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Encyclopedia > Animal husbandry
Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania.
Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania.
A man herding goats in Tunisia.

Animal science is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 573 pixel Image in higher resolution (2049 × 1467 pixel, file size: 998 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Shepherd in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania Date: 5 August, 2006 Camera: Canon PowerShot S2 IS Author: friend of Darwinek File links... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 573 pixel Image in higher resolution (2049 × 1467 pixel, file size: 998 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Shepherd in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania Date: 5 August, 2006 Camera: Canon PowerShot S2 IS Author: friend of Darwinek File links... The Făgăraş Mountains viewed from the train Făgăraş Mountains are the highest mountains of the Southern Carpathians, in Romania. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1188x852, 215 KB)A man herding goats in Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1188x852, 215 KB)A man herding goats in Tunisia. ... A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


The science of animal husbandry, called animal science, is taught in many universities and colleges around the world. Students of animal science may pursue degrees in veterinary medicine following graduation, or go on to pursue master's degrees or doctorates in disciplines such as nutrition, genetics and breeding, or reproductive physiology. Graduates of these programs may be found working in the veterinary and human pharmaceutical industries, the livestock and pet supply and feed industries, or in academia. Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Reproductive endocrinology (RE) is a medical subspecialty that addresses hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction. ... This is a list of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are major manufacturers on global or national markets : Abbott Laboratories Able Laboratories Akzo Nobel Allergan Almirall Prodesfarma Alphapharm Altana (previously Byk Gulden) ALZA, part of Johnson & Johnson Amgen AstraZeneca, formed from the merger of Astra AB and Zeneca Group PLC...


Historically, certain sub-professions within the field of animal husbandry are specifically named according to the animals that are cared for.

Contents

Different types of animal husbandry

Reindeer being milked by Sami people.
Reindeer being milked by Sami people.
American Cowboy circa 1887.

A swineherd is a person who cares for hogs and pigs (older English term: swine). A shepherd is a person who cares for sheep. A goatherd cares for goats. A cowherd cares for cattle. In previous years, it was common to have herds which were made up of sheep and goats. In this case, the person tending them was called a shepherd. Camels are also cared for in herds. In Tibet yaks are herded. In Latin America, llamas and alpacas are herded. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1120x826, 275 KB) Reindeer milking, Kven, Western Finnmark, late 1800 - From Norge i det nittende aarhundre 1900 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Reindeer Kven ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1120x826, 275 KB) Reindeer milking, Kven, Western Finnmark, late 1800 - From Norge i det nittende aarhundre 1900 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Reindeer Kven ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) Reindeer map The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Cowboy circa 1887 Free Public Domain Image from http://www. ... Cowboy circa 1887 Free Public Domain Image from http://www. ... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms The domestic pig is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some authors call it , reserving for the wild boar. ... Shepherd in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... A goatherd is a person who herds goats for a living. ... A cowboy (Spanish vaquero) tends cattle and horses on cattle ranches in North and South America. ... cow and ox, see Cow (disambiguation) and Ox (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Subspecies Bos grunniens grunniens Bos grunniens mutus The yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired humped domestic bovine found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, as well as in Mongolia. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ...


In more modern times, the cowboys or vaqueros of North and South America ride horses and participate in cattle drives to watch over cows and bulls raised primarily for food. In Australia many herds are managed by farmers on motorbikes and in helicopters. Today, herd managers often oversee thousands of animals and many staff. Farms and ranches may employ breeders, herd health specialists, feeders, and milkers to help care for the animals. Techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer are frequently used, not only as methods to guarantee that females are bred, but to help improve herd genetics. This may be done by transplanting embryos from stud-quality females, into flock-quality surrogate mothers - freeing up the stud-quality mother to be reimpregnated. This practice vastly increases the number of offspring which may be produced by a small selection of stud-quality parent animals. This in turn improves the ability of the animals to convert feed to meat, milk, or fiber more efficiently and improve the quality of the final product. For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... A motorcycle (or motorbike) is a two-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine. ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) whereby one or several embryos are placed into the uterus of the female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. ... Categories: Biology stubs | Developmental biology ...


Ethical aspects of animal husbandry

Ethical husbandry. A wounded Norwegian reindeer is moved on a snowmobile sled. Courtesy altapulken.no.
Ethical husbandry. A wounded Norwegian reindeer is moved on a snowmobile sled. Courtesy altapulken.no.

There are contrasting views on the ethical aspects of breeding animals in captivity, with one debate being in relation to the merits of allowing animals to live in natural conditions reasonably close to those of their wild ancestors, compared to the view that considers natural pressures and stresses upon wild animals from disease, predation, and the like as vindication for captive breeding. Image File history File links Reindeer. ... Image File history File links Reindeer. ... Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... A juvenile Red-tailed Hawk eating a California Vole In ecology, predation describes a biological interaction where a predator organism feeds on another living organism or organisms known as prey. ...


Some techniques of animal husbandry such as factory farming, tail docking, the Geier Hitch and castration, have been attacked by animal welfare groups such as Compassion In World Farming. Some of these practices also are criticized by farmers who use more traditional or organic practices. Genetic engineering is also controversial though it does not necessarily involve suffering. Animal rights groups are vocal in their criticism of systems of animal agriculture. The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Docking is used as a term for the intentional removal of part of an animals tail or ears. ... // Definition and Usage The Geier Hitch is a tool or technique used in livestock management and animal husbandry. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... CIWFs Offices in Petersfield, Hampshire Compassion In World Farming is a European based animal welfare charitable organisation, which has branches in the United Kingdom, China and Ireland. ... Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables in Capay, California. ... An iconic image of genetic engineering; this autoluminograph from 1986 of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene, illustrating the possibilities of genetic engineering. ... A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ...


Some domesticated species of animals, such as the vechur cow, are rare breeds and are endangered. They are the subject of conservation efforts. The Vechoor cow is a rare breed of cattle named after the village of Vechoor in Kottayam district, Kerala, India. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


See also

Farming

General
Agribusiness · Agriculture
Agricultural science · Agronomy
Animal husbandry
Challenges of industrial farming
Factory farming · Free range
Extensive farming
History of agriculture
Industrial agriculture
Industrial agriculture (animals)
Industrial agriculture (crops)
Intensive farming · Organic farming
Sustainable agriculture
Zero waste agriculture
Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 644 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 838 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... The challenges and issues of industrial agriculture for global and local society, for the industrial agriculture industy, and for the individual industrial agriculture farm include the costs and benefits of both current practices and proposed changes to those practices. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in small sheds. ... The small pig farm in Swiss mountains. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Main article: Industrial agriculture Industrial animal agriculture is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, including cattle, poultry (in battery farms) and fish. ... Main article: Industrial agriculture Industrial agriculture is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the industrialized production of crops and livestock, including cattle, poultry (in battery farms) and fish. ... Intensive Farming Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs as relative to land area (as opposed to extensive farming). ... Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables in Capay, California. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Definition: The optimal use of the five natural kingdoms, i. ...

Particular
Aquaculture
Dairy farming
IMTA
Intensive pig farming
Poultry farming
Sheep husbandry
Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of the natural produce of water (fish, shellfish, algae and other aquatic organisms). ... Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle, goats, or other lactating animals for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy for processing and eventual retail sale. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... A free range egg (left) next to a battery egg (right) Poultry farming is the practice of raising poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks geese, as a subcategory of Animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. ... Australian Sheep Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep. ...

Issues
Animal rights · Animal welfare
Antibiotics
Battery cage · BSE
Foie gras Genetically modified food
Gestation crate · Growth hormone
Pesticide · Veal crates
A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Battery Cage is an American electronic music project led by Tyler Newman. ... Classic image of cattle with BSE. Frantic digging going nowhere. ... Pâté de foie gras (right) with pickled pear. ... Genetically Modified (GM) foods are produced from genetically modified organisms (GMO) which have had their genome altered through genetic engineering techniques. ... Female pigs used for breeding are confined in 7 ft by 2 ft gestation crates for most of their lives. ... Growth hormone (GH or somatotropin) is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesised, stored and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Veal is a culinary term for meat produced from calves (young cattle). ...

Large agribusiness corporations
Bernard Matthews
Cargill
ContiGroup Companies
Maple Leaf Foods
Monsanto
Philip Morris
Premium Standard Farms
Smithfield Foods
Tyson Foods
Wayne Farms
In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... Bernard Matthews is a food processing company headquartered in Norwich, Norfolk, with 57 farms throughout Norfolk, Suffolk and Lincolnshire [1]. They produce and market turkey and other meat products, oven-ready turkeys, day-old turkeys, fish products and other poultry products. ... Cargill, Incorporated is a privately held, multinational corporation, and is based in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ... Formed in 1813, ContiGroup Companies, Inc (CGC) was originally founded by Simon Fribourg in Arlon, Belgium as a grain-trading firm. ... Maple Leaf Foods TSX: MFI is a major Canadian food processing company. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... Altria Group, Inc. ... Formed in 1988, Premium Standard Farms, Inc (PSF) (NASDAQ: PORK) was founded with the aim of creating a standardized method for which to produce premium pork. ... Smithfield Packing Company was founded in 1936 by Joseph W. Luter and his son Joseph W. Luter, Jr. ... Tyson Foods, Inc. ... Formerly operating under Allied Mills, the Poultry Division of ContiGroup Companies, Wayne Farms LLC is the sixth largest vertically integrated producer and processor of poultry in the United States. ...

Categories
Agriculture by country
Agriculture companies
Agriculture companies, U.S.
Biotechnology
Farming history
Livestock
Meat processing
Poultry farming

Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of the natural produce of water (fish, shellfish, algae and other aquatic organisms). ... Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... This article concerns Breeder, an occupation in agriculture, animal husbandry, or animal fancy. ... Cuniculture is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising domestic rabbits, usually for their meat, fur, or wool. ... Dog breeding is the vocation of mating carefully selected specimens to produce specific qualities and characteristics. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... In animal husbandry, feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed conversion rate, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE), is a measure of an animals efficiency in converting feed mass into increased body mass. ... Horse breeding is the process of using selective breeding to produce additional individuals of a given phenotype, that is, continuing a breed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pastoralism Mongolian horse pastoralist camp Pastoralism is a subsistence pattern in which people make their living by tending herds of large animals. ... Australian Sheep Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep. ... Shepherd in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... The food industry is the complex, global collective of diverse businesses that together supply much of the food energy consumed by the world population. ... Animal husbandry is for economic reasons Animal keeping (animals in captivity) is used as a generalizing term to describe the care and captivity of either domesticated animals (livestock and pets) or wild animals. ... Ex-situ conservation means literally, off-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it or part of it under the care of humans. ... cheese ...

External links

  • Research Institute for Animal Husbandry
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  • In situ conservation of livestock and poultry, 1992, Online book, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations Environment Programme

  Results from FactBites:
 
Animal husbandry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (510 words)
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.
Students of animal science may pursue degrees in veterinary medicine following graduation, or go on to pursue master's degrees or doctorates in disciplines such as nutrition, genetics and breeding, or reproductive physiology.
Animal rights groups are vocal in its criticism of systems of animal agriculture.
HighBeam Encyclopedia - animal husbandry (239 words)
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY [animal husbandry] aspect of agriculture concerned with the care and breeding of domestic animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, hogs, and horses.
Domestication of wild animal species was a crucial achievement in the prehistoric transition of human civilization from hunting-and-gathering to agriculture.
Animal Husbandry to Be Beefed up in China.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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