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Encyclopedia > Animal science
This article is the top of the Zoology series.
History of zoology (before Darwin)
History of zoology (since Darwin)

Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. This article considers the history of zoology before the theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859. ... Charles Darwin gave new stimulus and new direction to morphology and physiology, by uniting them as part of a common biological theory: the theory of organic evolution but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry. ... Main article: Life There are many universal units and common processes that are fundamental to the known forms of life. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria Placozoa Bilateria  Acoelomorpha  Orthonectida  Rhombozoa  Myxozoa  Superphylum Deuterostomia     Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ...

Contents


History of zoology

Main articles: History of zoology (before Darwin), History of zoology (since Darwin) This article considers the history of zoology before the theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859. ... Charles Darwin gave new stimulus and new direction to morphology and physiology, by uniting them as part of a common biological theory: the theory of organic evolution but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry. ...


Branches of biology relevant to zoology

The original branches of zoology established in the late 19th century such as zoo-physics, bionomics and morphography, have largely been subsumed into more broad areas of biology which include studies of mechanisms common to both plants and animals. The biology of animals is covered in several broad areas: Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  1. The physiology of animals is studied under various fields including anatomy and embryology
  2. The common genetic and developmental mechanisms of animals and plants is studied in molecular biology, molecular genetics and developmental biology
  3. The ecology of animals is covered under behavioral ecology and other fields
  4. Evolutionary biology of both animals and plants is considered in the articles on evolution, population genetics, heredity, variation, Mendelism, reproduction.
  5. Systematics, cladistics, phylogenetics, phylogeography, biogeography and taxonomy classify and group species via common descent and regional associations.

In addition the various taxonomically oriented-disciplines such as mammalogy, herpetology, ornithology study mechanisms that are specific to those groups. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ... Embryology is the subdivision of developmental biology that studies embryos and their development. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ... Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. ... Ecology is sometimes used as an incorrect synonym for the natural environment. ... Behavioral ecology (US spelling) or behavioural ecology (UK spelling) is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological niches. ... Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i. ... Charles Darwin, father of the theory of evolution by natural selection. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the five evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, migration and nonrandom mating. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... In music, variation is a formal technique where material is altered during repetition; reiteration with changes. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ... Reproduction is perhaps most commonly used in the context of biological reproduction and sex: Sexual reproduction is a biological process by which organisms create descendants through the combination of genetic material. ... Systematics is the study of the diversity of organism characteristics. ... Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ... In biology, Phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = race and genetic = birth) is the taxonomical classification of organisms based on how closely they are related in terms of evolutionary differences. ... Phylogeography is the attempt to take into account the geographic distribution of species in establishing their phylogeny, and to understand the geographic patterns that may result from divergence, ultimately leading to speciation. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with questions of the distribution of species usually at regional to continental scales. ... Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία (taxinomia) from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... In biology, mammalogy is the study of mammals, a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems. ... Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians, including their classification, ecology, behavior, physiology, anatomy, and paleontology. ... Ornithology (from the Greek ornitha = chicken and logos = word/science) is the branch of biology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ...


Systems of classification

Main article: Scientific classification Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ...


Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent and extinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time. (1) The museum-makers of old days and their modern representatives the curators and describers of zoological collections, (2) early explorers and modern naturalist travellers and writers on zoo-geography, and (3) collectors of fossils and palaeontologists are the chief varieties of zoological workers coming under this heading. Gradually, since the time of Hunter and Cuvier, anatomical study has associated itself with the more superficial morphography until today no one considers a study of animal form of any value which does not include internal structure, histology and embryology in its scope. A museum is typically a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ... Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ... Collector - in electronics, the amplified terminal on a Bipolar junction transistor (PNP) or (NPN) list of collectors- People with note-worthy collections. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... John Hunter (February 13, 1728 - October 16, 1793) was a Scottish surgeon regarded as one of the most distinguished scientists of his day. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Leopold Chretien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769 - May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist, He was born at Montbéliard (then Mömpelgard in Württemberg) under the name of Johann Leopold Nicolaus Friedrich Kuefer, and was the son of a retired officer... Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). ... Histology is the study of tissue sectioned as a thin slice, using a microscope. ... Embryology is the subdivision of developmental biology that studies embryos and their development. ...


The real dawn of zoology after the legendary period of the Middle Ages is connected with the name of an Englishman, Edward Edward Wotton, born at Oxford in 1492, who practised as a physician in London and died in 1555. He published a treatise De differentiis animalium at Paris in 1552. In many respects Wotton was simply an exponent of Aristotle, whose teaching, - with various fanciful additions, constituted the real basis of zoological knowledge throughout the Middle Ages. It was Wotton's merit that he rejected the legendary and fantastic accretions, and returned to Aristotle and the observation of nature. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Official language None; English is de facto Capital London Capitals coordinates 51° 30 N, 0° 10 W Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831... Edward Edward Wotton (1492-1552) English physician created with starting the modern study of zoology, by separating out much of the fanciful and folkloric additions that had been added over time to the body of zoological knowledge. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... A physician is a person who practices medicine. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster which contains Big Ben Tower Bridge at night A red double-decker bus crosses Piccadilly Circus. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek: Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. ...


The most ready means of noting the progress of zoology during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries is to compare Aristotle's classificatory conceptions of successive naturalists with those which are to be found in the works of Caldon. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Notable zoologists

Louis Agassiz Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (May 28, 1807-December 14, 1873) was a Swiss-American zoologist and geologist, the husband of educator Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz, and one of the first world-class American scientists. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ... Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek: Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. ... Archie Carr (June 16, 1909–May 21, 1987) was a Professor of Zoology at the University of Florida. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians, including their classification, ecology, behavior, physiology, anatomy, and paleontology. ... Charles Darwin, about the same time as the publication of The Origin of Species. ... Dian Fossey ( January 16, 1932, San Francisco, California, United States - December 27, 1985, Ruhengeri, Rwanda) was an American ethologist interested in gorillas, completing an extended study of several gorilla groups, observing them daily for years in the mountain forests of Rwanda. ... Primatology is the study of primates. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Limnology is a discipline that concerns the study of in-land waters (both saline and fresh), specifically lakes, ponds and rivers (both natural and manmade), including their biological, physical, chemical, and hydrological aspects. ... Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Composed image of phytoplankton and zooplankton Planktology is the science and teaching about organisms that float in the ocean and freshwater, which are labeled plankton. ... Libbie Henrietta Hyman (December 6, 1888 - August 3, 1969), zoologist, was born in Des Moines, Iowa, the daughter of Joseph Hyman and Sabina Neumann. ... William Kirby (September 19, 1759 - July 4, 1850) was an English entomologist. ... Entomology is the scientific study of insects. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné  listen, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... Systematics is the study of the diversity of organism characteristics. ... Konrad Z. Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903 – February 27, 1989) was an Austrian zoologist and ornithologist. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour considered as a branch of zoology. ... David W. Macdonald is a British zoologist. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of mammary glands... Ernst Mayr Ernst Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany - February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts USA), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ... Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i. ... Desmond Morris (born January 24th, 1928) is most famous for his work as a zoologist and ethologist. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour considered as a branch of zoology. ... Thomas Say (June 27, 1787 – October 10, 1843) was an American naturalist, entomologist, malacologist and crustaceologist. ... Entomology is the scientific study of insects. ... E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Entomology is the scientific study of insects. ... Sociobiology is a branch of biology and also sociology that attempts to throw light upon behavior in both human and non-human societies in terms of evolutionary advantage or strategy. ...

See also

Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Divisions Green algae Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... This is a list of notable biologists. ... Zootomy is the zoological discipline that focuses on animal anatomy, in particular on the dissection of animals. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology and marine science is the study of the earths oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes. ... Aerobiology Anatomy Arachnology Astrobiology Biochemistry Bionics Biogeography Bioinformatics Biomechanics Biophysics Botany Cell biology Chorology Crustaceology Cryptozoology Cycles Cytology Developmental biology E. H. Davidson, Genomic Regulatory Systems: Development and Evolution (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2001). ...

Sources and external links

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