered and/or designed. ...

  • Genetic modification of animals to study disease. Transgenic animals have specific genes inserted, modified or removed, to mimic specific conditions such as single gene disorders, such as Huntington's disease.[109] Other models mimic complex, multifactorial diseases with genetic components, such as diabetes,[110] or even transgenic mice that carry the same mutations that occur during the development of cancer.[111] These models allow investigations on how and why the disease develops, as well as providing ways to develop and test new treatments.[112] The vast majority of these transgenic models of human disease are lines of mice, the mammalian species in which genetic modification is most efficient.[55] Smaller numbers of other animals are also used, including rats, pigs, sheep, fish, birds, and amphibians.[75]
  • Studies on models of naturally occurring disease and condition. Certain domestic and wild animals have a natural propensity or predisposition for certain conditions that are also found in humans. Cats are used as a model to develop immunodeficiency virus vaccines and to study leukemia because their natural predisposition to FIV and Feline leukemia virus.[113] Certain breeds of dog suffer from narcolepsy making them the major model used to study the human condition. Armadillos and humans are among only a few animal species that naturally suffer from leprosy; as the bacteria responsible for this disease cannot yet be grown in culture, armadillos are the primary source of bacilli used in leprosy vaccines.[114]
  • Studies on induced animal models of human diseases. Here, an animal is treated so that it develops pathology and symptoms that resemble a human disease. Examples include restricting blood flow to the brain to induce stroke, or giving neurotoxins that cause damage similar to that seen in Parkinson's disease.[115] Such studies can be difficult to interpret, and it is argued that they are not always comparable to human diseases.[116] For example, although such models are now widely used to study Parkinson's disease, the British anti-vivisection interest group BUAV argues that these models only superficially resemble the disease symptoms, without the same time course or cellular pathology.[117] In contrast, scientists assessing the usefulness of animal models of Parkinson's disease, as well as the medical research charity The Parkinson's Appeal, state that these models were invaluable and that they led to improved surgical treatments such as pallidotomy, new drug treatments such as levodopa, and later deep brain stimulation.[118][65][115]

Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease, is a disease caused by abnormal expression of one or more genes in a person causing a clinical phenotype. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects domesticated housecats worldwide. ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus that infects cats. ... For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Armadillo (disambiguation). ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... This page is about the bacterial class. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... Palliodotomy is a procedure where a tiny electrical probe is placed in the brain, which destroys a small number of brain cells that misfunction and cause rigidity. ... Levodopa (INN) or L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) is an intermediate in dopamine biosynthesis. ... In neurotechnology, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device called a brain pacemaker, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. ...

Xenotransplantation

Main article: Xenotransplantation

Xenotransplantation research involves transplanting tissues, or organs from one species to another, as a way to overcome the shortage of human organs for use in organ transplants.[119] Current research involves using primates as the recipients of organs from pigs that have been genetically-modified to reduce the primates' immune response against the pig tissue.[120] Although transplant rejection remains a problem,[120] recent clinical trials that involved implanting pig insulin-secreting cells into diabetics did reduce these people's need for insulin.[121][122] (xeno- from the Greek meaning foreign) is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another such as from pigs to humans (see Medical grafting). ... (xeno- from the Greek meaning foreign) is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another such as from pigs to humans (see Medical grafting). ... Transplant redirects here. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Transplant rejection occurs when the immune system of the recipient of a transplant attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. ...


The British Home Office released figures in 1999 showing that 270 monkeys had been used in xenotransplantation research in Britain during the previous four years. Documents leaked from Huntingdon Life Sciences to The Observer in 2003 showed, between 1994 and 2000, wild baboons were imported to the UK from Africa to be used in experiments that involved grafting pigs' hearts and kidneys onto the primates' necks, abdomens, and chests. The Observer reports that some baboons died after suffering strokes, vomiting, diarrhea, and paralysis, while others died en route to the UK. The experiments were conducted by Imutran Ltd, a subsidiary of Novartis Pharma AG in conjunction with Cambridge University and Huntingdon Life Sciences. Novartis told the newspaper that developing new cures for humans invariably means experimenting on live animals.[79] Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ... Novartis headquarters in Basel Suffern, New York: the sole Novartis pharmaceutical production facility in the United States. ...


The newspaper also wrote that researchers were deliberately underestimating the suffering in order to obtain licences. A report from Imutran said: "The Home Office will attempt to get the kidney transplants classified as 'moderate,' ensuring that it is easier for Imutran to receive a licence and ignoring the 'severe' nature of these programmes."[79][123]


Toxicology testing

Main article: Toxicology testing
Further information: Draize testLD50Acute toxicity, and Chronic toxicity

Toxicology testing, also known as safety testing, is conducted by pharmaceutical companies testing drugs, or by contract animal testing facilities, such as Huntingdon Life Sciences, on behalf of a wide variety of customers.[124] According to 2005 EU figures, around one million animals are used every year in Europe in toxicology tests; which are about 10% of all procedures.[39] According to Nature, 5,000 animals are used for each chemical being tested, with 12,000 needed to test pesticides.[125] The tests are conducted without anesthesia, because interactions between drugs can affect how animals detoxify chemicals, and may interfere with the results.[126][127] A rabbit allegedly going through a Draize test. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... Acute Toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism, when that organism is exposed to a lethal dose of a substance once. ... Chronic toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism, when that organism is exposed to the substance continuously or repeatedly. ... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i. ...

A rabbit during a Draize test.
A rabbit during a Draize test.

Toxicology tests are used to examine finished products such as pesticides, medications, food additives, packing materials, and air freshener, or their chemical ingredients. Most tests involve testing ingredients rather than finished products, but according to BUAV, manufacturers believe these tests overestimate the toxic effects of substances; they therefore repeat the tests using their finished products to obtain a less toxic label.[124] A rabbit allegedly going through a Draize test. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve it, or to improve its flavour and appearance. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ...


The substances are applied to the skin or dripped into the eyes; injected intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously; inhaled either by placing a mask over the animals and restraining them, or by placing them in an inhalation chamber; or administered orally, through a tube into the stomach, or simply in the animal's food. Doses may be given once, repeated regularly for many months, or for the lifespan of the animal. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ...


There are several different types of acute toxicity tests. The LD50 ("Lethal Dose 50%") test is used to evaluate the toxicity of a substance by determining the dose required to kill 50% of the test animal population. This test was removed from OECD international guidelines in 2002, replaced by methods such as the fixed dose procedure, which use fewer animals and cause less suffering.[128][129] Nature writes that, as of 2005, "the LD50 acute toxicity test ... still accounts for one-third of all animal [toxicity] tests worldwide."[125] Acute Toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism, when that organism is exposed to a lethal dose of a substance once. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The fixed-dose procedure (FDP) was proposed in 1984 to assess a substances acute oral toxicity using fewer animals with less suffering than the older LD50 test developed in 1927. ...

A rat undergoing an LD50 test. Source: Animal Alliance

Irritancy is usually measured using the Draize test, where a test substance is applied to an animal's eyes or skin, usually an albino rabbit. For Draize eye testing, the recommended protocol involves observing the effects of the substance at intervals and grading any damage or irritation, but that the test should be halted and the animal killed if it shows "continuing signs of severe pain or distress".[130] The Humane Society of the United States writes that the procedure can cause redness, ulceration, hemorrhaging, cloudiness, or even blindness.[131] This test has also been criticized by scientists for being cruel and inaccurate, subjective, over-sensitive, and failing to reflect human exposures in the real world.[132] Although no accepted in vitro alternatives exist, a modified form of the Draize test called the low volume eye test may reduce suffering and provide more realistic results, but it has not yet replaced the original test.[133] Image File history File links LD50mouse. ... Image File history File links LD50mouse. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... A rabbit allegedly going through a Draize test. ... HSUS logo The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) is a Washington, D.C-based animal welfare advocacy group. ...


The most stringent tests are reserved for drugs and foodstuffs. For these, a number of tests are performed, lasting less than a month (acute), one to three months (subchronic), and more than three months (chronic) to test general toxicity (damage to organs), eye and skin irritancy, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and reproductive problems. The cost of the full complement of tests is several million dollars per substance and it may take three or four years to complete. In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ...


These toxicity tests provide, in the words of a 2006 United States National Academy of Sciences report, "critical information for assessing hazard and risk potential".[134] However, as Nature reported, most animal tests either over- or underestimate risk, or do not reflect toxicity in humans particularly well.[125] This variability stems from using the effects of high doses of chemicals in small numbers of laboratory animals to try to predict the effects of low doses in large numbers of humans.[135] Although relationships do exist, opinion is divided on how to use data on one species to predict the exact level of risk in another.[136] President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...

Products in Europe not tested on animals carry this symbol.

Image File history File links NoAnimalTesting. ...

Cosmetics testing

Main article: Testing cosmetics on animals

Cosmetics testing on animals is particularly controversial. Such tests, which are still conducted in the U.S., involve general toxicity, eye and skin irritancy, phototoxicity (toxicity triggered by ultraviolet light) and mutagenicity.[137] U.S. and Canadian products that carry this Coalition for Consumer Information on Cosmetics (CCIC) logo do not test their products or ingredients on animals Testing cosmetics on animals is controversial. ... A phototoxic substance is a chemical compound which becomes toxic only when exposed to light. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...


Cosmetics testing is banned in the Netherlands, Belgium, and the UK, and in 2002, after 13 years of discussion, the European Union (EU) agreed to phase in a near-total ban on the sale of animal-tested cosmetics throughout the EU from 2009, and to ban all cosmetics-related animal testing. France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal, has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, asking that the ban be quashed.[138] The ban is also opposed by the European Federation for Cosmetics Ingredients, which represents 70 companies in Switzerland, Belgium, France, Germany and Italy.[138] The LOréal Group ( PAR: 120321), headquartered in Clichy, France, is the worlds leading company in cosmetics and beauty. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ...


Drug testing

Beagles used for safety testing of pharmaceuticals in a British facility.
Beagles used for safety testing of pharmaceuticals in a British facility.

Before the early 20th century, laws regulating drugs were lax. Nowadays all new pharmaceuticals undergo rigorous animal testing before being licensed for human use. Tests on pharmaceutical products involve: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1017x821, 435 KB) Summary Please acknowledge joint © RDS/Wellcome Trust Photographic Library. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1017x821, 435 KB) Summary Please acknowledge joint © RDS/Wellcome Trust Photographic Library. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ...

  • toxicology tests, which gauge acute, sub-acute, and chronic toxicity. Acute toxicity is studied by using a rising dose until signs of toxicity become apparent. Current European legislation demands that "acute toxicity tests must be carried out in two or more mammalian species" covering "at least two different routes of administration".[139] Sub-acute toxicity is where the drug is given to the animals for four to six weeks in doses below the level at which it causes rapid poisoning, in order to discover if any toxic drug metabolites build up over time. Testing for chronic toxicity can last up to two years and, in the European Union, is required to involve two species of mammals, one of which must be non-rodent.[140]
  • efficacy studies, which test whether experimental drugs work by inducing the appropriate illness in animals. The drug is then administered in a double-blind controlled trial, which allows researchers to determine the effect of the drug and the dose-response curve.
  • Specific tests on reproductive function, embryonic toxicity, or carcinogenic potential can all be required by law, depending on the result of other studies and the type of drug being tested.

Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: pharmacon meaning drug, and kinetikos meaning putting in motion) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... A 21mg dose Nicoderm CQ patch applied to the right arm A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ... Acute Toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism, when that organism is exposed to a lethal dose of a substance once. ... Chronic toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism, when that organism is exposed to the substance continuously or repeatedly. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... Dose response is the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure to a substance. ...

Education, breeding, and defense

Animals are also used for education and training; are bred for use in laboratories; and are used by the military to develop weapons, vaccines, battlefield surgical techniques, and defensive clothing.[95]

A technician assessing mice in a typical research vivarium.
A technician assessing mice in a typical research vivarium.

There are efforts in many countries to find alternatives to using animals in education.[141] Horst Spielmann, German director of the Central Office for Collecting and Assessing Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, while describing Germany's progress in this area, told German broadcaster ARD in 2005: "Using animals in teaching curricula is already superfluous. In many countries, one can become a doctor, vet or biologist without ever having performed an experiment on an animal."[142] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1017x824, 470 KB) Summary Please acknowledge joint © RDS/Wellcome Trust Photographic Library. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1017x824, 470 KB) Summary Please acknowledge joint © RDS/Wellcome Trust Photographic Library. ... Two glass terrariums with plants. ... ARD may refer to: ARD (broadcaster), the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, the German association of public broadcasters. ...


Ethics

Further information: Animal rights

The ethical questions raised by performing experiments on animals are subject to much debate, and viewpoints have shifted significantly over the 20th century.[143] There remain strong disagreements about which animal testing procedures are useful for which purposes, as well as disagreements over which ethical principles apply, and to which species of animals. The dominant ethical position, world-wide, is that achievement of scientific and medical goals using animal testing is desirable, provided that animal suffering and use is minimized.[6] The British government has additionally required that the cost to animals in an experiment be weighed against the gain in knowledge.[7] A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ...


A wide range of minority viewpoints exist as well. The view that animals have moral rights (animal rights) is a philosophical position proposed by Tom Regan, who argues that animals are beings with beliefs, desires and self-consciousness.[144] Such beings are seen as having inherent value and thus possessing rights. Regan still sees clear ethical differences between killing animals and killing humans, and argues that to save human lives it is permissible to kill animals. However, some such as Bernard Rollin have taken his position further and argue that any benefits to human beings cannot outweigh animal suffering, and that human beings have no moral right to use an individual animal in ways that do not benefit that individual.[145] Another prominent position is articulated by Peter Singer, who sees no convincing reason to include a being's species in considerations of whether their suffering is important in utilitarian moral considerations.[146] Although these arguments have not been widely accepted, in response to these concerns some governments such as the Netherlands and New Zealand have outlawed invasive experiments on certain classes of non-human primates, particularly the Great Apes.[147][148] A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ... This article is about the moral/legal concept. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... For an explanation of similar terms, see Hominid. ...

Footage filmed by PETA inside Huntingdon Life Sciences showed staff mistreating beagles.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ...

Prominent cases

Huntingdon Life Sciences

In 1997, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) filmed staff inside Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) in the UK, Europe's largest animal-testing facility, hitting puppies, shouting at them, and simulating sex acts while taking blood samples.[149] The employees were dismissed and prosecuted, and HLS's licence to perform animal experiments was revoked for six months. Footage shot inside HLS in the U.S. appeared to show technicians dissecting a live monkey.[150] (video) The broadcast of the undercover footage on British television in 1997 triggered the formation of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty, an international campaign to close HLS, which has been criticized for its sometimes violent tactics. A monkey inside Huntingdon Life Sciences in the United States. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ... A monkey inside Huntingdon Life Sciences in the United States. ...

Dolly the sheep: the first clone produced from an adult animal.
Dolly the sheep
Main article: Dolly (sheep)

In February 1997 a team at the Roslin Institute in Scotland announced the birth of Dolly the sheep, a ewe that had been cloned from tissue taken from another adult sheep.[21] Dolly was produced through nuclear transfer to an unfertilised oocyte, and was the only lamb that survived from 277 attempts at this technique.[151] Dolly appeared to be a normal sheep, living for six years and giving birth to several lambs, but was euthanized in 2003 after contracting a progressive lung disease.[152] Although the production of Dolly was a scientific breakthrough, it was controversial, since it showed that not only could cloned animals be produced for use in farming,[153] but also that it would now be, in principle, possible to clone a human being.[154] Dolly and her first-born lamb, Bonnie Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a female sheep or ewe, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... Dolly and her first-born lamb, Bonnie Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a female sheep or ewe, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell. ... The Roslin Institute is a government research institute near Edinburgh that is sponsored by the UKs Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). ... This article is about the country. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... Process Nuclear Transfer is a form of cloning. ... An oocyte or ovocyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. ...

Covance
Main article: Covance

In 2004, German journalist Friedrich Mülln shot undercover footage of staff in Covance, Münster, Europe's largest primate-testing center, making monkeys dance in time to blaring pop music, handling them roughly, and screaming at them. The monkeys were kept isolated in small wire cages with little or no natural light, no environmental enrichment, and high noise levels from staff shouting and playing the radio[155] (video). Primatologist Dr. Jane Goodall described the living conditions of the monkeys as "horrendous." Primatologist Stephen Brend told BUAV that using monkeys in such a stressed state is "bad science," and trying to extrapolate useful data in such circumstances an "untenable proposition."[155] Covance obtained a restraining order preventing Mülln from performing any further undercover research against the company for three years, and required him and PETA to turn over the material they obtained from Covance. PETA is further prevented from attempting to infiltrate Covance for five years.[156] Covance (NYSE: CVD), formerly Hazleton Laboratories, with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... Covance (NYSE: CVD), formerly Hazleton Laboratories, with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Primatology is the study of non-human primates. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ...

A marmoset after being brain damaged, filmed inside Cambridge University by the BUAV.
A marmoset after being brain damaged, filmed inside Cambridge University by the BUAV.
University of Cambridge

The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) raised concerns about primate experiments at the University of Cambridge in 2002. In a series of court cases, the BUAV alleged that monkeys had undergone surgery to induce a stroke, and were left alone after the procedure for 15 hours overnight. Researchers had trained the monkeys to perform certain tasks before inflicting brain damage and re-testing them. The monkeys were only given food and water for two hours a day, to encourage them to perform the tasks. The judge hearing BUAV's application for a judicial review rejected the allegation that the Home Secretary had been negligent in granting the university a license.[157] The British government's chief inspector of animals conducted a review of the facilities and experiments. It concluded the veterinary input at Cambridge was "exemplary"; the facility "seems adequately staffed"; and the animals afforded "appropriate standards of accommodation and care."[158] Type species Simia jacchus Linnaeus, 1758 Species 18 species, see text Marmosets are New World monkeys in the genus Callithrix, which contains 18 species. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... A marmoset inside Cambridge University, filmed by BUAV The use of primates in experiments at Cambridge University is controversial, first coming to widespread public attention in the UK following undercover investigations lasting ten months in 1998 by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV), the results of which... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90% of strokes), by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - less than 10% of strokes) or other causes. ...

Filmed inside the University of California, Riverside by the Animal Liberation Front; the device on the monkey's head is an ultrasonic sonar.
University of California, Riverside
Main article: Britches (monkey)

One of the cases of alleged abuse involved Britches, a macaque monkey born in 1985 at the University of California, Riverside, removed from its mother at birth, and left alone with its eyelids sewn shut, and a sonar sensor on its head, as part of an experiment to test sensory substitution devices for blind people.[159][160] 260 animals, including Britches, were stolen from the laboratories at the University of California, Riverside in a raid by the Animal Liberation Front.[161] The university alleged that damage to the monkey's eyelids, caused by the sutures according to the ALF, had in fact been caused by an ALF veterinarian, and that the sonar device had been removed and re-attached by the activists.[162] The ALF reported that Britches was later transferred to a sanctuary in Mexico. University officials reported that hundreds of thousands of dollars of damage was done by the theft, and by smashing laboratory equipment, and years of medical research were lost.[163] The University of California, Riverside, commonly known as UCR or UC Riverside, is a public research university and one of 10 campuses of the University of California system. ... Beagles stolen by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... Britches after being removed from the laboratory by the Animal Liberation Front Britches was the name given by researchers to a stumptail macaque monkey who was born into a breeding colony at the University of California, Riverside in March 1985. ... Britches after being removed from the laboratory by the Animal Liberation Front Britches was the name given by researchers to a stumptail macaque monkey who was born into a breeding colony at the University of California, Riverside in March 1985. ... The University of California, Riverside, commonly known as UCR or UC Riverside, is a public research university and one of 10 campuses of the University of California system. ... Sensory substitution is the principle to transform characteristics of one sensory modality into stimuli of another sensory modality. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... Beagles stolen by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ...

Columbia University
Main article: Primate experiments at Columbia University

CNN reported in October 2003 that a post-doctoral "whistleblowing" veterinarian at Columbia University approached the university's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee about experiments being carried out by an assistant professor of neurosurgery, E. Sander Connolly. [2] Connolly was allegedly causing strokes in baboons by removing their left eyeballs and using the eye sockets to reach a critical blood vessel to their brains. A clamp was placed on the blood vessel until the stroke was induced, after which Connolly would try to treat the condition with an experimental drug. In a letter to the National Institute of Health, PETA cited the case of a baboon they said was unable to sit up or eat, and remained slouched over in its cage, before dying two days later.[164] An investigation by the United States Department of Agriculture found the experiments did not violate federal guidelines. Connolly abandoned the research saying he felt under attack after receiving a threatening e-mail, but continued to believe his experiments were humane and potentially valuable.[165] Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees are of central importance to the application of laws to animal research in the United States. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... In anatomy the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... The National Institutes of Health is an institution of the United States government which focuses on medical research. ...


Threats to researchers

University of California, Los Angeles

In 2006, a primate researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shut down the experiments in his lab after threats from animal rights activists. The researcher had received a grant to use 30 macaque monkeys for vision experiments; each monkey was anesthetized for a single physiological experiment lasting up to 120 hours, and then euthanized.[166] The researcher's name, phone number, and address were posted on the website of the Primate Freedom Project. Demonstrations were held in front of his home. A Molotov cocktail was placed on the porch of what was believed to be the home of another UCLA primate researcher; instead, it was accidentally left on the porch of an elderly woman unrelated to the university. The Animal Liberation Front claimed responsibility for the attack.[167] As a result of the campaign, the researcher sent an email to the Primate Freedom Project stating "you win," and "please don’t bother my family anymore."[168] In another incident at UCLA in June 2007, the Animal Liberation Brigade placed a bomb under the car of a UCLA children's ophthalmologist who experiments on cats and rhesus monkeys; the bomb had a faulty fuse and did not detonate.[169] UCLA is now refusing Freedom of Information Act requests for animal medical records. The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... The Primate Freedom Project is a 501(c)3 not for profit grassroots abolitionist animal rights organization based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... Beagles stolen by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ... The Revolutionary Cells--Animal Liberation Brigade (RCALB) is the name of an animal liberation activist group, based in the United States, which openly advocates violence in their direct action on behalf of animals. ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with freedom of information legislation. ...


Alternatives to animal testing

Scientists and governments state that animal testing should cause as little suffering to animals as possible, and that animal tests should only be performed where necessary. The "three Rs"[88] are guiding principles for the use of animals in research in most countries: Most scientists and governments say they agree that animal testing should cause as little suffering as possible, and that alternatives to animal testing need to be developed. ... The term moral obligation has a number of meanings in moral philosophy, in religion, and in laymans terms. ...

  • Reduction refers to methods that enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals, or to obtain more information from the same number of animals.
  • Replacement refers to the preferred use of non-animal methods over animal methods whenever it is possible to achieve the same scientific aim.
  • Refinement refers to methods that alleviate or minimize potential pain, suffering or distress, and enhance animal welfare for the animals still used.[170]

Although such principles have been welcomed as a step forwards by some animal welfare groups,[171] they have also been criticized as both outdated by current research,[172] and of little practical effect in improving animal welfare.[173]


See also

Human experimentation involves medical experiments performed on human beings. ... Dr. Bruce K. Alexander Rat Park was a study into drug addiction conducted in the 1970s by American psychologist Bruce K. Alexander at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, Canada. ... The Peoples Petition is an online campaign to express support for medical experimentation using animals in the United Kingdom. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Vivisection FAQ, British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection; "The Ethics of research involving animals", Nuffield Council on Bioethics, section 1.6.
  2. ^ "Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research", Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, The National Academies Press, 1988. Also see Cooper, Sylvia. "Pets crowd animal shelter", The Augusta Chronicle, August 1, 1999; and Gillham, Christina. "Bought to be sold", Newsweek, February 17, 2006.
  3. ^ "Introduction", Select Committee on Animals In Scientific Procedures Report, United Kingdom Parliament.
  4. ^ a b The use of non-human animals in research: a guide for scientists The Royal Society, 2004, page 1
  5. ^ "Science, Medicine, and Animals", Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Published by the National Research Council of the National Academies 2004; page 2
  6. ^ a b 1985 Amendment to Animal Welfare Act Accessed 27 February 2008
  7. ^ a b Summary of House of Lords Select Committee on Animals In Scientific Procedures Accessed 27 February 2008
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Vivisection", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007. Also see Croce, Pietro. Vivisection or Science? An Investigation into Testing Drugs and Safeguarding Health. Zed Books, 1999, and "FAQs: Vivisection", British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection.
  10. ^ Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare. Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 22.
  11. ^ Paixao, RL; Schramm, FR. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Cad. Saúde Pública, Rio de Janeiro, 2007
  12. ^ Yarri, Donna. The Ethics of Animal Experimentation, Oxford University Press U.S., 2005
  13. ^ Cohen and Loew 1984.
  14. ^ "History of nonhuman animal research", Laboratory Primate Advocacy Group.
  15. ^ Mock M, Fouet A (2001). "Anthrax". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 647–71. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.647. PMID 11544370. 
  16. ^ Windholz G (1987). "Pavlov as a psychologist. A reappraisal". Pavlov J Biol Sci 22 (3): 103–12. PMID 3309839. 
  17. ^ Gorden P (1997). "Non-insulin dependent diabetes--the past, present and future". Ann. Acad. Med. Singap. 26 (3): 326–30. PMID 9285027. 
  18. ^ Walgate R (1981). "Armadillos fight leprosy". Nature 291 (5816): 527. PMID 7242665. 
  19. ^ Scollard DM, Adams LB, Gillis TP, Krahenbuhl JL, Truman RW, Williams DL (2006). "The continuing challenges of leprosy". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19 (2): 338-81. doi:10.1128/CMR.19.2.338-381.2006. PMID 16614253. 
  20. ^ Jaenisch R, Mintz B (1974) Simian virus 40 DNA sequences in DNA of healthy adult mice derived from preimplantation blastocysts injected with viral DNA Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. volume 71 issue 4 pages 1250–4 PMID 4364530
  21. ^ a b Wilmut I, Schnieke AE, McWhir J, Kind AJ, Campbell KH (1997) "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells" Nature volume 385 issue 6619 pages 810–3 PMID 9039911
  22. ^ a b Croce, Pietro. Vivisection or Science? An Investigation into Testing Drugs and Safeguarding Health. Zed Books, 1999, p. 11.
  23. ^ a b Bernard, Claude An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, 1865. First English translation by Henry Copley Greene, published by Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1927; reprinted in 1949, p. 125.
  24. ^ Taste of Raspberries, Taste of Death. The 1937 Elixir Sulfanilamide Incident, FDA Consumer magazine June 1981.
  25. ^ Burkholz, Herbert. "Giving Thalidomide a Second Chance", FDA Consumer, US Food and Drug Administration, 1997-09-01. Retrieved on 2006-09-21. 
  26. ^ Ryder, Richard D. Animal Revolution: Changing Attitudes Towards Speciesism. Berg Publishers, 2000, p. 54.
  27. ^ a b c "Animal Experimentation: A Student Guide to Balancing the Issues", Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching (ANZCCART), retrieved December 12, 2007, cites original reference in Maehle, A-H. and Tr6hler, U. Animal experimentation from antiquity to the end of the eighteenth century: attitudes and arguments. In N. A. Rupke (ed.) Vivisection in Historical Perspective. Croom Helm, London, 1987, p. 22.
  28. ^ Rudacille, Deborah. The Scalpel and the Butterfly: The Conflict, Farrar Straus Giroux, 2000, p. 19.
  29. ^ "In sickness and in health: vivisection's undoing", The Daily Telegraph, November 2003.
  30. ^ LaFollette, H., Shanks, N., Animal Experimentation: the Legacy of Claude Bernard, International Studies in the Philosophy of Science (1994) pp. 195-210.
  31. ^ [http://www.the-aps.org/publications/tphys/legacy/1991/issue6/303.pdf The Physiologist at the-aps.org A Physiologist’s Views on the Animal Rights/Liberation Movement] by Charles S. Nicoll The Physiologist 34(6): December 1991
  32. ^ Mason, Peter. The Brown Dog Affair. Two Sevens Publishing, 1997.
  33. ^ The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume II, fullbooks.com.
  34. ^ Bowlby, John. Charles Darwin: A New Life, W. W. Norton & Company, 1991. p. 420.
  35. ^ Buettinger, Craig Antivivisection and the charge of zoophil-psychosis in the early twentieth century. The Historian 1 January 1993
  36. ^ Carbone, Larry. '"What Animal Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 68-69.
  37. ^ Carbone 2004, p. 94.
  38. ^ Carbone 2004, pp. 70-71.
  39. ^ a b c Fifth Report on the Statistics on the Number of Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes in the Member States of the European Union Commission of the European Communities, published November 2007
  40. ^ "Vivisection FAQ, British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection.
  41. ^ a b c d The Ethics of research involving animals Nuffield Council on Bioethics, Accessed 27 February 2008
  42. ^ Carbone 2004, p. 26.
  43. ^ a b c d 2005 Report on Enforcement of the Animal Welfare Act U.S. Department of Agriculture, Accessed 8 February 2008
  44. ^ The humane care and treatment of laboratory animals National Association of Biomedical Research, Accessed 8 February 2008
  45. ^ a b Frankie L. Trull and Barbara A. Rich (1999) "More Regulation of Rodents" Science, Volume 284. number 5419, page 1463. DOI 10.1126/science.284.5419.1463
  46. ^ Rowan, A., Loew, F., and Weer, J. (1995) "The Animal Research Controversy. Protest, Process and Public Policy: An Analysis of Strategic Issues." Tufts University, North Grafton. cited in Carbone 2004, p. 26.
  47. ^ Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing and Education, U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C.:Government Printing Office, 1986, p. 64. In 1966, the Laboratory Animal Breeders Association estimated in testimony before Congress that the number of mice, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, and rabbits used in 1965 was around 60 million. (Hearings before the Subcommittee on Livestock and Feed Grains, Committee on Agriculture, U.S. House of Representatives, 1966, p. 63.) In 2004, the Department of Agriculture listed 64,932 dogs, 23,640 cats, 54,998 non-human primates, 244,104 guinea pigs, 175,721 hamsters, 261,573 rabbits, 105,678 farm animals, and 171,312 other mammals, a total of 1,101,958, a figure that includes all mammals except purpose-bred mice and rats. The use of dogs and cats in research in the U.S. decreased from 1973 to 2004 from 195,157 to 64,932, and from 66,165 to 23,640, respectively. ("Foundation for Biomedical Research, Quick Facts)
  48. ^ a b "Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals", Great Britain, 2004, p. 14.
  49. ^ Jha, Alok. "RSPCA outrage as experiments on animals rise to 2.85m", The Guardian, December 9, 2005.
  50. ^ Antoshechkin I, Sternberg PW (2007) "The versatile worm: genetic and genomic resources for Caenorhabditis elegans research" Nat. Rev. Genet. volume 8 issue 7 pages 518–32 PMID 17549065
  51. ^ Matthews KA, Kaufman TC, Gelbart WM (2005) "Research resources for Drosophila: the expanding universe" Nat. Rev. Genet. volume 6 issue 3 pages 179–93 PMID 15738962
  52. ^ Schulenburg, H., Kurz, C.L., Ewbank, J.J. "Evolution of the innate immune system: the worm perspective," Immunol. Rev., volume 198, pp. 36-58, 2004. PMID 15199953
  53. ^ Leclerc V, Reichhart JM. "The immune response of Drosophila melanogaster," Immunol. Rev.. volume 198, pp. 59-71, 2004. PMID 15199954
  54. ^ Mylonakis E., Aballay A. "Worms and flies as genetically tractable animal models to study host-pathogen interactions", Infect. Immun., volume 73, issue 7, pp. 3833-41, 2005. PMID 15972468
  55. ^ a b c d Rosenthal N, Brown S. "The mouse ascending: perspectives for human-disease models," Nat. Cell Biol, Volume 9, issue 9, pp. 993-9, 2007. PMID 17762889
  56. ^ Aitman TJ, et. al. "Progress and prospects in rat genetics: a community view" Nature Genetics 40, 516 - 522 (2008) DOI 10.1038/ng.147
  57. ^ a b c "Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals, Great Britain, 2004, British government.
  58. ^ Cat madness: human research using cats AAVS newsletter Winter 2003
  59. ^ Dog profile, The Humane Society of the United States.
  60. ^ Gillham, Christina. "Bought to be sold", Newsweek, February 17, 2006.
  61. ^ International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources, Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, pages 36-45, 46-48, 63-69, 197-200.
  62. ^ Primatology FAQ
  63. ^ a b Kathleen M. Conlee, Erika H. Hoffeld and Martin L. Stephens Demographic Analysis of Primate Research in the United States ATLA 32, Supplement 1, 315–322, 2004
  64. ^ Science article on chimps in the USA
  65. ^ a b Emborg ME (2007) "Nonhuman primate models of Parkinson's disease" ILAR J volume 48 issue 4 pages 339–55 PMID 17712221
  66. ^ Invertebrate Animal Resources National Center for Research Resources, Accessed 15 December 2007
  67. ^ "Who's Who of Federal Oversight of Animal Issues", Aesop Project.
  68. ^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W. (2007) "A mouse for all reasons", Cell, volume 128, issue 1, pages 9–13. PMID 17218247
  69. ^
  70. ^ Francione, Gary. Animals, Property, and the Law. Temple University Press, 1995, p. 192; Magnuson, Warren G., Chairman. "Opening remarks in hearings prior to enactment of Pub. L. 89-544, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act," U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, March 25, 1966.
  71. ^ Notorious Animal Dealer Loses License and Pays Record Fine, The Humane Society of the United States.
  72. ^ Animal Testing: Where Do the Animals Come From? American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. According to the ASPCA, the following states prohibit shelters from providing animals for research: Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, and West Virginia.
  73. ^ Council Directive 86/609/EEC of 24 November 1986
  74. ^ Brooman, Simon and Legge, Debbie. Law Relating to Animals, Taylor & Francis Group, 1999.
  75. ^ a b "Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals", Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals, Home Office, 2004, p. 87.
  76. ^ U.S. Primate Imports Spike International Primate Protection League April 2007
  77. ^ Duncan IJ, Petherick JC. (1991) "The implications of cognitive processes for animal welfare", J. Anim. Sci., volume 69, issue 12, pages 5017–22. PMID 1808195; Curtis SE, Stricklin WR. (1991) "The importance of animal cognition in agricultural animal production systems: an overview", J. Anim. Sci.. volume 69, issue 12, pages 5001–7. PMID 1808193
  78. ^ Ryder, Richard D. "Speciesism in the laboratory," in Singer, Peter. In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave. Blackwell, 2006. p. 99.
  79. ^ a b c Townsend, Mark. "Exposed: secrets of the animal organ lab", The Observer, April 20, 2003. The Home Office response to these allegations is Imutran Ltd: Response to the Home Affairs Committee - licensing and regulating the xenotransplantation research, 14 October, 2003
  80. ^ Carbone, Larry. '"What Animal Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 149.
  81. ^ Rollin drafted the 1985 Health Research Extension Act and an animal welfare amendment to the 1985 Food Security Act: see Rollin, Bernard. "Animal research: a moral science. Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research", EMBO reports 8, 6, 2007, pp. 521–525
  82. ^ a b Rollin, Bernard. The Unheeded Cry: Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain, and Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. xii, 117-118, cited in Carbone 2004, p. 150.
  83. ^ Griffin DR, Speck GB (2004) "New evidence of animal consciousness" Anim. Cogn. volume 7 issue 1 pages=5–18 PMID 14658059
  84. ^ Allen C (1998) Assessing animal cognition: ethological and philosophical perspectives J. Anim. Sci. volume 76 issue 1 pages 42-7 PMID 9464883
  85. ^ Lockwood JA (1987) The Moral Standing of Insects and the Ethics of Extinction The Florida Entomologist, Volume 70, Number 1, pages 70-89
  86. ^ DeGrazia D, Rowan A (1991) Pain, suffering, and anxiety in animals and humans Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics Volume 12, Number 3, pages 193-211
  87. ^ Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, ILAR, National Research Council, 1996 copyright, pg 64
  88. ^ a b Flecknell P (2002). "Replacement, reduction and refinement". ALTEX 19 (2): 73–8. PMID 12098013. 
  89. ^ Animal Procedures Committee: review of cost-benefit assessment in the use of animals in research The Animal Procedures Committee, June 2003 p46-7
  90. ^ a b Carbone, Larry. "Euthanasia," in Bekoff, M. and Meaney, C. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Welfare. Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 164-166, cited in Carbone 2004, pp. 189-190.
  91. ^ "Euthanasia Guidelines", Research animal resources, University of Minnesota.
  92. ^ Close, Bryonyl et al. "Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals: Part 1", Laboratory Animals, Volume 30, Number 4, October 1996, p. 295.
  93. ^ Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals, 1996 Edition, Euthanasia section on pg 65
  94. ^ AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, June 2007 edition Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia, Accessed 8 February 2008
  95. ^ a b Select Committee on Animals in Scientific Procedures Report, House of Lords, Chapter 3: The purpose and nature of animal experiments.
  96. ^ "An A to Z of laboratory animals" Research Defense Society. Accessed 22 August 2007; Job, C.K. "Nine-banded armadillo and leprosy research," Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, Volume 46, issue 4, 2003, pp. 541-50. PMID 15025339
  97. ^ Venken KJ, Bellen HJ (2005) "Emerging technologies for gene manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster" Nat. Rev. Genet. volume 6 issue 3 pages 167–78 PMID 15738961
  98. ^ Sung YH, Song J, Lee HW (2004) "Functional genomics approach using mice" J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. volume 37 issue 1 pages=122–32 PMID 14761310
  99. ^ Janies D., DeSalle R. "Development, evolution, and corroboration," Anat. Rec., Volume 257, issue 1, pp. 6-14, 1999. PMID 10333399
  100. ^ Akam, M. "Hox genes and the evolution of diverse body plans," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci., Volume 349, issue 1329, 1995, pp. 313–9. PMID 8577843
  101. ^ Prasad B., Reed R., "Chemosensation: molecular mechanisms in worms and mammals", Trends in Genetics Volume 15, pp. 150-153. 1999
  102. ^ Schafer WR (2006) "Neurophysiological methods in C. elegans: an introduction" WormBook pages 1–4 PMID 18050439
  103. ^ Yamamuro, Y. Social behavior in laboratory rats: Applications for psycho-neuroethology studies Animal Science Journal, 77, pp. 386–394, 2006
  104. ^ Marler P., Slabbekoorn H, Nature's Music: The Science of Birdsong, Academic Press, 2004. ISBN 0124730701
  105. ^ For example "in addition to providing the chimpanzees with enrichment, the termite mound is also the focal point of a tool-use study being conducted", from the web page of the Lincoln Park Zoo accessed 25 April 2007.
  106. ^ Festing, M., "Inbred Strains of Mice and their Characteristics", The Jackson Laboratory , Retrieved 30 January, 2008
  107. ^ Peichel CL (2005) "Fishing for the secrets of vertebrate evolution in threespine sticklebacks" Dev. Dyn. volume 234 issue 4 pages 815–23 PMID 16252286 DOI 10.1002/dvdy.20564
  108. ^ Peichel CL, Nereng KS, Ohgi KA, et al (2001) "The genetic architecture of divergence between threespine stickleback species" Nature volume 414 issue 6866 pages 901–5 PMID 11780061 DOI 10.1038/414901a
  109. ^ Ramaswamy S, McBride JL, Kordower JH (2007) "Animal models of Huntington's disease" ILAR J volume 48 issue 4 pages 356–73 PMID 17712222
  110. ^ Rees DA, Alcolado JC (2005) "Animal models of diabetes mellitus" Diabet. Med. volume 22 issue 4 pages 359–70 PMID 15787657
  111. ^ Iwakuma T, Lozano G (2007) "Crippling p53 activities via knock-in mutations in mouse models" Oncogene volume 26 issue 15 pages 2177–84 PMID 17401426
  112. ^ Frese KK, Tuveson DA (2007) "Maximizing mouse cancer models" Nat. Rev. Cancer volume 7 issue 9 pages 645–58 PMID 17687385
  113. ^ Dunham SP. "Lessons from the cat: development of vaccines against lentiviruses," Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol, volume 112, issues 1-2, 2006, pp. 67–77. PMID 16678276; Vail DM, MacEwen EG. "Spontaneously occurring tumors of companion animals as models for human cancer," Cancer Invest, volume 18, issue 8, 2000, pp. 781–92. PMID 11107448
  114. ^ Job, C.K. "Nine-banded armadillo and leprosy research," Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, Volume 46, issue 4, pp. 541-50, 2003. PMID 15025339; [1]
  115. ^ a b Tolwani RJ, Jakowec MW, Petzinger GM, Green S, Waggie K (1999) "Experimental models of Parkinson's disease: insights from many models" Lab. Anim. Sci. volume 49 issue 4 pages 363–71 PMID 10480640
  116. ^ Pound et al 2004 Where is the evidence that animal research benefits humans? BMJ 28;328(7438):514-7 PMID 14988196
  117. ^ Langley, Gill next of kin...A report on the use of primates in experiments, BUAV, 2006
  118. ^ The History of Deep Brain Stimulation The Parkinson's Appeal, Accessed 27 February 2008
  119. ^ Platt JL, Lin SS (1998) "The future promises of xenotransplantation" Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., volume 862, pages 5–18, PMID 9928201
  120. ^ a b Schuurman HJ, Pierson RN (2008) "Progress towards clinical xenotransplantation" Front. Biosci., volume 13, pages 204–20, PMID 17981539
  121. ^ Valdés-González RA, Dorantes LM, Garibay GN, et al (2005) "Xenotransplantation of porcine neonatal islets of Langerhans and Sertoli cells: a 4-year study" Eur. J. Endocrinol., volume 153, issue 3, pages 419–27, PMID 16131605
  122. ^ Valdés-González RA, White DJ, Dorantes LM, et al (2007) "Three-yr follow-up of a type 1 diabetes mellitus patient with an islet xenotransplant" Clin Transplant, volume 21, issue 3, pages 352–7, PMID 17488384
  123. ^ "Diaries of despair", xenodiaries.org, Uncaged Campaigns, retrieved June 18, 2006.
  124. ^ a b Household Product Tests BUAV
  125. ^ a b c Abbott, Alison. "Animal testing: More than a cosmetic change" Nature 438, 144-146, November 10, 2005.
  126. ^ Watkins JB (1989) "Exposure of rats to inhalational anesthetics alters the hepatobiliary clearance of cholephilic xenobiotics" J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. volume 250 issue 2 pages 421–7 PMID 2760837
  127. ^ Watt JA, Dickinson RG (1990) "The effect of diethyl ether, pentobarbitone and urethane anaesthesia on diflunisal conjugation and disposition in rats" Xenobiotica volume 20 issue 3 pages 289-301 PMID 2336839
  128. ^ Walum E Acute oral toxicity Environ. Health Perspect. volume 106 Suppl 2 pages 498–499 1998 pmid 9599698
  129. ^ Inter-Governmental Organization Eliminates the LD50 Test, The Humane Society of the United States, accessed 17 January 2008
  130. ^ OECD guideline 405 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Accessed 19 January 2008
  131. ^ Species Used in Research: Rabbit Humane Society of the United States, Accessed 19 January 2008
  132. ^ Wilhelmus, K.R. "The Draize eye test," Surv Ophthalmol volume 45, issue 6, 2001, pages 493–515, PMID 11425356
  133. ^ Secchi A., Deligianni V. "Ocular toxicology: the Draize eye test," Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol volume 6, issue 5, 2006, pp. 367–72. PMID 16954791
  134. ^ Toxicity Testing for Assessment of Environmental Agents" National Academies Press, (2006), p21, Accessed 15 December
  135. ^ Smith LL (2001). "Key challenges for toxicologists in the 21st century". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 22 (6): 281–5. doi:10.1016/S0165-6147(00)01714-4. PMID 11395155. 
  136. ^ Brown SL, Brett SM, Gough M, Rodricks JV, Tardiff RG, Turnbull D (1988). "Review of interspecies risk comparisons". Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 8 (2): 191–206. doi:10.1016/0273-2300(88)90028-1. PMID 3051142. 
  137. ^ An overview of Animal Testing Issues, Humane Society of the United States. Accessed 27 February 2008
  138. ^ a b Osborn, Andrew & Gentleman, Amelia."Secret French move to block animal-testing ban", The Guardian, August 19, 2003. Accessed 27 February 2008
  139. ^ EU Directive 2001/83/EC, p.44. Accessed 27 February 2008
  140. ^ EU Directive 2001/83/EC, p. 45. Accessed 27 February 2008
  141. ^ Dalal, Rooshin et al. Replacement Alternatives in Education: Animal-Free Teaching abstract from Fifth World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Berlin, August 2005.
  142. ^ Seeking an End to Animal Experimentation, Deutsche Welle, August 23, 2005, retrieved on December 16, 2007.
  143. ^ Bernard E. Rollin (2006) "The Regulation of Animal Research and the Emergence of Animal Ethics: A Conceptual History" Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics Volume 27 Number 4 pages 285-304 DOI 10.1007/s11017-006-9007-8
  144. ^ Peter Singer (Ed) "A Companion to Ethics", Blackwell Companions to Philosophy, 1991, Chapter 30 "Animals" by Lori Gruen p346
  145. ^ Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer "A Companion to Bioethics", Blackwell Publishing, 1998, Chapter 39 by Bernard E. Rollin "The moral status of animals and their use as experimental subjects." p414
  146. ^ Singer (1991) op. cit. p348
  147. ^ Gagneux P, Moore JJ, Varki A (2005) "The ethics of research on great apes" Nature volume 437 issue 7055 pages 27–9 PMID 16136111
  148. ^ Vermij P (2003) "Europe's last research chimps to retire" Nat. Med. volume 9 issue 8 pages 981 year 2003 PMID 12894144
  149. ^ "It's a Dog's Life" (1997), Countryside Undercover, Channel Four Television, UK.
  150. ^ Video link
  151. ^ The Perils of Cloning Alice Park Time magazine, published 5 July 2006, Accessed 24 February 2008
  152. ^ Dolly's final illness Roslin Institute, Accessed 21 February 2008
  153. ^ Exploring the Moral and Ethical Aspects of Genetically Engineered and Cloned Animals The Pew Charitable Trusts, published October 2005, Accessed 24 February 2008
  154. ^ Should we clone humans? Church of Scotland Society, Religion and Technology Project. published 19 November 1998, Accessed 24 February 2007
  155. ^ a b Undercover footage of staff in Covance screaming at and mocking monkeys
  156. ^ Covance Prevails in PETA lawsuit", Covance, October 17, 2005.
  157. ^
    • Laville, Sandra. "Lab monkeys 'scream with fear' in tests", The Guardian, February 8, 2005.
    • "Aspects of Non-human Primate Research at Cambridge University. A Review by the Chief Inspector", British Home Office, October 1, 2002.
    • "The Queen on the application of THE CAMPAIGN TO END ALL ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS (trading as the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection), High Court, April 12, 2005.
  158. ^ "Aspects of non-human primate research at Cambridge University"PDF (170 KiB), , review by the British government's chief inspector of animals, October 2002, p.56.
  159. ^ Newkirk, Ingrid. Free the Animals, Lantern Books, 2000, pp. 271-294.
  160. ^ "Abstract: Trisenor rearing with infant macaques", Crisp.
  161. ^ "Group Says It 'Rescued' 260 Animals From Lab", Associated Press, April 21, 1985.
  162. ^ Newkirk 2000
  163. ^ Group raids labs, takes animals, Associated Press, in the Philadelphia Inquirer, April 22, 1985 A10
  164. ^ "E. Sander Connolly", PETA.
  165. ^ Columbia in animal cruelty dispute", CNN, October 12, 2003.
  166. ^ Malone BJ, Kumar VR, Ringach DL (2007) "Dynamics of receptive field size in primary visual cortex" J. Neurophysiol. volume 97 issue 1 pages 407-14 PMID 17021020 doi 10.1152/jn.00830.2006
  167. ^ Throwing in the Towel David Epstein Inside Higher Education, August 22, 2006
  168. ^ Predators Unleashed Investor's Business Daily 24 August 2006
  169. ^ McDonald, Patrick Range. UCLA Monkey Madness LA Weekly, August 8, 2007.
  170. ^ The 3Rs The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research. Accessed 12 December 2007
  171. ^ Kolar R (2002). "ECVAM: desperately needed or superfluous? An animal welfare perspective". Altern Lab Anim 30 Suppl 2: 169–74. PMID 12513669. 
  172. ^ Schuppli CA, Fraser D, McDonald M (2004). "Expanding the three Rs to meet new challenges in humane animal experimentation". Altern Lab Anim 32 (5): 525–32. PMID 15656775. 
  173. ^ Rusche B (2003). "The 3Rs and animal welfare - conflict or the way forward?". ALTEX 20 (Suppl 1): 63–76. PMID 14671703. 

The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence and was founded in 1660. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the 17th Century Roman Catholic priest who popularized the Memorare, see Father Claude Bernard. ... FDA redirects here. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard D. Ryder (born 1940) is a British psychologist who, after performing psychology experiments on animals, began to speak out against the practice, and became one of the pioneers of the modern animal liberation and animal rights movements. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gary Lawrence Francione (1954) is an American law professor at Rutgers University. ... There have been at least three notable people named Richard Ryder: A psychologist; see Richard D. Ryder A late 20th century British politician and current member of the House of Lords; see Richard Andrew Ryder A nineteenth century British politician; see Richard Ryder (19th century politician) This is a disambiguation... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Michael Festing is a British research scientist best known for his interest in animal testing. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... PETAs president and co-founder Ingrid Newkirk Ingrid Newkirk (born July 11, 1949) is a British-born animal rights activist, author, and president of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the worlds largest animal rights organization. ...

Further reading and external links

  • Conn, P. Michael and Parker, James V (2008). The Animal Research War, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0230600140
  • Stephens, Martin & Rowan, Andrew. "An overview of animal testing"PDF (129 KiB), Humane Society of the United States, retrieved October 29, 2005
  • 1940 American/Soviet film of dog resurrection experiments
  • "Select Committee on Animals In Scientific Procedures Report", Select Committee on Animals in Scientific Procedures, British House of Lords, July 16, 2002, retrieved October 27, 2005.
  • "Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals", Great Britain, 2004.
  • "Why use animals?" and other FAQ, North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research, retrieved October 23, 2005
  • "Basic statement", Aërzte gegen Tierversuche (Doctors against Animal Experiments], retrieved October 23, 2005.
  • "Biomed for the layperson", Laboratory Primate Advocacy Group, retrieved February 24, 2006.
  • In Focus "Animal Experiments in Research" (German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences)
  • Encyclopedia of Earth: Animal testing alternatives
  • Go3R: semantic search to avoid animal experiments
“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Nicolas Atwood is an American animal rights activist based in West Palm Beach, Florida. ... Greg Avery (born 1963), also known as Greg Jennings and Greg Harrison, is a British animal rights activist and co-founder of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC), an international campaign to force the closure of Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), a controversial animal-testing company with bases in Huntingdon, England, and... David Barbarash was the North American press officer for the Animal Liberation Front between 2000 and 2003. ... Rod Coronado Rodney Adam Coronado is an American eco-anarchist and animal rights activist who has been convicted of arson, conspiracy and other crimes in connection with his activism but now advocates non-violent action. ... Barry Horne Barry Horne was a British animal rights activist who died of kidney failure in Ronkswood Hospital, Worcester on November 5, 2001, following a series of four hunger strikes while serving an 18-year sentence for planting incendiary devices. ... Ronnie Lee is a British animal rights activist, and founder of the Animal Liberation Front. ... Keith Mann is a British animal-rights campaigner, believed to be a senior Animal Liberation Front activist. ... PETAs president and co-founder Ingrid Newkirk Ingrid Newkirk (born July 11, 1949) is a British-born animal rights activist, author, and president of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the worlds largest animal rights organization. ... Alex Pacheco Alexander Fernando Pacheco (born August 1958) is an American animal rights activist. ... Jill Phipps Jill Phipps (January 15, 1964 – February 1, 1995) was a British animal rights activist. ... Henry Spira (June 19, 1927 – September 12, 1998) was a prominent animal rights activist, and architect of the movement in the United States to stop the use of animals in experiments. ... Marianne Louise Thieme (Ede, March 6, 1972) is a Dutch politician, animal activist and publicist. ... Andrew Tyler is the director of Animal Aid, the UKs second largest animal rights organization (after peta). ... Jerry Vlasak is a U.S. physician and prominent member of several controversial nonprofit organizations, including Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. ... Paul Watson (born December 2, 1950) is the founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and is a significant, albeit controversial, figure in the environmental movement and the movement for animal rights. ... Robin Webb runs the Animal Liberation Press Office in the UK, which releases material to the media on behalf of animal rights activists operating as the Animal Liberation Front (ALF), the Animal Rights Militia (ARM), and the Justice Department. ... Image File history File links Olive_baboon1. ... // Action for Animals [http://www. ... Animal Aid logo Animal Aid is the United Kingdoms largest animal rights group and one of the longest established in the world, having been founded in 1977. ... The Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) is an American non-profit animal rights law organization focused on protecting and advancing the interests of animals through the legal system. ... Beagles stolen by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ... The Animal Liberation Front Supporters Group (ALFSG) is an organization that provides moral and financial support to people imprisoned for breaking the law in the name of animal rights, in particular Animal Liberation Front activists. ... The Animal Liberation Press Office was set up in October 1991 to relay information to the media about direct action undertaken by the Animal Liberation Front, the Animal Rights Militia, the Justice Department, and other radical animal-rights groups. ... The Animal Rights Militia (ARM) is a name used by animal-rights activists who are prepared to carry out acts of violence against human beings. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... The Justice Department is a militant animal-rights organization, set up in Britain in 1993, and active there and in the United States. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ... The Primate Freedom Project is a 501(c)3 not for profit grassroots abolitionist animal rights organization based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society is a non-profit, non-governmental maritime organization founded by Paul Watson in 1977. ... The Southern Animal Rights Coalition (SARC) is an umbrella organisation for groups campaigning against animal abuse in southern England. ... SPEAK, the Voice for the Animals is a British animal rights campaign that aims to end animal experimentation and vivisection in the UK. Its current focus is opposition to a new animal testing center being built by Oxford University. ... A monkey inside Huntingdon Life Sciences in the United States. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (ASPA) is a law passed by the U.K. parliament in 1986, which regulates the use of laboratory animals in the U.K. Fundamentally, actions that have the potential of causing pain, distress or lasting harm to animals are illegal in the U.K. under... A bile bear in Huizhou Farm, Vietnam. ... Bull attacking a matador Bullfighting or tauromachy (Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a blood sport that involves, most of the times, professional performers (matadores) who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the... Covance (NYSE: CVD), formerly Hazleton Laboratories, with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... A man in Shanghai asks for money, holding a monkey with a rope around its neck and missing a limb. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... A mink farm in the United States Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... Several greyhounds before a race. ... The term Green Scare, alluding to the Red Scares, periods of fear over communist infiltration of U.S. society, is a term popularized by environmental activists to refer to legal action by the U.S. government against the radical environmentalist movement. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Horse slaughter is the practice of slaughtering horses for meat. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ... The international trade in primates sees 32,000 wild-caught primates sold on the international market every year. ... The meat industry is the industrial aspect of agriculture. ... Nafovannys maternity clinic. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... Open rescue is a term for a form of direct action practiced by certain animal rights and animal welfare activists. ... Operation Backfire is an ongoing multi-agency criminal investigation, led by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), into destructive acts in the name of animal rights and environmental causes in the United States. ... A pet store or pet shop is a store at which one can purchase supplies for pets and, often, the pets themselves. ... Puppy mill — puppy farming in the United Kingdom and Australia—is a disparaging term for the practices of some dog breeders. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... Sericulture, or silk farming, is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ... Veal is the meat of young calves (usually male) appreciated for its delicate taste and tender texture. ... Vegan redirects here. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products[1] [2]. The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. ... The Brown Dog affair was a controversy and cause célèbre for a brief period in Edwardian England, from 1903 to 1910, and revolving around vivisection and a statue erected in memory of a dog killed in the cause of medical research. ... Britches after being removed from the laboratory by the Animal Liberation Front Britches was the name given by researchers to a stumptail macaque monkey who was born into a breeding colony at the University of California, Riverside in March 1985. ... A marmoset inside Cambridge University, filmed by BUAV The use of primates in experiments at Cambridge University is controversial, first coming to widespread public attention in the UK following undercover investigations lasting ten months in 1998 by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV), the results of which... Harry Harlows pit of despair The pit of despair, or vertical chamber, was a device used in experiments conducted on rhesus macaque monkeys during the 1970s by American comparative psychologist Harry Harlow and his students at the University of Wisconsin. ... Domitian, one of the Silver Spring monkeys, in a restraint chair. ... Unnecessary Fuss is the name of a film produced by Ingrid Newkirk and Alex Pacheco of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), showing footage shot inside the University of Pennsylvanias Head Injury Clinic in Philadelphia, described by the university as the longest standing and most respected center... Image:Steven best. ... Dr. Stephen Clark Stephen Richard Lyster Clark (born October 30, 1945) is a British philosopher and international authority on animal rights, currently professor of philosophy and Leverhulme Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool. ... Gary Lawrence Francione (1954) is an American law professor at Rutgers University. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ... Richard D. Ryder (born 1940) is a British psychologist who, after performing psychology experiments on animals, began to speak out against the practice, and became one of the pioneers of the modern animal liberation and animal rights movements. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Steven M. Wise is the author of Though the Heavens May Fall, a book concerning the 18th century trial in England which led to the abolition of slavery. ... Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals is a book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer. ... Behind the Mask: The Story Of The People Who Risk Everything To Save Animals is a 2006 documentary film about the Animal Liberation Front. ... Earthlings is a 2005 multi-award winning documentary written, produced and directed by Shaun Monson and co-produced by Persia White. ... Arkangel is a British-based bi-annual animal liberation magazine, first published in the winter of 1989. ... Bite Back is a website that promotes the cause of the Animal Liberation Front (ALF). ... No Compromise is a San Francisco-based bi-annual animal liberation magazine, first published in the winter of 1989. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Animals Used in Testing - Doris Day Animal League (236 words)
Animal testing and research is slowly being replaced by more humane, more accurate and less expensive non-animal methods.
Two important ways to reduce the use of animals in testing are: 1) Increase funding for research of alternative methods; and 2) Reduce the number of animals used in existing animal-based test programs.
Changing the emphasis from new animal testing, which means harming and killing animals, to collecting pre-existing data.
Animal Testing (959 words)
To be directly inhumane, the infliction of distress on the test animal is "an unavoidable consequence of the procedure employed".
Whereas to be contingently inhumane is "the infliction of distress as an incidental and inadvertent by-product of the use of the procedure".
In the past, animals were thought to be the perfect specimen to test on (especially vertebrates) because of how similar their bodies are to human and because they were not considered our equals and did not appear to have a conscientious mind.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m