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Encyclopedia > Anilides
Aniline
Aniline
General
Other names Phenylamine
Aminobenzene
Molecular formula C6H5NH2
SMILES NC1=CC=CC=C1
Molar mass 93.13 g/mol
Appearance colorless liquid
CAS number [62-53-3]
Properties
Density and phase 1.0217 g/ml, liquid
Solubility in water 3.6 g/100 mL at 20°C
Solubility in ethanol, acetone Miscible
Melting point −6.3 °C
Boiling point 184.13 °C
Basicity (pKb) 9.40
Viscosity 3.71 cP at 25 °C
Thermodynamic data
Standard enthalpy
of formation
ΔfHoliquid
 ? kJ/mol
Standard enthalpy
of combustion
ΔcHoliquid
-3394 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy
Soliquid
 ? J.K−1.mol−1
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Toxic (T)
Carc. Cat. 3
Muta. Cat. 3
Dangerous for
the environment (N)
NFPA 704

Aniline created with ChemDraw Ultra 7. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Water has the chemical formula H2O, meaning that one molecule of water is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , Flash point -20 °C Autoignition temperature 465 °C RTECS number AL31500000 Supplementary data page Structure & properties n, εr, etc. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... In chemistry and biochemistry, acid dissociation constant, the acidity constant, or the acid-ionization constant (Ka) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that indicates the extent of dissociation of hydrogen ions from an acid (I.E how well it splits H+ Ions into smaller molecules to form hydronium of... The pitch drop experiment at the University of Queensland. ... The poise (P) is the cgs unit of viscosity, 1 P = 1 g·cm-1·s-1 The SI analog is 1 pascal second (Pa·s) = 1 kg·m-1·s-1 = 10 P. It is named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille. ... The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 atmosphere... Standard enthalpy of Combustion is the Enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is totally combusted in oxygen, and is measured at 298K and 1 atmospheric pressure. ... In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under conditions of standard temperature and pressure. ... A material safety data sheet or MSDS is a form containing data regarding the properties of a particular substance. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main source of European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is an agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

2
3
0
 
R-phrases R23/24/25, R40, R41,
R43, R48/23/24/25,
R68, R50
S-phrases S1/2, S26, S27,
S36/37/39, S45,
S46, S61, S63
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Regulatory data Flash point,
RTECS number, etc.
Related compounds
Related aromatic amines 1-Naphthylamine
2-Naphthylamine
Related compounds Phenylhydrazine
Nitrosobenzene
Nitrobenzene
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2 (or C6H7N). It is an organic chemical compound, specifically a primary aromatic amine. It consists of a benzene ring attached to an amino group. The chemical structure of aniline is shown at the right. R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a material is the factor by which the phase velocity of electromagnetic radiation is slowed in that material, relative to its velocity in a vacuum. ... The dielectric constant εr (represented as or K in some cases) is defined as the ratio: where εs is the static permittivity of the material in question, and ε0 is the vacuum permittivity. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... IR spectrum of a thin film of liquid ethanol. ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR Spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of nuclei. ... Basic schematic of mass spectrometry Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture with air. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... An aromatic amine is an amine with an aromatic substituent - that is -NH2, -NH- or nitrogen group(s) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon, whose structure usually contains one or more benzene rings. ... Nitrosobenzene is the organic compound C6H5NO. The compound can be viewed as hybrid of singlet O2 and azobenzene. ... Nitrobenzene, also known as nitrobenzol or oil of mirbane, is a poisonous organic compound with an almond odor and chemical formula C6H5NO2. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Benzene An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with the exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon. ... An aromatic amine is an amine with an aromatic substituent - that is -NH2, -NH- or nitrogen group(s) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon, whose structure usually contains one or more benzene rings. ... Benzene, C6H6, PhH, or benzol is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ...

Contents


Synthesis

See also Industrial production of Aniline


Aniline can be produced from benzene in two steps. First, benzene is nitrated (reacted with nitric acid, a form of electrophilic substitution reaction) to give nitrobenzene. Second, the nitrobenzene is reduced to give aniline. A variety of reducing agents are effective for the reduction, including H2 (with a catalyst), hydrogen sulfide, iron, zinc, or tin. Benzene, also known as C6H6, PhH, and benzol, is an organic chemical compound that is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), otherwise known as aqua fortis or spirit of nitre, is a colorless, corrosive liquid, a toxic acid which can cause severe burns. ... Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces another group, typically but not always hydrogen. ... Nitrobenzene, also known as nitrobenzol or oil of mirbane, is a poisonous organic compound with an almond odor and chemical formula C6H5NO2. ... Reduction or reducing has several meanings: In mathematics, reduction is the process of manipulating a series of equations or matrices into a desired simpler format. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Flash point -82. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ...


Many derivatives of aniline can be prepared similarly. In commerce three brands of aniline are distinguished—aniline oil for blue, which is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, a mixture of equimolecular quantities of aniline and ortho- and para-toluidines; and aniline oil for safranine, which contains aniline and ortho-toluidine, and is obtained from the distillate (échappés) of the fuchsine fusion. Monomethyl and dimethyl aniline are colourless liquids prepared by heating aniline, aniline hydro-chloride and methyl alcohol in an autoclave at 220°C. They are of great importance in the colour industry. Monomethyl aniline boils at 193-195°C; dimethyl aniline at 192°C.


Properties

Aniline is oily and, although colourless, it can be slowly oxidized and resinified in air to form impurities which can give it a red-brown tint. Its boiling point is 184 °C and its melting point is -6 °C. It is a liquid at room temperature. The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...


Like most volatile amines, it possesses a somewhat unpleasant odour of rotten fish, and also has a burning aromatic taste; it is a highly acrid poison. It ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame.


Chemically, aniline is a weak base. Aromatic amines such as aniline are generally much weaker bases than aliphatic amines. Aniline reacts with strong acids to form salts containing the anilinium (or phenylammonium) ion (C6H5-NH3+), and reacts with acyl halides (such as acetyl chloride (ethanoyl chloride), CH3COCl) to form amides. The amides formed from aniline are sometimes called anilides, for example CH3-CO-NH-C6H5 is acetanilide, for which the modern name is N-phenyl ethanamide. It has been suggested that strong base be merged into this article or section. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... An acyl halide (also known as an acid halide) is an organic compound containing a carbon atom which is double_bonded to an oxygen atom and singly bonded to a chlorine atom. ... Acetyl chloride, also known as ethanoyl chloride, is an acid chloride derived from acetic acid. ... Amide functional group In chemistry, an amide is one of two kinds of compound. ...


The sulphate forms beautiful white plates. Although aniline is but feebly basic, it precipitates zinc, aluminium and ferric salts, and on warming expels ammonia from its salts. Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form secondary and tertiary amines; boiled with carbon disulphide it gives sulphocarbanilide (diphenyl thio-urea), CS(NHC6H5)2, which may be decomposed into phenyl mustard-oil, C6H5CNS, and triphenyl guanidine, C6H5N: C(NHC6H5)2. Sulphuric acid at 180° C gives sulphanilic acid, NH2.C6H4.SO3H. Anilides, compounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acid radical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and aniline. The oxidation of aniline has been carefully investigated. In alkaline solution azobenzene results, while arsenic acid produces the violet-colouring matter violaniline. Chromic acid converts it into quinone, while chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts (especially of vanadium), give aniline black. Hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate give chloranil. Potassium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic acid, in acid solution to aniline black. Hypochlorous acid gives para-amino phenol and para-amino diphenylamine.


Like phenols, aniline derivatives are highly reactive in electrophilic substitution reactions. For example, sulfonation of aniline produces sulfanilic acid, which can be converted to sulfanilamide. Sulfanilamide is one of the sulfa drugs which were widely used as antibacterials in the early 20th century. In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces another group, typically but not always hydrogen. ... Sulfonamides, also known as sulfa drugs, are synthetic antimicrobial agents derived from sulfonic acid. ... Sulfa drugs are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide group. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Aniline and its ring-substituted derivatives react with nitrous acid to form diazonium salts. Through these, the -NH2 group of aniline can be conveniently converted to -OH, -CN, or a halide. Nitrous acid weak monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts. ... In chemistry, azo compounds generally have a molecular formula of the form R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aromatic or aliphatic. ... The halogens The halogens are a chemical series. ...


Uses

Originally the great commercial value of aniline was due to the readiness with which it yields, directly or indirectly, valuable dyestuffs. The discovery of mauve in 1856 by William Perkin was the first of a series of dyestuffs which are now to be numbered by hundreds. Reference should be made to the articles dyeing, fuchsine, safranine, indulines, for more details on this subject. In addition to dyestuffs, it is a starting-product for the manufacture of many drugs such as Acetaminophen/Paracetamol (Tylenol). Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Mauve (French form of Malva, mallow) is a pale grayed pink-lilac color, one of many in the range of purples. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sir William Henry Perkin (March 12, 1838 – July 14, 1907) was an English chemist best known for his discovery, at the age of 18, of the first aniline dye, mauveine. ... Dyeing is the process of changing the colour of a yarn or cloth by treatment with a dye. ... Fuchsine Fuchsine, fuchsin, rosanilin, or rosaniline hydrochloride is a magenta dye with chemical formula C19H17N3·HCl. ... Safranine is the azonium compounds of symmetrical diamino-phenazine. ... Indulines are a series of dyestuffs of blue, bluish-red or black shades, formed by the interaction of para-amino azo compounds with primary monamines in the presence of a small quantity of a mineral acid. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Tylenol (paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen) is a popular American brand of pain reliever and fever reducer, sold by Johnson & Johnson. ...


Currently the largest market for aniline is preparation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), some 85% of aniline serving this market. Other uses include rubber processing chemicals (9%), herbicides (2%), and dyes and pigments (2%). [1] Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, most often abbreviated as MDI, is an aromatic diisocyanate. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants though can be produced synthetically. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ...


History

Aniline was first isolated from the destructive distillation of indigo in 1826 by Otto Unverdorben (Pogg. Ann., 1826, 8, p. 397), who named it crystalline. In 1834, Friedrich Runge (Pogg. Ann., 1834, 31, p. 65; 32, p. 331) isolated from coal tar a substance which produced a beautiful blue colour on treatment with chloride of lime; this he named kyanol or cyanol. In 1841, C. J. Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an oil, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, Indigofera anil, anil being derived from the Sanskrit nīla, dark-blue, and nīlā, the indigo plant. About the same time N. N. Zinin found that on reducing nitrobenzene, a base was formed which he named benzidam. August Wilhelm von Hofmann investigated these variously prepared substances, and proved them to be identical (1855), and thenceforth they took their place as one body, under the name aniline or phenylamine. Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich (or Friedlieb/Friedlob) Ferdinand Runge (born near Hamburg on 8 February 1795, died in Oranienburg on 25 March 1867) was an analytical chemist. ... Coal tar is the liquid by-product of the distillation of coal to make coke. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... August Wilhelm von Hofmann (April 8, 1818 _ May 5, 1892) was a German chemist. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Its first industrial-scale use was in the manufacture of mauveine, a purple dye discovered in 1856 by William Henry Perkin. Mauveine, also known as aniline purple, was the first synthetic organic dye. ... Purple is any of a group of colors intermediate between deep blue and red. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sir William Henry Perkin (March 12, 1838 – July 14, 1907) was an English chemist best known for his discovery, at the age of 18, of the first aniline dye, mauveine. ...


p-toluidine, an aniline derivative, can be used in qualitative analysis to prepare carboxylic acid derivitives. There are three isomers of toluidine, which are organic chemical compounds. ...


Toxicology

Aniline is toxic by inhalation of the vapour, absorption through the skin or swallowing. It causes headache, drowsiness, cyanosis, mental confusion and in severe cases can cause convulsions. Prolonged exposure to the vapour or slight skin exposure over a period of time affects the nervous system and the blood, causing tiredness, loss of appetite, headache and dizziness.[2] Cyanosis refers to the bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface. ... This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ...


Oil mixtures containing rapeseed oil denatured with aniline have been clearly linked by epidemiological and analytic chemical studies to the toxic oil syndrome that hit Spain in the spring and summer of 1981, in which 20,000 became acutely ill, 12,000 were hospitalized, and more than 350 died in the first year of the epidemic. The precise etiology though remains unknown. Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Epidemiologic studies are generally categorized as descriptive, analytic (aiming to examine associations, commonly hypothesized causal relationships), and experimental (a term often equated with clinical or community trials of treatments and other interventions). ... Toxic Oil Syndrome was the name given to an unusual disease outbreak in Spain in 1981. ... Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ...


Some authorities class aniline as a carcinogen, although the IARC lists it in Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) due to the limited and contradictary data available. In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... IARC could mean: International Agency for Research on Cancer is part of the World Health Organization. ... Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 3: The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. ...


Safety Data

See also [1], [2] and references included at end of article


The majority of the below data was taken from:

  1. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook ERG2004, 2004.
  2. Hazardous Chemicals Data NFPA 49, PC-49-94, 1994.
  3. Canadian WHMIS - Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System.
  4. U.S.C.G CHRIS database.
  5. U.S. EPA Cameo database.
  6. NIOSH/OSHA exposure limit data

Exposure limit(s): TLV: 2 ppm; 7.6 mg/m3 (as TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1992-1993). OSHA PEL: TWA 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) skin NIOSH REL: Ca See Appendix A NIOSH IDLH: Potential occupational carcinogen 100 ppm


Carcinogin: G-A3, CP65


Poison_Class: 1*


Exposure effects: May cause liver and kidney damage. May cause fetal effects. Repeated exposure may cause sensitization dermatitis. Chronic exposure may cause hemolysis of the red blood cells followed by stimulation of the bone marrow. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. May cause cyanosis - a blue-gray coloring of the skin and lips caused by a lack of oxygen. Animal studies have reported the development of tumors.


Ingestion: Harmful if swallowed. Aniline acts through an intermediate to change hemoglobin to methemoglobin. In one subject, 65 mg of aniline increased the methemoglobin level by 16% within 2 hours. Intense methemoglobinemia may lead to asphyxia severe enough to injure the cells of the central nervous system. Pathologic findings in acute fatalities from aniline include chocolate color of the blood; injury to the kidney, liver and spleen; and hemolysis. Alcohol can intensify the ability of aniline to induce methemoglobinemia.


Inhalation: Harmful if inhaled. Causes respiratory tract irritation. Methemoglobinemia is characterized by dizziness, drowsiness, headache, shortness of breath, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of skin due to deficient oxygenation of the blood), rapid heart rate and chocolate-brown blood. Inhalation of aniline causes anoxia due to the formation of methemoglobin.


Skin: Causes skin irritation. Harmful if absorbed through the skin. May cause skin sensitization, an allergic reaction, which becomes evident upon re-exposure to this material. Vapors are readily absorbed through the skin.


Eyes: Causes severe eye irritation. May cause lacrimation (tearing), blurred vision, and photophobia. May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.


First aid

Ingestion: Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.


Inhalation: Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.


Skin: Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.


Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed.


References

  1. ^ Aniline producers price capacity market demand consumption production growth uses outlook n.d., The Chemical Market Reporter, Schnell Publishing Company. Retrieved January 12, 2002 from http://www.the-innovation-group.com/ChemProfiles/Aniline.htm
  2. ^ Muir, GD (ed.) 1971, Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory, The Royal Institute of Chemistry, London.

External links

For a full list of external links, MSDSs, and suppliers of chemical compounds, see Wikipedia:Chemical sources. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Anilide derivatives - Patent 5416212 (2729 words)
An anilide compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as claimed in claim 1, wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are each an isopropyl group; n is O; A is an alkylene group having 1 to 14 carbon atoms; and Ar is a phenyl group.
An anilide compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as claimed in claim 1, wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are each an isopropyl group; n is O; A is an alkylene group having 6 or 8 carbon atoms; and Ar is a phenyl group.
An anilide compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as claimed in claim 1, wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are each an isopropyl group; n is O; A is an alkylene group having 6 carbon atoms; and Ar is a phenyl group.
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Disclosed is novel hexahydrophthalic anilide derivatives and herbicide compositions comprising the derivatives.
The hexahydrophthalic anilide derivatives of this invention are represented by the formula [I], [II] or [III].
Further, the hexahydrophthalic anilide derivative of the present invention is particularly effective for inhibiting the growth of weeds growing in fields, such as mustard, virginia pepperweed, catchweed badstraw, Kinutaso (Galium kinuta), chick weed, Common lambsquaters, nottle (Utrica Thunbergiana), Common groundsel, Slender amaranth, Cocklebur, Pale smartweed, Velvetleaf and barynard grass.
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