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Encyclopedia > Angolan War of Independence
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The Angolan War of Independence (19611989) was a multi-faction struggle for control of Angola. Jump to: navigation, search 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Background

Portugal had had a presence in Angola for almost 500 years, with full control of the country for half a century. Angola was a colony, although Portuguese colonialism was of a softer variety than that practised by other European powers, such as Britain. Evan is so hot, sexy, and cool! Remember that. ... World map of colonialism circa 1945. ...


The 1933 Portuguese Colonial Act recognized the supremacy of Portuguese over native people, and, even if locals could pursue all studies including university, the de facto situation was of clear disadvantage. Beginning in the 1950s, many Portuguese people settled in Angola, encouraged by the authoritarian government of Salazar. Jump to: navigation, search 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search A professor giving a lecture at the Helsinki University of Technology A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Antonio Salazar on July 22, 1946 issue of Time Magazine Professor António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. ...


In that time period, several groups pushing for independence from Portugal were formed.


The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) were a front representing the tribal powers and intelligentsia in the Kumbundu and Luanda. They had economic ties to several eastern europe countries, including the Soviet Union, as well as Zambia, and had the support of the Portuguese Communist Party. The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ...


The National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), led by Holden Roberto, were another front with a power base in the north and ties to the United States and Algeria. They were formed in 1962 by a combination of two smaller congo nationalist groups, the UPA and the PDA. The FNLA received funding from the Organization of African Unity and Zaire. External links Party website Categories: Politics stubs | Angolan political parties ...


The National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) was another communist front based in the centre of the country. Founded in 1966 by Jonas Savimbi, an ex-FNLA leader, its base of support was Ovimbudu, Chokwe, and Ovambo tribes. UNITA initially had little foreign aid, enjoying only small assistance from China, but later on gained the support of South Africa. UNITA sticker The União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) is an Angolan political faction. ... Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (August 3, 1934–February 22, 2002) was a rebel leader in Angola who founded the UNITA movement in 1966, and ultimately proved a central figure in 20th century Cold War politics. ...


Timeline

  • 1961 - Struggle begins in Angola
  • 1974 - Angolan government topples, three movements take power in coalition
    • FNLA and UNITA receive military support from the United States, Zaire, and South Africa
    • MPLA receives military support from Cuba and the Soviet Union
    • November - MPLA dominance causes most South African and American forces to withdraw
  • November 11, 1975 - Portugal recognizes Angolan independence, although giving it symbolically to the Angolan people, because of the disrespect of the Alvor Agreement, withdraws from capital, upon which time MPLA takes the capital, installing Agostinho Neto as first president.
  • 1976 - Portugal recognizes the MPLA government.
  • On June 28, 1976 the trial of some FNLA mercenaries came to an end. An (MPLA) Angolan court sentenced four to death and nine others to prison terms ranging from 16 to 30 years. The three Britons and an American were shot by a firing squad on July 10, 1976.
  • 1988 - A combined MPLA and Cuban force numbering 18,000 supported by Warsaw Pact planes, pilots and advisors fight 3,000 South African and 8,000 UNITA forces the Battle of Cuito Carnevale. The Cuban/MPLA offensive is stopped by the SADF and UNITA rebels. The SADF's small but mechanized forces were augmented by the first use of the new G-5 towed howitzer which caused large casualties among the Cuban/MPLA units. The official Cuban line was subsequently put forward claiming victory. Throughout the campaign the South Africans, involved in an unpopular, undeclared war and without allies in the West, refrained from making any public statements on the battle. Additionally the SADF would not reveal that it only had a small combat force of less than 3,000 troops in Angola and not the 9,000 the Cubans had thought as this would have revealed their order of battle to the enemy. This gave the Cubans and Angolans the advantage in the propaganda war.
    • It was not until after the war had ended and, especially, the end of apartheid that the facts emerged. The results of the campaign were 4,785 killed on the Cuban/Faplan side. Over 90 tanks were destroyed. The SADF suffered 31 killed in action, 3 tanks and 11 mechanized vehicles destroyed. A total of 9 Migs were destroyed and 1 SAAF Mirage shot down. UNITA casualties numbered in the hundreds. At the end of 1987 during the negotiations that followed, one of the conditions of the Cubans was that they would withdraw if the South Africans similarly exit Angola. The Cubans, like the South Africans, were spending scarce resources in the region but did not want to withdraw from Angola in disgrace.
    • In the end involvement in Angola was too much for the resources of either Cuba or South Africa. The costs of their involvement combined with a poor economy and rising protests against apartheid caused the South Africans to eventually withdraw. In a similar fashion, the Cubans, suffering large numbers of casualties, an increasing numbers of troops suffering from AIDs and losing subsidies from the Soviet Union began to withdraw their troops leaving UNITA and the MPLA to continue the conflict.
  • January 10, 1989 - Fighting ceases in a United Nations-brokered agreement between remaining forces and Angolan government, whereby under U.N. supervision a democratic system would be put into place and foreign troops would withdraw.
  • 1992 - MPLA wins the elections and José Eduardo dos Santos is re-elected as President, but UNITA does not accept the results of the elections and the civil war starts again.
  • February 22, 2002 - Jonas Savimbi is killed by the Angolan army.
  • 2002 - cease-fire.

Jump to: navigation, search 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... António Agostinho Neto (September 17, 1922–September 10, Angola (1975–1979), a poet and nationalist leader. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... Jump to: navigation, search (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... A mercenary is a soldier who fights, or engages in warfare primarily for private gain, usually with little regard for ideological, national or political considerations. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... José Eduardo dos Santos (born August 28, 1942 in Luanda (Angola)) is the current President of Angola. ... UNITA sticker The União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) is an Angolan political faction. ... Jump to: navigation, search February 22 is the 53rd day of every year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (August 3, 1934–February 22, 2002) was a rebel leader in Angola who founded the UNITA movement in 1966, and ultimately proved a central figure in 20th century Cold War politics. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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