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Encyclopedia > Animal cognition

Animal cognition, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals other than humans. It has developed out of comparative psychology, but has also been strongly influenced by the approach of ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology. The alternative name cognitive ethology is therefore sometimes used; and much of what used to be considered under the title of animal intelligence is now thought of under this heading. Note that in this article, as in the field of animal cognition, "animal" is used here and in the following in the usual sense of "non-human animal", even though its meaning in biology normally comprises all members of the kingdom Animalia, including humans. A brain of a cat Psychologists and scientists do not always agree on what should be considered Comparative Psychology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Behavioral ecology is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment (both intrinsic and extrinsic). ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... The fusion of cognitive science and classical ethology into cognitive ethology emphasizes observing animals under more-or-less natural conditions, with the objective of understanding the evolution, adaptation (function), causation, and development of the species-specific behavioral repertoire - (Tinbergen 1963). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... In biological taxonomy, a kingdom or regnum is a taxon in either (historically) the highest rank, or (in the new three-domain system) the rank below domain. ...

Contents

Historical background

For most of the twentieth century, the dominant approach to animal psychology was to use experiments on intelligence in animals to uncover simple processes (such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning) that might then account for the apparently more complex intellectual abilities of humans. This approach is well summarised in the mid-century book by Hilgard (1958), but Its reductionist philosophy was combined with a strongly behaviorist methodology, in which overt behavior was taken as the only valid data for the study of psychology, and in its more extreme forms (the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner and his experimental analysis of behavior) behavior was taken as the only topic of interest. In effect, the mental processes that humans experience in themselves were viewed as epiphenomena (see, for example, Skinner, 1969). (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... It has been suggested that eye blink conditioning be merged into this article or section. ... Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... Radical behaviorism is a philosophy that underlies the experimental analysis of behavior approach to psychology, developed by B. F. Skinner. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), Ph. ... The experimental analysis of behavior is the name given to the approach to psychology founded by B. F. Skinner. ... An epiphenomenon is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside a primary phenomenon. ...


The success of cognitive psychology in addressing human mental processes, which began in the late 1950s and was proclaimed by Neisser (1967), led to a re-evaluation of the research paradigm, and researchers began to address animal mental processes from the opposite direction, by taking what is known about human mental processes and looking for evidence of comparable processes in other species. In a sense this was a return to the approach of Darwin's protegé George Romanes (e.g. 1886), arguably the first comparative psychologist of the modern era. However, whereas Romanes relied heavily on anecdote and an anthropomorphic projection of human capacities onto other species, modern researchers in animal cognition are in most cases firmly behaviorist in methodology, even though they differ sharply from the behaviorist philosophy. There are some exceptions to the rule of behaviorist methodology, such as John Lilly and, some would argue, Donald Griffin (e.g. 1992), who have been prepared to take a strong position that other animals do have minds and that humans should approach the study of their cognition accordingly. However, their claims have not found wide acceptance in the scientific community, though they have attracted an enthusiastic following among lay people. Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... A 19th century naturalist, George John Romanes (May 19, 1848 - May 23, 1894), coined the term, and laid the foundation of, comparative psychology, and postulated a similarity of cognitive processes and mechanisms between humans and animals. ... John Cunningham Lilly (January 6, 1915 – September 30, 2001) was an American physician, psychoanalyst and writer. ... Donald Redfield Griffin (August 3, 1915 - November 7, 2003) was an American professor of zoology at various universities who did seminal research in animal behavior, animal navigation, acoustic orientation and sensory biophysics. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ...


The development of animal cognition was also strongly influenced by:

  • increased use of and interest in primates (and also cetaceans) rather than the rats and pigeons that had become the classic species of the comparative psychology laboratory, and by developments within primatology;
  • advancing knowledge of animals' behavior in their natural environments through studies in ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology; such studies often showed that animals needed certain cognitive abilities in order to adapt to their ecological niche (as for example in studies of caching birds such as Clark's Nutcracker by Alan Kamil and his colleagues (e.g. Kamil & Balda, 1990), or appeared to use cognitive abilities under natural conditions (for example in Jane Goodall's studies of chimpanzees, see Goodall (1991);
  • one or two high profile projects, in particular Allen and Beatrice Gardner's Washoe project in which a chimpanzee learned at least some elements of American Sign Language.
  • advancing understanding of brain function through work in physiological psychology and cognitive neuropsychology

This account of the history of the study of animal cognition is inevitably oversimplified. From Romanes on, there have always been comparative psychologists who have been more or less cognitively inclined: obvious examples are Wolfgang Köhler, famous for his studies of insight in chimpanzees, and Edward C. Tolman, who introduced into psychology, as an explanation of the behavior of rats in mazes, two ideas that have been immensely influential in human cognitive psychology - the cognitive map and the idea of decision-making in risky choice according to expected value. Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Primatology is the study of non-human primates. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... This article is about the computer term. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811) The Clarks Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), is a large passerine bird, in the family Corvidae. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, (born April 3, 1934) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Washoe (around September of 1965[1] - October 30, 2007) was a chimpanzee who was the first non-human to learn American Sign Language. ... It has been suggested that ASL Grammar be merged into this article or section. ... Physiological psychology is sometimes related to psychiatry, and in fact may end up becoming the parent branch which contains psychiatry. ... == ISABEL IS COOL AND SHE LOVES COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY!!!!!!!!! == Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Maluma type shape Takete type shape Wolfgang Köhler (January 21, 1887, Reval (now Tallinn), Estonia – June 11, 1967, New Hampshire) was a German Gestalt psychologist. ... Look up Insight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Edward Chace Tolman (1886 - 1959) was an American psychologist. ... Cognitive Maps, Mental Maps, Mind Maps, Cognitive Models, or mental models are a type of mental processing, or cognition, composed of a series of psychological transformations by which an individual can acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or... In probability theory the expected value (or mathematical expectation) of a random variable is the sum of the probability of each possible outcome of the experiment multiplied by its payoff (value). Thus, it represents the average amount one expects as the outcome of the random trial when identical odds are...


Methodology

Research in animal cognition continues to use some of the established research techniques of comparative psychology and the experimental analysis of behavior, such as mazes and Skinner boxes, though it employs them in new varieties (such as the 8-arm maze and water maze that have been used in many studies of spatial memory) and in new ways. However, it complements those with observation of animals in their natural environments, or quasi-natural environments and also with field experiments. It has also been characterised by a number of very long term projects, such as the Washoe project and other ape-language experiments (e.g. project Nim), Irene Pepperberg's extended series of studies with the African Gray Parrot Alex, Louis Herman's work with bottlenosed dolphins, and studies of long-term memory in pigeons in which birds were shown to remember pictures for periods of several years. Some cognitive research also requires the management of animal behavior, and the use of operant conditioning to facilitate animal training. In general, the conclusion of concept formation in an animal requires a generalization test where the animal responds appropriately to a novel stimulus to which associative learning cannot explain the response behavior. Some researchers have made effective use of a Piagetian methodology, taking tasks which human children are known to master at different stages of development, and investigating which of them can be performed by particular species. Others have been inspired by concerns for animal welfare and the management of domestic species: for example Temple Grandin has harnessed her unique expertise in animal welfare and the ethical treatment of farm livestock to highlight underlying similarities between humans and other animals. An operant conditioning chamber (usually Skinner box) is a laboratory apparatus used in experimental psychology to study animal cognition. ... In neuroscience, spatial memory is the part of memory responsible for recording information about ones environment and its spatial orientation. ... A field experiment applies the scientific method to experimentally examine an intervention in the real world (or as many experimental economists like to say, naturally-occurring environments) rather than in the laboratory. ... Nim Chimpsky (November 21, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6. ... Dr. Irene Pepperberg (born April 1, 1949, Brooklyn, New York) is a scientist noted for her studies in animal cognition, particularly in relation to parrots. ... Binomial name Psittacus erithacus Linnaeus, 1758 The African Grey Parrot is a large parrot of the genus Psittacus, native to Africa. ... Alex (1976 - September 6, 2007[1]) was an African Grey Parrot who, from 1977 to 2007, was the subject of a thirty-year-long experiment conducted by animal psychologist Irene Pepperberg, initially at the University of Arizona and most recently at Harvard and Brandeis University. ... Louis Herman is a researcher in of dolphin sensory abilities, dolphin cognition, and humpback whales. ... Binomial name Montagu, 1821 Bottlenose Dolphin range (in blue) The Bottlenose Dolphin is the most common and well-known dolphin. ... Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. ... Animal training is a method to teach animals to perform specific acts in response to conditions or stimuli. ... Jean Piaget (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called genetic epistemology. He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer unnecessarily, including where the animals are used for food, work, companionship, or research. ... Dr. Temple Grandin, one of the more successful adults with autism. ...


Research questions

The common Chimpanzee can use tools. This chimpanzee is using a stick in order to get food.
The common Chimpanzee can use tools. This chimpanzee is using a stick in order to get food.

Given the broad program of animal cognition, of looking for the animal analogs of human cognitive processes, the areas of study in animal cognition follow more or less from those in human cognitive psychology. However progress in the different areas has been variable. Among the fields of interest are: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Attention

Research has focused on animals' ability to distribute attention between different aspects of a stimulus, and on visual search. As in humans, it appears that sharing attention between stimulus features reduces the capacity to detect any one of them, though there are some ecologically relevant visual search tasks at which particular species show remarkable abilities (for example, pigeons have an extraordinary capacity to pick out grain from substrate). Visual search is a type of perceptual task requiring attention. ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ...


Categorization

Following pioneering research by Richard Herrnstein, there has been a mass of research on birds' ability to discriminate between categories of stimuli, including the kinds of ill-defined category that are used in everyday human speech. Birds have been found to learn this kind of task easily, and to transfer correct responses readily to new instances of the categories. Richard Herrnstein (1930-1994) was a prominent researcher in comparative psychology who did pioneering work on pigeon intelligence employing the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. ...


Memory

The categories that have been developed to analyse human memory (short term memory, long term memory, working memory) have been applied to the study of animal memory, and some of the phenomena characteristic of human short term memory (e.g. the serial position effect) have been detected in animals particularly monkeys. However most progress has been made in the analysis of spatial memory, partly in relation to studies of the physiological basis of spatial memory and the role of the hippocampus, and partly in relation to scatter-hoarder animals such as Clark's Nutcracker, certain jays, titmice and certain squirrels, whose ecological niches require them to remember the locations of thousands of caches, often following radical changes in the environment. For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary or active memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time (roughly 30-45 seconds). ... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory that lasts from days to years. ... Working memory is a theoretical framework within cognitive psychology that refers to the structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. ... In what is known as the serial position effect, items at the beginning of a list are the easiest to recall, followed by the items near the end of a list. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... In neuroscience, spatial memory is the part of memory responsible for recording information about ones environment and its spatial orientation. ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... A scatter-hoarder is an animal that, in time of surplus, will store its food within a cache for times when food is less plentiful. ... Binomial name Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811) The Clarks Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), is a large passerine bird, in the family Corvidae. ... Genera Garrulus Podoces Ptilostomus Perisoreus Aphelocoma Gymnorhinus Cyanocitta Calocitta Cyanocorax Cyanolyca The jays are several species of medium-sized, usually colorful and noisy passerine birds in the crow family Corvidae. ... Genera see text The tits, chickadees, and titmice, family Paridae, are a large family of small passerine birds which occur in the northern hemisphere and Africa. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Tool and weapon use

Further information: Category:Tool-using species

Some species, such as the Woodpecker Finch of the Galapagos Islands, use particular tools as an essential part of their foraging behavior. However, these behaviors are often quite inflexible and cannot be applied effectively in new situations. Several species have now been shown to be capable of more flexible tool use. A well known example is Jane Goodall's observation of chimpanzees "fishing" for termites in their natural environment, and captive great apes are often observed to use tools effectively; several species of corvids have also been trained to use tools in controlled experiments, or use bread crumbs for bait-fishing [1]. The Woodpecker Finch was first seen by Charles Darwin on the Galapagos Islands. ... NASA Satellite photo of the Galápagos archipelago. ... Foraging just means looking for food (or, metaphorically, anything else). ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Wikispecies has information related to: Isoptera Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... Genera Platylophus Gymnorhinus Cyanocitta Aphelocoma Cyanocorax Garrulus Cissa Perisoreus Urocissa Cyanopica Dendrocitta Crypsirina Pica Zavattariornis Podoces Nucifraga Pyrrhocorax Ptilostomus Corvus The crow family (Corvidae) has members that are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes; in fact, it includes several that are among the largest. ...


Research in 2007 shows that chimpanzees in the Fongoli savannah sharpen sticks to use as spears when hunting, considered the first evidence of systematic use of weapons in a species other than humans.[1][2] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Savannah redirects here. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ...


Reasoning and problem solving

Closely related to tool use is the study of reasoning and problem solving. Many of the data on these issues come from earlier comparative psychologists such as Wolfgang Köhler, rather than recent experiments. It is clear that animals of quite a range of species are capable of solving a range of problems that are argued to involve abstract reasoning; modern research has tended to show that the performances of Köhler's chimpanzees, who could achieve spontaneous solutions to problems without training, were by no means unique to that species, and that apparently similar behavior can be found in animals usually thought of as much less intelligent, if appropriate training is given.


Language

The modeling of human language in animals is known as animal language research. In addition to the ape-language experiments mentioned above, there have also been more or less successful attempts to teach language or language-like behavior to some non-primate species, including parrots and Great Spotted Woodpeckers. Louis Herman published research on artificial language comprehension in the bottlenosed dolphin using cognitive research methods at the height of the skepticism produced by Herbert Terrace's criticism of chimpanzee language experiments through his own results with the animal Nim Chimpsky. In particular, the focus on the comprehension mode only allowed cognitive methods of utilizing blinded observers to grade the animals' gross physical behavior, rather than trying to interpret putative language production. Herman's results (Herman, Richards, & Wolz, 1984) were published in the (human) journal Cognition, regarding work on the dolphins Akeakamai and Phoenix. All such research has been controversial among cognitive linguists. Animal language is the modeling of human language in non human animal systems. ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ... Binomial name Dendrocopos major (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) is a member of the woodpecker family, Picidae. ... Louis Herman is a researcher in of dolphin sensory abilities, dolphin cognition, and humpback whales. ... Nim Chimpsky (November 21, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6. ... Akeakamai was a female Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, who along with a companion female dolphin named Phoenix, were the subjects Louis Hermans animal language studies at the Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Laboratory in Honolulu, Hawaii. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ...


Consciousness

The sense in which animals can be said to have consciousness or a self-concept has been hotly debated; it is often referred to as the debate over animal minds. The best known research technique in this area is the mirror test devised by Gordon Gallup, in which an animal's skin is marked in some way while it is asleep or sedated, and it is then allowed to see its reflection in a mirror; if the animal spontaneously directs grooming behaviour towards the mark, that is taken as an indication that it is aware of itself. Self-awareness, by this criterion, has been reported for chimpanzees and also for some other great apes, some cetaceans and a solitary elephant, but not for monkeys. The mirror test has attracted controversy among some researchers because it is entirely focused on vision, the primary sense in humans, while other species rely more heavily on other senses such as the olfactory sense in dogs. Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... A persons self image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, nature of external genitalia, I.Q. score, is this person double-jointed, etc. ... The question of animal minds asks whether it is necessary, or possible, to describe a non-human animal as having a mind. ... The mirror test is a measure of self-awareness developed by Gordon Gallup Jr in 1970. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Olfaction, the sense of smell, is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air (or, by animals that breathe water, in water). ...


Emotion

The question of whether animals have emotions, that is, feelings, and if those are qualitatively the same as humans' feelings or in fact simple stimulus responses, is under debate at the moment. See Emotion in animals. Emotion in animals considers the question, do animals feel, in the sense we understand it? Different answers have been suggested throughout human history, by animal lovers, scientists, and others who interact with animals, but the core question has proven hard to answer since we can neither obtain spoken answers, nor...


Continuing controversy

The broad program of research into animal cognition has achieved a good deal. Nonetheless, its results and philosophy continue to be debated, on a number of grounds:

  • Particular issues within animal cognition, particularly the interpretation of language-learning and self-awareness experiments, have generated major controversies both about the extent of the animals' achievements, and about the correct interpretation of the behavior observed.
  • Cognitive scientists have been interested in comparing and contrasting human cognition with artificial intelligence or machine cognition, but have been less interested in including animal cognition in the analysis - despite the fact that the common biological origins of human and animal cognition suggest that there might be greater resemblance, at least in some respects, between human and animal cognition than between human and machine cognition. There is also a minority of cognitive scientists who simply neglect accumulated psychological knowledge about cognition, whether animal or human.
  • Those psychologists who are committed to radical behaviorism and the experimental analysis of behaviour discount cognitive analyses of animal behavior. This is not surprising since for the most part they also reject cognitive analyses of human behaviour. It is perhaps a category error to oppose behavioural and cognitive analyses: insofar as the study of animal cognition exposes new behavioural phenomena, it simply provides more that a radical behaviourist must explain without using mentalistic language.

Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... AI redirects here. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... A category mistake is a semantic or ontological error by which a property (or some category of being) is incorrectly ascribed to a particular ontological type or token in a proposition and therefore is meaningless or nonsense. ...

Relative intelligence of different animal species

Some animals, including Great apes, crows, dolphins, dogs, elephants, and parrots are typically thought by humans as intelligent in ways that other animals are not. For example, crows are attributed with human-like intelligence in the folklore of many cultures. A number of recent survey studies have demonstrated the consistency of these rankings between people in a given culture and indeed to a considerable extent across cultures (e.g. Nakajima et al., 2002). A common image is the scala naturae, the ladder of nature on which animals of different species occupy successively higher rungs, with humans typically at the top. Comparative psychologists have sought in vain for ways of providing an objective underpinning for these essentially subjective and anthropocentric judgements. Part of the difficulty is the lack of agreement about what we mean by intelligence even in humans (it obviously makes a big difference whether language is considered as essential for intelligence, for example). As a result, most scientists studying animal cognition regard questions about which animals are the most intelligent as vacuous. A more fruitful approach has been to recognise that different animals may have different kinds of cognitive processes, which are better understood in terms of the ways in which they are cognitively adapted to their different ecological niches, than by positing any kind of hierarchy. This is the approach taken by the most comprehensive reference text of animal cognition, Shettleworth (1998). Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... For other uses of the word Crow, please see Crow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the dolphin mammal. ... This article is about the domestic dog. ... For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation). ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ... 1579 drawing of the great chain of being from Didacus Valades, Rhetorica Christiana The great chain of being or scala naturæ is a classical and western medieval conception of the order of the universe, whose chief characteristic is a strict hierarchical system. ...


One question that can be asked coherently is how far different species are intelligent in the same ways as humans are, i.e. are their cognitive processes similar to ours. Not surprisingly, our closest biological relatives, the great apes, tend to do best on such an assessment. It is less clear that other species traditionally held to be intelligent do unusually well against this standard, though among the birds, corvids and parrots have typically been found to perform well. Domesticated animals often perform well in tests of human-like abilities, but this may simply reflect their better adaptation to the human world and the proximity of humans. Genera Platylophus Gymnorhinus Cyanocitta Aphelocoma Cyanocorax Garrulus Cissa Perisoreus Urocissa Cyanopica Dendrocitta Crypsirina Pica Zavattariornis Podoces Nucifraga Pyrrhocorax Ptilostomus Corvus The crow family (Corvidae) has members that are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes; in fact, it includes several that are among the largest. ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ...


Despite ambitious claims, evidence of unusually high human-like intelligence among cetaceans is patchy, partly because the cost and difficulty of carrying out research with marine mammals mean that experiments frequently suffer from small sample sizes and inadequate controls and replication. Octopuses have also been claimed to exhibit a number of higher-level problem-solving skills, but the amount of research on cephalopod intelligence is too limited for it to be conclusive. Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... For other uses, see Octopus (disambiguation). ... An octopus keeping watch. ...


See also

Bird intelligence deals with the definition of intelligence and its measurement as it applies to birds. ... Two cats with a text book. ... An octopus keeping watch. ... Cetacean intelligence denotes the cognitive capabilities of the cetacean order of mammals and especially the various species of dolphin. ... The fusion of cognitive science and classical ethology into cognitive ethology emphasizes observing animals under more-or-less natural conditions, with the objective of understanding the evolution, adaptation (function), causation, and development of the species-specific behavioral repertoire - (Tinbergen 1963). ... Comparative cognition is the comparative study of the mechanisms and origins of cognition in various species. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into The Intelligence of Dogs. ... The nature and origins of hominid intelligence is a much-studied and much-debated topic, of natural interest to humans as the most successful and intelligent hominid species. ... Human, dolphin and elephant brains up to scale. ... This is a list of animals by number of neurons in their brain. ...

References

  • Goodall, J. (1991). Through a window. London: Penguin.
  • Griffin, D. R. (1992). Animal minds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Kamil A. C., Balda R. P. (1990). Differential memory for different cache sites by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 16, 162-168.
  • Hilgard, E. R. (1958). Theories of learning, 2nd edn. London: Methuen.
  • Nakajima, S., Arimitsu, K., & Lattal, K. M. (2002). Estimation of animal intelligence by university students in Japan and the United States. Anthrozoös, 15, 194-205.
  • Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Romanes, G. J. (1886). Animal intelligence, 4th edn. London: Kegan Paul, Trench.
  • Shettleworth, S. J. (1998). Cognition, evolution and behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement: a theoretical analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  1. ^ http://desmoinesregister.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070223/NEWS/702230385/-1/NEWS04
  2. ^ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/02/070222-chimps-spears.html

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Animal cognition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1479 words)
Animal cognition is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals.
The success of cognitive psychology in addressing human mental processes, from the late 1950s on, led to a re-evaluation of the research paradigm, and researchers began to address animal mental processes from the opposite direction, by taking what is known about human mental processes and looking for evidence of comparable processes in other species.
This is not surprising since for the most part they also reject cognitive analyses of human behaviour, and it is perhaps a category error: in so far as the study of animal cognition exposes new behavioural phenomena, it simply provides more that a radical behaviourist must explain without using mentalistic language.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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