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Encyclopedia > Angolan Civil War
Angolan Civil War
Part of the Cold War and the South African Border War
Angola
Date 1975 – August 2002
Location Angola
Result MPLA victory
Belligerents
MPLA
Republic of Cuba
AAF
Mozambique[1]
Soviet Union
UNITA
FNLA
South Africa
Republic of Zaire
United States
Commanders
Agostinho Neto
José Eduardo dos Santos
Jonas Savimbi
Holden Roberto
Casualties and losses
Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians

The Angolan Civil War began in Angola after the end of the war for independence from Portugal in 1975. The war featured conflict between two primary Angolan factions, the Communist MPLA and the anti-Communist UNITA. Yet a third movement, the FLEC, an association of separatist militant groups, fought for the independence of Cabinda. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Image File history File links LocationAngola. ... Image File history File links Bandeira_do_MPLA.svg‎ Bandeira do pt:Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola. ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour (Portuguese: Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola - Partido do Trabalho) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Angolas military is called the FAA, the Portuguese acronym for Angolan Armed Forces, headed by a Chief of Staff who reports to the Minister of Defense. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ... Image File history File links Bandeira_da_FNLA.svg‎ Banderia da pt:Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola. ... External links Party website Categories: Politics stubs | Angolan political parties ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zaire. ... For other uses, see Zaire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Bandeira_do_MPLA.svg‎ Bandeira do pt:Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola. ... António Agostinho Neto (September 17, 1922–September 10, Angola (1975–1979), a poet and nationalist leader. ... Image File history File links Bandeira_do_MPLA.svg‎ Bandeira do pt:Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola. ... José Eduardo dos Santos (born August 28, 1942 in Luanda) is the current President, Head of Government, and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Angola. ... Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (August 3, 1934–February 22, 2002) was a rebel leader in Angola who founded the UNITA movement in 1966, and ultimately proved a central figure in 20th century Cold War politics. ... Image File history File links Bandeira_da_FNLA.svg‎ Banderia da pt:Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola. ... Álvaro Holden Roberto (born 12 January 1923 in São Salvador do Congo) is the leader of the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA). ... The Angolan War of Independence (1961–1989) was a multi-faction struggle for control of Angola. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ... FLEC (Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda) is a liberation movement in Cabinda, Angola. ... Cabinda is a territory, ocupied by Angola. ...


Formally brought to an end in 2002, an estimated 500,000 people were killed in the 27-year war.[2] The Angolan Civil War was one of the largest, longest and most prominent armed conflicts of the Cold War. Both the Soviet Union and the U.S. considered it critical to the global balance of power and to the outcome of the Cold War. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


In addition to the war's two primary factions (the MPLA and UNITA), several other factions also were engaged in the conflict. The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola's (MPLA) base is among the Kimbundu people and the multiracial intelligentsia of Luanda. The MPLA, supported by the Soviet Union and the Eastern bloc, fought against the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA), an organization based in the Bakongo region of the north and allied with the United States, the People's Republic of China and the Mobutu government in Zaïre. The United States, apartheid South Africa, and several other African nations also supported Jonas Savimbi's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), whose ethnic and regional base lies in the Ovimbundu heartland of central Angola.[3][4] The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour (Portuguese: Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola - Partido do Trabalho) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... Kimbundu is one of the most spoken pre-colonial languages in central africa. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Flag of the FNLA The National Front for the Liberation of Angola (Portuguese: Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola) is a militant organization that fought for Angolan independence from Portugal in the war of independence under the leadership of Holden Roberto. ... The Bakongo people (aka. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku wa za Banga (or Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga; October 14, 1930 - September 7, 1997) was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1965 to 1997. ... This article deals with the former name of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (August 3, 1934–February 22, 2002) was a rebel leader in Angola who founded the UNITA movement in 1966, and ultimately proved a central figure in 20th century Cold War politics. ... UNITA sticker The União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) is an Angolan political faction. ... The Ovimbundu (aka Mbundu or Umbundu) are a large ethnic group of traders, farmers and herders who live on the Benguela Plateau of central Angola, Africa. ...

Contents

Roots of the conflict

Main article: Cabinda (province)
See also: Slavery in Angola
Unofficial flag of Cabinda
Unofficial flag of Cabinda

The territory of Cabinda is north of Angola proper, separated by a strip of territory 60 km (37.3 mi) long in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[5] A coup d'état in Portugal in 1926 led to military rule under the Estado Novo (New State). The new government annexed Cabinda from Belgian Congo in 1927 and the Constitution of 1933 designated Angola and Cabinda as overseas provinces.[6][7] The Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) formed in 1963 during the broader war for independence from Portugal. Contrary to the organization's name, Cabinda is an exclave, not an enclave. FLEC later split into the Armed Forces of Cabinda (FLEC-FAC) and Renewal (FLEC-Renovada). Several other, smaller FLEC factions later broke away from these movements, but FLEC-R remained the most prominent because of its size and its tactics. FLEC-R members cut off the ears and noses of government officials and their supporters, similar to the Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone in the 1990s.[8] Despite Cabinda's relatively small size, foreign powers and the nationalist movements coveted the territory for its vast reserves of petroleum, the principal export of Angola then and now.[9] Cabinda is a territory, ocupied by Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cabinda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cabinda. ... Cabinda is a territory, ocupied by Angola. ... Manuel Gomes da Costa The 28th May 1926 coup détat, sometimes called 28th May Revolution or, during the period of Estado Novo, National Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução Nacional), was a military action that put an end to the unstable Portuguese First Republic and initiated the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship... There have been two regimes known as Estado Novo (meaning New State): Estado Novo (Brazil) Estado Novo (Portugal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was a rebel army that fought a failed ten-year insurrection in Sierra Leone, starting in 1991 and ending in 2002. ... Petro redirects here. ...


In the war for independence, the primary ethnic division of assimilados versus indigenos peoples masked the inter-ethnic conflict between the various native tribes, a division that emerged in the early 1970s. The Union of Peoples of Angola, the predecessor to the FNLA, only controlled 15% of Angola's territory during the independence war, excluding MPLA-controlled Cabinda. The People's Republic of China openly backed UNITA upon independence despite the mutual support from its adversary South Africa and UNITA's pro-Western tilt. The PRC's support for Savimbi came in 1965, a year after he left the FNLA. China saw Roberto and the FNLA as the stooge of the West and the MPLA as the Soviet Union's proxy. With the Sino-Soviet split, South Africa presented the least odious of allies to the PRC.[10][11] Álvaro Holden Roberto (born 12 January 1923 in São Salvador do Congo) is the leader of the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA). ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ...


1970s

Main article: 1970s in Angola
Main article: Cuba in Angola

Independence

Agostinho Neto, the leader of the MPLA, declared the independence of the People's Republic of Angola on November 11, 1975, in accordance with the Alvor Accords.[12] UNITA and the FNLA also declared Angolan independence as the Social Democratic Republic of Angola based in Huambo and the Democratic Republic of Angola based in Ambriz. FLEC, armed and backed by the French government, declared the independence of the Republic of Cabinda from Paris.[13] The FNLA and UNITA forged an alliance on November 23, proclaiming their own coalition government based in Huambo[14] with Holden Roberto and Jonas Savimbi as co-presidents and José Ndelé and Johnny Pinnock Eduardo as co-Prime Ministers.[15] António Agostinho Neto (September 17, 1922–September 10, Angola (1975–1979), a poet and nationalist leader. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Alvor Agreement, signed on January 15, 1975, granted Angola independence from Portugal on November 11, ending the war for independence while marking the transition to civil war. ... For Huambo the location in Amazonas, Peru, see Huambo District Huambo is the capital of Huambo province in Angola. ... Ambriz is a city in the province of Bengo, Angola. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For Huambo the location in Amazonas, Peru, see Huambo District Huambo is the capital of Huambo province in Angola. ... Álvaro Holden Roberto (born 12 January 1923 in São Salvador do Congo) is the leader of the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA). ...


The South African government told Savimbi and Roberto in early November that the South African Defence Force (SADF) would soon end operations in Angola despite the failure of the coalition to capture Luanda and therefore secure international recognition at independence. Savimbi, desperate to avoid the withdrawal of the largest, friendly, military force in Angola, asked General Constand Viljoen to arrange a meeting for him with South African Prime Minister John Vorster, Savimbi's ally since October 1974. On the night of November 10, the day before independence, Savimbi secretly flew to Pretoria, South Africa and the meeting took place. In a reversal of policy, Vorster not only agreed to keep troops through November but promised to withdraw the SADF troops only after the OAU meeting on December 9.[16][17] The Soviets, well aware of South African activity in southern Angola, flew Cuban soldiers into Luanda the week before independence. While Cuban officers led the mission and provided the bulk of the troop force, 60 Soviet officers in the Congo joined the Cubans on November 12. The Soviet leadership expressly forbid the Cubans from intervening in Angola's civil war, focusing the mission on containing South Africa.[18] The South African Defence Force (SADF) were the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. ... Operation Savannah was the name given to the South African Defence Forces 1975 - 1976 invasion of Angola during the South African Border War. ... General Constand Viljoen SSA SD SOE SM (b 1933) was a South African military commander. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1975 and 1976 most foreign forces, with the exception of Cuba, withdrew. The last elements of the Portuguese military withdrew in 1975[19] and the South African military withdrew in February 1976.[20] On the other hand, Cuba's troop force in Angola increased from 5,500 in December 1975 to 11,000 in February 1976.[21]


Clark Amendment

Main articles: Operation IA Feature and Clark Amendment

President Gerald Ford approved covert aid to UNITA and the FNLA through Operation IA Feature on July 18, 1975, despite strong opposition from officials in the State Department and the CIA. Ford told William Colby, the Director of Central Intelligence, to establish the operation, providing an initial US$6 million. He granted an additional $8 million on July 27 and another $25 million in August.[22][23] Operation IA Feature, a covert Central Intelligence Agency operation, authorized U.S. government support for Jonas Savimbis UNITA and Holden Robertos FNLA militants. ... The Clark amendment was an amendment to the U.S. Arms Export Control Act of 1976, named for its sponsor, Senator Dick Clark (D-Idaho). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Operation IA Feature, a covert Central Intelligence Agency operation, authorized U.S. government support for Jonas Savimbis UNITA and Holden Robertos FNLA militants. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... For the first secretary of the Sierra Club, see William Edward Colby. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Senator Dick Clark

Two days before the program's approval, Nathaniel Davis, the Assistant Secretary of State, told Henry Kissinger, the Secretary of State, that he believed maintaining the secrecy of IA Feature would be impossible. Davis correctly predicted the Soviet Union would respond by increasing involvement in the Angolan conflict, leading to more violence and negative publicity for the United States. When Ford approved the program, Davis resigned.[24] John Stockwell, the CIA's station chief in Angola, echoed Davis' criticism saying the success required the expansion of the program, but its size already exceeded what could be hidden from the public eye. Davis' deputy, former U.S. ambassador to Chile Edward Mulcahy, also opposed direct involvement. Mulcahy presented three options for U.S. policy towards Angola on May 13, 1975. Mulcahy believed the Ford administration could use diplomacy to campaign against foreign aid to the Communist MPLA, refuse to take sides in factional fighting, or increase support for the FNLA and UNITA. He warned however that supporting UNITA would not sit well with Mobutu Sese Seko, the ruler of Zaire.[25][22] Nathaniel Davis was the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs in 1975. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Stockwell John R. Stockwell is a former CIA officer who became a critic of United States government policies after serving in the Agency for thirteen years serving seven tours of duty. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power...


Dick Clark, a Democratic Senator from Iowa, discovered the operation during a fact-finding mission in Africa, but Seymour Hersch, a reporter for The New York Times, revealed IA Feature to the public on December 13, 1975.[26] Clark proposed an amendment to the Arms Export Control Act, barring aid to private groups engaged in military or paramilitary operations in Angola. The Senate passed the bill, voting 54–22 on December 19, 1975 and the House passed the bill, voting 323–99 on January 27, 1976.[23] Ford signed the bill into law on February 9, 1976.[27] Even after the Clark Amendment became law, then-Director of Central Intelligence, George H. W. Bush, refused to concede that all U.S. aid to Angola had ceased.[28][29] According to foreign affairs analyst Jane Hunter, Israel stepped in as a proxy arms supplier for the United States after the Clark Amendment took effect.[30][2] For the U.S. counterterrorism official, see Richard Clarke Richard Clarence (Dick) Clark (born September 14, 1928 in Paris, Iowa) represented the state of Iowa in the United States Senate from 1973 to 1979. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Seymour Hersh Seymour Myron (Sy) Hersh (born April 8, 1937) is an American investigative journalist and author who contributes regularly to The New Yorker on military and security matters. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Clark amendment was an amendment to the U.S. Arms Export Control Act of 1976, named for its sponsor, Senator Dick Clark (D-Idaho). ... The Arms Export Control Act requires governments that receive weapons from the United States to use them for legitimate self-defense. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ...


The U.S. government vetoed Angolan entry into the United Nations on June 23, 1976.[31] Zambia forbid UNITA from launching attacks from its territory on December 28, 1976[32] after Angola became a member of the United Nations.[33] UN redirects here. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Vietnam

Main article: Vietnam War

The Vietnam War tempered foreign involvement in Angola's civil war as neither the Soviet Union nor the United States wanted to be drawn into an internal conflict of highly debatable importance in terms of winning the Cold War. CBS Newscaster Walter Cronkite spread this message in his broadcasts to "try to play our small part in preventing that mistake this time."[34] The Politburo engaged in heated debate over the extent to which the Soviet Union would support a continued offensive by the MPLA in February 1976. Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko and Premier Alexey Kosygin led a faction favoring less support for the MPLA and greater emphasis on preserving détente with the West. Leonid Brezhnev, the then head of the Soviet Union, won out against the dissident faction and the Soviet alliance with the MPLA continued even as Neto publicly reaffirmed its policy of non-alignment at the 15th anniversary of the First Revolt.[35] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbriviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Andrei Gromyko Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко) (July 18 (July 5, Old Style), 1909 – July 2, 1989) was Minister for Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov SSSR) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Ministrov SSSR) (1946-1991), who... Alexey Nikolayevich Kosygin (Russian: ) (1904 - December 18, 1980) was a politician and administrator in the Soviet Union. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Occident redirects here. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ...


Angolan government and Cuban troops had control over all southern cities by 1977, but roads in the south faced repeated UNITA attacks. Savimbi expressed his willingness for rapprochement with the MPLA and the formation of a unity, socialist government, but he insisted on Cuban withdrawal first. "The real enemy is Cuban colonialism," Savimbi told reporters, warning, "The Cubans have taken over the country, but sooner or later they will suffer their own Vietnam in Angola." Government and Cuban troops used flame throwers, bulldozers, and planes with napalm to destroy villages in a 1.6-mile (2.6 km) wide area along the Angola-Namibia border. Only women and children passed through this area, "Castro Corridor," because government troops had shot all males ten years of age or older to prevent them from joining the UNITA. The napalm killed cattle to feed government troops and to retaliate against UNITA sympathizers. Angolans fled from their homeland; 10,000 going south to Namibia and 16,000 east to Zambia where they lived in refugee camps.[33] Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington of the United Kingdom expressed similar concerns over British involvement in Rhodesia's Bush War during the Lancaster House negotiations in 1980.[36] Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, KG, GCMG, CH, MC, PC, JP, DL (born June 6, 1919), was British Foreign Secretary (1979–1982) and Secretary-General of NATO (1984–1988). ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at... The Lancaster House Agreement ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF), consisting of ZAPU (Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and the Zimbabwe Rhodesia government, represented at that time by Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Ian Smith. ...


Shaba invasions

Shaba Province, Zaire
Shaba Province, Zaire
Main articles: Shaba I and Shaba II

About 1,500 members of the Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC) invaded Shaba, Zaire from eastern Angola on March 7, 1977. The FNLC wanted to overthrow Mobutu and the Angolan government, suffering from Mobutu's support for the FNLA and UNITA, did not try to stop the invasion. The FNLC failed to capture Kolwezi, Zaire's economic heartland, but took Kasaji and Mutshatsha. Zairian troops were defeated without difficulty and the FNLC continued to advance. Mobutu appealed to William Eteki of Cameroon, Chairman of the Organization of African Unity, for assistance on April 2. Eight days later, the French government responded to Mobutu's plea and airlifted 1,500 Moroccan troops into Kinshasa. This troop force worked in conjunction with the Zairian army and the FNLA[37] of Angola with air cover from Egyptian pilots flying French Mirage fighter aircraft to beat back the FNLC. The counter-invasion force pushed the last of the militants, along with refugees, into Angola and Zambia in April.[38][39][40][41] Image File history File links locator map showing a province of the Democratic Republic of Congo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links locator map showing a province of the Democratic Republic of Congo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Combatants Zaire France Belgium Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC) Commanders Mobutu Sese Seko Nathaniel Mbumba Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Shaba II is a proxy war that occurred in 1978 when the FNLC, Shaba separatists, encouraged by the governments of Angola and Cuba, invaded Shaba... Shaba Province, Zaire. ... Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Lubumbashi Largest city Lubumbashi National language Swahili, Tshiluba Land area¹ 496 871 km² Governor Moïse Katumbi Chapwe Population Density 4 125 000 (est. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Kolwezi is a city in the south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Likasi in the province of Katanga. ... William Eteki Mboumouna served as the Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity from 1974 to 1978. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Map of the Dem. ... External links Party website Categories: Politics stubs | Angolan political parties ... Former South African Air Force Mirage IIICZ The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ...


Mobutu accused the Angolan government, as well as the Cuban and Soviet governments, of complicity in the war.[42] While Neto did support the FNLC, the Angolan government's support came in response to Mobutu's continued support for Angola's anti-Communists.[43] The Carter Administration, unconvinced of Cuban involvement, responded by offering a meager $15 million-worth of non-military aid. American timidity during the war prompted a shift in Zaire's foreign policy from the U.S. to France, which became Zaire's largest supplier of arms after the intervention.[44] Neto and Mobutu signed a border agreement on July 22, 1977.[45] Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James Earl... Mobutu Sese Sekos foreign policy emphasized his alliance with the United States and the Western world while ostensibly maintaining a non-aligned position in international affairs. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


John Stockwell, the Central Intelligence Agency's station chief in Angola, resigned after the invasion, explaining in an article for The Washington Post article Why I'm Leaving the CIA, published on April 10, 1977 that he had warned Secretary of State Henry Kissinger that continued American support for anti-government rebels in Angola could provoke a war with Zaire. He also said covert Soviet involvement in Angola came after, and in response to, U.S. involvement.[46] Stockwell John R. Stockwell is a former CIA officer who became a critic of United States government policies after serving in the Agency for thirteen years serving seven tours of duty. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


The FNLC invaded Shaba again on May 11, 1978, capturing Kolwezi in two days. While the Carter Administration had accepted Cuba's insistence on its non-involvement in Shaba I, and therefore did not stand with Mobutu, the U.S. government now accused Castro of complicity.[47] This time, when Mobutu appealed for foreign assistance, the U.S. government worked with the French and Belgian militaries to beat back the invasion, the first military cooperation between France and the United States since the Vietnam War.[48][49] The French Foreign Legion took back Kolwezi after a seven-day battle and airlifted 2,250 European citizens to Belgium, but not before the FNLC massacred 80 Europeans and 200 Africans. In one instance the FNLC killed 34 European civilians who had hidden in a room. The FNLC retreated to Zambia, vowing to return to Angola. The Zairian army then forcibly evicted civilians along Shaba's 65-mile (105 km) long border with Angola. Mobutu, wanting to prevent any chance of another invasion, ordered his troops to shoot on sight.[50] is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Legionnaire redirects here. ...


U.S. mediated negotiations between the Angolan and Zairian governments led to a peace accord in 1979 and an end to support for insurgencies in each others' respective countries. Zaire temporarily cutoff support to FLEC, the FNLA, and UNITA and Angola forbid further activity by the FNLC.[48] FLEC (Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda) is a liberation movement in Cabinda, Angola. ... External links Party website Categories: Politics stubs | Angolan political parties ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ...


Nitistas

Neto's Interior Minister, Nito Alves, had successfully put down Daniel Chipenda's Eastern Revolt and the Active Revolt during Angola's War of Independence. Factionalism within the MPLA became a major challenge to Neto's power by late 1975 and he gave Alves the task of once again clamping down on dissent. Alves shut down the Cabral and Henda Committees while expanding his influence within the MPLA through his control of the nation's newspapers and state-run television. Alves visited the Soviet Union in October 1976. When he returned, Neto began taking steps to neutralize the threat he saw in the Nitistas, followers of Alves. Neto called a plenum meeting of the Central Committee of the MPLA. Neto formally designated the party Marxist-Leninist, abolished the Interior Ministry and DOM, the official branch of the MPLA used by the Nitistas, and established a Commission of Enquiry. Neto used the commission, officially created to examine and report factionalism, to target the Nitistas, and ordered the commission to issue a report of its findings in March 1977. Alves and Chief of Staff José Van-Dunem, his political ally, began planning a coup d'état against dos Santos.[51] The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ... Nito Alves was a member of the MPLA and commander of the special forces during the presidency of Agostinho Neto in Angola. ... Daniel Chipenda (died on February 28, 1996) fought in the Angolan War of Independence, serving as the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angolas (MPLA) field commander in the Eastern Front before founding and leading the Eastern Revolt. ... The Eastern Revolt (Portuguese: Revolta do Leste; RDL) is an Angolan nationalist organization that fought in the war for independence from Portugal under the leadership of Daniel Chipenda. ... Plenum may refer to: the antithesis of a vacuum; in other words, completely filled space. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Coup redirects here. ...


Alves represented the MPLA at the 25th Soviet Communist Party Congress in February 1977 and may have then obtained support for the coup from the Soviet Union. Alves and Van-Dunem planned to arrest Neto on May 21 before he arrived at a meeting of the Central Committee and before the commission released its report. The MPLA changed the location of the meeting shortly before its scheduled start, throwing the plotters' plans into disarray, but Alves attended the meeting and faced the commission anyway. The commission released its report, accusing him of factionalism. Alves fought back, denouncing Neto for not aligning Angola with the Soviet Union. After twelve hours of debate, the party voted 26 to 6 to dismiss Alves and Van-Dunem from their positions.[51] is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ten armored cars with the FAPLA's 8th Brigade broke into São Paulo prison at 4 a.m. on May 27, killing the prison warden and freeing more than 150 supporters, including 11 who had been arrested only a few days before. The brigade took control of the radio station in Luanda at 7 a.m. and announced their coup, calling themselves the MPLA Action Committee. The brigade asked citizens to show their support for the coup by demonstrating in front of the presidential palace. The Nitistas captured Bula and Dangereaux, generals loyal to Neto, but Neto had moved his base of operations from the palace to the Ministry of Defence in fear of such an uprising. Cuban troops retook the palace at Neto's request and marched to the radio station. After an hour of fighting, the Cubans succeeded and proceeded to the barracks of the 8th brigade, recaptured by 1:30 p.m. While the Cuban force captured the palace and radio station, the Nitistas kidnapped seven leaders within the government and the military, shooting and killing six.[52] is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ...


The government arrested tens of thousands of suspected Nitistas from May to November and tried them in secret courts overseen by Defense Minister Iko Carreira. Those who were found guilty, including Van-Dunem, Jacobo "Immortal Monster" Caetano, the head of the 8th Brigade, and political commissar Eduardo Evaristo, were then shot and buried in secret graves. The coup attempt had a lasting effect on Angola's foreign relations. Alves had opposed Neto's foreign policy of non-alignment, evolutionary socialism, and multiracialism, favoring stronger relations with the Soviet Union, which he wanted to grant military bases in Angola. While Cuban soldiers actively helped Neto put down the coup, Alves and Neto both believed the Soviet Union supported Neto's ouster. Raúl Castro sent an additional four thousand troops to prevent further dissension within the MPLA's ranks and met with Neto in August in a display of solidarity. In contrast, Neto's distrust in the Soviet leadership increased and relations with the USSR worsened.[52] In December, the MPLA held is first party Congress and changed its name to the MPLA-PT. The Nitista coup took a toll on the MPLA's membership. In 1975, the MPLA reached 200,000 members. After the first party congress, that number decreased to 30,000.[53][54][51][55][56] This article is about secret police as organizations. ... General Henrique Iko Teles Carreira (1933-2000) served as the first Defense Minister of Angola from 1975 to 1980 during the civil war. ... The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... Evolutionary socialism is a form of socialist theory which was originally developed by Eduard Bernstein. ... This article is about the Cuban politician. ...


Rise of dos Santos

The Soviets, trying to increase their influence in Luanda, began sending busts of Vladimir Lenin, a plane full of brochures with Brezhnev's speech at the February 1976 Party Congress, and two planes full of pamphlets denouncing Mao, to Angola. They sent so many busts that they ran out in the summer of 1976 and requested more from the CPSU Propaganda Department. Despite the best efforts of the Soviet propaganda machine and persistent lobbying by G. A. Zverev, the Soviet chargé d'affaires, Neto stood his ground, refusing to grant the permanent military bases the Soviets so desperately wanted in Angola. Neto allies like Defense Minister Iko Carreira and MPLA General Secretary Lúcio Lara also irked the Soviet leadership through their policies and personalities. With Alves out of the picture, the Soviet Union promoted Prime Minister Lopo do Nascimento, another 'internationalist', against Neto, a 'careerist,' for the MPLA's leadership.[57] Neto moved swiftly to crush his adversary. The MPLA-PT's Central Committee met from December 6 to 9. The Committee concluded the meeting by firing Nascimento as both Prime Minister and as Secretary of the Politburo, the Director of National Television, and the Director of Jornal de Angola. Commander C. R. Dilolua resigned as Second Deputy Prime Minister and a member of the Politburo.[58] Later that month the Committee abolished the positions of Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister. Paving the way for dos Santos, Neto increased the ethnic composition of the MPLA-PT's political bureau as he replaced the hardline Old Guard with new blood.[59] On July 5, 1979, Neto issued a decree requiring all citizens to serve in the military for three years upon turning the age of 18. The government gave a report to the UN estimating $293 million in property damage from South African attacks between 1976 and 1979, asking for compensation on August 3, 1979. The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Cabinda, a Cabindan separatist rebel group, attacked a Cuban base near Tshiowa on August 11.[60] Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev  listen? ( Russian: Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев) ( December 19, 1906 – November 10, 1982) was effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... Arseni Grigoryevich Zverev (1900 - 1969), Russian Soviet administrator; Soviet finance minister 1938-1948, 1948-1960. ... In diplomacy, chargé daffaires (French for in charge of business), is the title of two classes of diplomatic agents: Chargés daffaires (ministres chargés daffaires), who were placed by the reglement of the Congress of Vienna in the fourth class of diplomatic agents, are heads of... Lúcio Lara (Tchiweka) was an Angolan nationalist and independence leader as part of the MPLA. Lara was a founding member of the MPLA and led the first MPLA members into Luanda on 8 November 1974. ... Lopo Fortunato Ferreira do Nascimento (born 1942) is an Angolan politician. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Cabinda (Portuguese: Movimento Popular de Libertação de Cabinda; MPLC) is a militant separatist group fighting for the independence of Cabinda from Angola. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


President Neto died from inoperable cancer in Moscow on September 10, 1979. Lara and Pascual Luvualo flew to Moscow and the MPLA declared 45 days of mourning. The government held his funeral at the Palace of the People on September 17. Many foreign dignitaries, including Organization of African Unity President William R. Tolbert, Jr. of Liberia, attended. The Central Committee of the MPLA unanimously voted in favor of José Eduardo dos Santos as President. He was sworn in on September 21. Under dos Santos' leadership, Angolan troops crossed the border into Namibia for the first time on October 31, going into Kavango. The next day, the governments of Angola, Zambia, and Zaire signed a non-aggression pact.[60] For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Richard Tolbert, Jr. ... José Eduardo dos Santos (born August 28, 1942 in Luanda) is the current President, Head of Government, and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Angola. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kavango people reside on the Namibian side of the Namibian-Angolan border. ... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ...


1980s

Main article: 1980s in Angola
SWAPO's and South Africa's operations (1978–1980)

In the 1980s, fighting spread outward from southeastern Angola, where most of the fighting had taken place in the 1970s, as the National Congolese Army (ANC) and SWAPO increased their activity. The South African government responded by sending troops back into Angola, intervening in the war from 1981 to 1987,[20] prompting the Soviet Union to deliver massive amounts of military aid from 1981 to 1986. The USSR gave the Angolan government more than US$2 billion in aid in 1984.[61] In 1981, newly elected United States President Ronald Reagan's U.S. assistant secretary of state for African affairs, Chester Crocker, developed a linkage policy, tying Namibian independence to Cuban withdrawal and peace in Angola.[62][63] The South-West Africa Peoples Organisation (SWAPO) was founded, along with a number of other groups, as a liberation organisation: following the first world war, South-West Africa — formerly a German colony — was turned over to South Africa to rule as a mandate for the British. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Chester A. Crocker The policy of constructive engagement, by means of which the administration of former president Ronald Reagan sought to influence events in South Africa with the carrot of closer ties with the white-minority government in Pretoria rather than with the stick of economic sanctions, was the brainchild... ...


The South African military attacked insurgents in Cunene Province on May 12, 1980. The Angolan Ministry of Defense accused the South African government of wounding and killing civilians. Nine days later, the SADF attacked again, this time in Cuando-Cubango, and the MPLA threatened to respond militarily. The SADF launched a full-scale invasion of Angola through Cunene and Cuando-Cubango on June 7, destroying SWAPO's operational command headquarters on June 13, in what Prime Minister Botha described as a "shock attack". The Angolan government arrested 120 Angolans who were planning to set off explosives in Luanda, on June 24, foiling a plot purportedly orchestrated by the South African government. Three days later, the United Nations Security Council convened at the behest of Angola's ambassador to the UN, E. de Figuerido, and condemned South Africa's incursions into Angola. President Mobutu of Zaire also sided with the MPLA. The Angolan government recorded 529 instances in which South African forces violated Angola's territorial sovereignty between January and June 1980.[64] is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


Cuba increased its troop force in Angola from 35,000 in 1982 to 40,000 in 1985. South African forces tried to capture Lubango, capital of Huíla province, in Operation Askari in December 1983.[62] Lubango is the capital city of the Angolan province of Huíla. ... Huíla is a province of Angola. ... Operation Askari was a military operation by the South African Defence Force (SADF) during the South African Border War. ...


On June 2, 1985, American conservative activists held the Democratic International, a symbolic meeting of anti-Communist militants, at UNITA's headquarters in Jamba.[65] Primarily funded by Rite Aid founder Lewis Lehrman and organized by anti-Communist activists Jack Abramoff and Jack Wheeler, participants included Savimbi, Adolfo Calero, leader of the Nicaraguan Contras, Pa Kao Her, Hmong Laotian rebel leader, U.S. Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, South African security forces, Abdurrahim Wardak, Afghan Mujahideen leader, Jack Wheeler, American conservative policy advocate, and many others.[66] While the Reagan administration, although unwilling to publicly support the meeting, privately expressed approval. The governments of Israel and South Africa supported the idea, but both respective countries were deemed inadvisable for hosting the conference.[66] is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Democratic International, also known as the Jamba Jamboree, was a 1985 meeting of anti-communist global insurgents held at the headquarters of UNITA in the southeast Angolan city of Jamba, Angola. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ... A typical Rite Aid pharmacy. ... Lewis E. Lew Lehrman is a former executive of Rite Aid and conservative activist. ... Jack Abramoff (born February 28, 1958) is an American political lobbyist, a Republican political activist and businessman who is a central figure in a series of high-profile political scandals. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... For other uses, see Contra. ... Pa Kao Her (Paj Kaub Hawj) was the leader of the Hmong Chao Fa movement in Laos after the fall of Laos to the communist faction. ... Hmong may refer to: Hmong people, an ethnic group in China and Southeast Asia Hmong language, a cluster of closely related Hmong-Mien languages Hmong customs and culture Category: ... The Lao Peoples Democratic Republic is a landlocked country in southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (commonly known in the west as Burma) and the Peoples Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Oliver Laurence North (born October 7, 1943 in San Antonio, Texas) is most well known for his involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair. ... General Abdurrahim Wardak is the current Defence Minister of Afghanistan. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ... President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ...


The participants released a communiqué stating,

"We, free peoples fighting for our national independence and human rights, assembled at Jamba, declare our solidarity with all freedom movements in the world and state our commitment to cooperate to liberate our nations from the Soviet Imperialists."

The United States House of Representatives voted 236 to 185 to repeal the Clark Amendment on July 11, 1985.[67] The Angolan government began attacking UNITA later that month from Luena towards Cazombo along the Benguela Railway, taking Cazombo on September 18. The government tried unsuccessfully to take UNITA's supply depot in Mavinga from [[[Menongue]]. While the attack failed, very different interpretations of the attack emerged. UNITA claimed Portuguese-speaking Soviet officers led government troops while the government said UNITA relied on South African paratroopers to defeat the government. The South African government admitted to fighting in the area, but said its troops fought SWAPO militants.[68] Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The South-West Africa Peoples Organisation (SWAPO) was founded, along with a number of other groups, as a liberation organisation: following the first world war, South-West Africa — formerly a German colony — was turned over to South Africa to rule as a mandate for the British. ...


A war intensifies

SWAPO's and South Africa's operations (1981–1984)
SWAPO's and South Africa's operations (1981–1984)

By 1986, Angola began to assume a more central role in the Cold War, with both the Soviet Union, Cuba and other East bloc nations enhancing support for the MPLA government, and American conservatives beginning to elevate their support for Savimbi's UNITA. Savimbi developed close relations with influential American conservatives, who saw Savimbi as a key ally in the U.S. effort to oppose and rollback Soviet-backed, non-democratic governments around the world. The conflict quickly escalated, with both Washington and Moscow seeing it as a critical strategic conflict in the Cold War. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


The Soviet Union gave an additional $1 billion in aid to the Angolan government and Cuba sent an additional 2,000 troops to the 35,000-strong force in Angola to protect Chevron oil platforms in 1986.[68] Savimbi had called Chevron's presence in Angola, already protected by Cuban troops, a "target" for UNITA in an interview with Foreign Policy magazine on January 31.[69] Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... An issue of the Foreign Policy magazine. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Washington, Savimbi forged close relationships with influential conservatives, including Michael Johns (the Heritage Foundation's foreign policy analyst and a key Savimbi advocate), Grover Norquist (President of Americans for Tax Reform and a Savimbi economic advisor), and others, who played critical roles in elevating escalated U.S. covert aide to Savimbi's UNITA and visited with Savimbi in his Jamba, Angola headquarters to provide the Angolan rebel leader with military, political and other guidance in his war against the Angolan government. With enhanced U.S. support, the war quickly escalated, both in terms of the intensity of the conflict and also in its perception as a key conflict in the overall Cold War.[70][71] Michael Johns (born September 8, 1964 in Allentown, Pennsylvania) is an American health care executive, former federal government of the United States official and conservative policy analyst and writer. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... Grover Norquist Grover Glenn Norquist (born October 19, 1956) is an influential American conservative activist and lobbyist. ... Americans for Tax Reform is an interest group seeking to reduce the overall level of taxation in the United States, at the federal, state and local level. ... Jamba is a town in southeast Angola in the province of Huíla. ...


In addition to escalating its military support for UNITA, the Reagan administration and its conservative allies also worked to expand recognition of Savimbi as a key U.S. ally in an important Cold War struggle. In January 1986, Reagan invited Savimbi to meet with him at the White House. Following the meeting, Reagan spoke of UNITA winning a victory that "electrifies the world" at the White House in January 1986. Two months later, Reagan announced the delivery of Stinger surface-to-air missiles as part of the $25 million in aid UNITA received from the U.S. government.[72][62] Jeremias Chitunda, UNITA's representative to the U.S., became the Vice President of UNITA in August 1986 at the sixth party congress.[73] Fidel Castro made Crocker's proposal, the withdrawal of foreign troops from Angola and Namibia, a prerequisite to Cuban withdrawal from Angola on September 10. For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The FIM-92 Stinger is a personal portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile developed in the United States and used by all the U.S. armed services, with whom it entered service in 1981. ... Jeremias Chitunda (died 1 November 1992) was a leader in the rebel group UNITA. He served as vice-president of the group until his death in November 1992 after street battles in the capital, Luanda. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


UNITA forces attacked Camabatela in Cuanza Norte province on February 8, 1987. ANGOP alleged UNITA massacred civilians in Damba in Uíge Province later that month, on February 26. The South African government agreed to Crocker's terms in principle on March 8. Savimbi proposed a truce regarding the Benguela railway on March 26, saying MPLA trains could pass through as long as an international inspection group monitored trains to prevent their use for counter-insurgency activity. The government did not respond. In April 1987 Fidel Castro sent Cuba's Fiftieth Brigade to southern Angola, increasing the number of Cuban troops from 12,000 to 15,000.[74] The Angolan and American governments began negotiating in June 1987.[75][76] Categories: Africa geography stubs | Provinces of Angola ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Uíge is a province of Angola. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Benguela railway is a railroad operated by the Caminho de Ferro de Benguela that connects the Atlantic port of Lobito, Angola, to the railroad systems of Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Zambia. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...


Cuito Cuanavale and New York City

Main articles: Battle of Cuito Cuanavale and New York Accords
Cuando Cubango province
Cuando Cubango province

UNITA and South African forces attacked the MPLA's base at Cuito Cuanavale in Cuando Cubango province from January 13 to March 23, 1988, in the second largest battle in the history of Africa,[77] after the Battle of El Alamein,[78] the largest in sub-Saharan Africa since World War II.[79] Cuito Cuanavale's importance came not from its size or its wealth but its location. South African Defense Forces maintained an overwatch on the city using new, G5 artillery pieces. Both sides claimed victory in the ensuing Battle of Cuito Cuanavale.[80][81][82][62] Belligerents FAPLA Cuba SWAPO South Africa UNITA Commanders Gen. ... The New York Accords granted independence to Namibia and ended the direct involvement of foreign troops in the Angolan Civil War. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The battle of Cuito Cuanavale was one of the most important episodes of the Civil War in Angola, which started in 1975 and ended in 2002. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Provinces of Angola ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The History of Africa begins from the emergence of modern human beings to its current state as a politically developing continent. ... Belligerents Australia Free French Greece New Zealand South Africa United Kingdom Indian Empire Germany Italy Commanders Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Georg Stumme Ettore Bastico Strength 220,000 men 1,029 tanks[1] 750 aircraft (530 serviceable) 900 medium and field artillery guns[2] 1,401 Anti Tank Guns... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The G5 is a South African towed howitzer produced by Denel. ...


The Cuban government joined negotiations on January 28, 1988, and all three parties held a round of negotiations on March 9. The South African government joined negotiations on May 3 and the parties met in June and August in New York and Geneva. All parties agreed to a ceasefire on August 8. Representatives from the governments of Angola, Cuba, and South Africa signed the New York Accords, granting independence to Namibia and ending the direct involvement of foreign troops in the civil war, in New York City on December 22, 1988.[76][62] The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 626 later that day, creating the United Nations Angola Verification Mission, a UN peacekeeping force. UNAVEM troops began arriving in Angola in January 1989.[83] is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... The United Nations Angola Verification Mission I is a peacekeeping mission that existed from January 1989 to June 1991 in Angola during the civil war. ...


Despite ongoing negotiations for a peace settlement, Castro was determined to end Cuba's intervention in Angola with his forces on the offensive.[84] In June 1998, he therefore committed his "personal" 50th division to the conflict to attack the strategically important Calueque Dam. On June 27, 1988, Cuban MIGs and a ground force of 600 infantry and 35 tanks attacked SADF positions near the Calueque dam, 11km north of the Namibian border. [84] The CIA reported that “Cuba’s successful use of air power and the apparent weakness of Pretoria’s air defences” highlighted the fact that Havana had achieved air superiority in southern Angola and northern Namibia. Only a few hours after the Cuban’s air strike, the SADF destroyed a nearby bridge over the Cunene River. They did so, the CIA surmised, “to deny Cuban and Angolan ground forces easy passage to the Namibia border and to reduce the number of positions they must defend.” [85] is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 (Russian: ; NATO reporting name: Flogger) is a swing-wing fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich bureau in the Soviet Union. ...


Ceasefire

Main article: Gbadolite

As the Angolan Civil War began to take on a diplomatic component, in addition to a military one, two key Savimbi allies, The Conservative Caucus' Howard Phillips and the Heritage Foundation's Michael Johns visited Savimbi in Angola, where they sought to persuade Savimbi to come to the United States in the spring of 1989 to help the Conservative Caucus, the Heritage Foundation and other conservatives in making the case for continued U.S. aid to UNITA.[86] Gbadolite is a town in northern Equateur province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The Conservative Caucus, or TCC, is an American public policy organization and lobbying group emphasizing grassroots citizen activism and headquartered in Vienna, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1974 by Howard Phillips, who continues to lead it today. ... Howard Phillips (born February 6, 1941 in Boston, Massachusetts) is an American conservative political figure. ...


President Mobutu invited 18 African leaders, Savimbi, and dos Santos to his palace in Gbadolite in June 1989 for negotiations. Savimbi and dos Santos met for the first time and agreed to the Gbadolite Declaration, a ceasefire, on June 22, paving the way for a future peace agreement.[87][88] President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia said a few days after the declaration that Savimbi had agreed to leave Angola and go into exile, a claim Mobutu, Savimbi, and the U.S. government disputed.[88] Dos Santos agreed with Kaunda's interpretation of the negotiations, saying Savimbi had agreed to temporarily leave the country.[89] Gbadolite is a town in northern Equateur province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991. ...


On August 23, dos Santos complained that the U.S. and South African governments continued to fund UNITA, warning such activity endangered the already fragile ceasefire. The next day Savimbi announced UNITA would no longer abide by the ceasefire, citing Kaunda's insistence that Savimbi leave the country and UNITA disband. The government responded to Savimbi's statement by moving troops from Cuito Cuanavale, under government control, to UNITA-occupied Mavinga. The ceasefire broke down with dos Santos and the U.S. government blaming each other for the resumption in armed conflict.[90] {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1990s

Political changes abroad and military victories at home allowed the government to transition from a nominally communist state to a nominally democratic one. Namibia's declaration of independence, internationally recognized on April 1, eliminated the southwestern front of combat as South African forces withdrew to the east.[91] The MPLA abolished the one-party system in June and rejected Marxist-Leninism at the MPLA's third Congress in December, formally changing the party's name from the MPLA-PT to the MPLA.[87] The National Assembly passed law 12/91 in May 1991, coinciding with the withdrawal of the last Cuban troops, defining Angola as a "democratic state based on the rule of law" with a multi-party system.[92] Observers met such changes with skepticism. American journalist Karl Maier wrote, "In the New Angola ideology is being replaced by the bottom line, as security and selling expertise in weaponry have become a very profitable business. With its wealth in oil and diamonds, Angola is like a big swollen carcass and the vultures are swirling overhead. Savimbi's former allies are switching sides, lured by the aroma of hard currency."[93] LAngolagate, as it is known in the French press, was an arms-for-oil scandal involving deals between French businessman Pierre Falcone, the head of a firm called Brenco International; his colleague Jean-Christophe Mitterrand, the son of the former French president; and a Russian-born Israeli named Arkadi... Map of Angola The United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (or UNAVEM II), established May 1991 and lasting until February 1995, was the second United Nations peacekeeping mission of four deployed to Angola during the course of the Angolan Civil War, the longest war in modern African history. ... Combatants AFDL, Uganda, Rwanda Zaire Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila Mobutu Sésé Seko Casualties Civilians killed: 200,000+ The First Congo War was a conflict from late 1996 to 1997 in which Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Marxism-Leninism, strictly speaking, refers to the version of Marxist theory developed by Vladimir Lenin; see Leninism. ... The National Assembly (Portuguese: Assembleia Nacional) is the legislative branch of the government of Angola. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ...


Black, Manafort, Stone and Kelly

Main article: Black, Manafort, Stone and Kelly

Government troops wounded Savimbi in battles in January and February 1990, but not enough to restrict his mobility[94] He went to Washington, D.C. in December and met with President George H. W. Bush again,[87] the fourth of five trips he made to the United States. Savimbi paid Black, Manafort, Stone, and Kelly, a lobbying firm based in Washington, D.C., $5 million to lobby the Federal government for aid, portray UNITA favorably in Western media, and acquire support among politicos in D.C. Savimbi reaped huge rewards.[95] For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... United States Government redirects here. ...


Senators Larry Smith and Dante Fascell, a senior member of the firm, worked with the Cuban American National Foundation, Representative Claude Pepper of Florida, Neal Blair's Free the Eagle, and Howard Phillips The Conservative Caucus to repeal the Clark Amendment in 1985.[96] From the amendment's repeal in 1985 to 1992 the U.S. government gave Savimbi $60 million per year, a total of $300 million. A sizable amount of the aid went to Savimbi's personal expenses. Black, Manafort filed foreign lobbying records with the U.S. Justice Department showing Savimbi's expenses during his U.S. visits. During his December 1990 visit he spent $136,424 at the Park Hyatt hotel and $2,705 in tips. He spent almost $473,000 in October 1991 during his week-long visit to Washington and Manhattan. He spent $98,022 in hotel bills, at the Park Hyatt, $26,709 in limousine rides in Washington and another $5,293 in Manhattan. Paul Manafort, a partner in the firm, charged Savimbi $19,300 in consulting and additional $1,712 in expenses. He also bought $1,143 worth of "survival kits" from Motorola. When questioned in an interview in 1990 about human rights abuses under Savimbi, Black said, "Now when you're in a war, trying to manage a war, when the enemy... is no more than a couple of hours away from you at any given time, you might not run your territory according to New Hampshire town meeting rules."[95] Larry Smith may refer to: Larry Smith, current president of the Montreal Alouettes. ... Dante Bruno Fascell (March 9, 1917 – November 28, 1998) was a politician from the state of Florida. ... The Cuban American National Foundation (CANF) is a non-profit organization dedicated to overthrowing the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. ... Claude Denson Pepper (September 8, 1900 – May 30, 1989) was an American politician of the Democratic Party, and a spokesman for liberalism and the elderly. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Howard Phillips (born February 6, 1941 in Boston, Massachusetts) is an American conservative political figure. ... The Conservative Caucus, or TCC, is an American public policy organization and lobbying group emphasizing grassroots citizen activism and headquartered in Vienna, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1974 by Howard Phillips, who continues to lead it today. ... The Clark amendment was an amendment to the U.S. Arms Export Control Act of 1976, named for its sponsor, Senator Dick Clark (D-Idaho). ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... Park Hyatt is Hyatts premium brand of hotels and resorts. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Motorola Inc. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...


Bicesse Accords

Main article: Bicesse Accords

President dos Santos met with Savimbi in Lisbon, Portugal and signed the Bicesse Accords, the first of three major peace agreements, on May 31, 1991, with the mediation of the Portuguese government. The accords laid out a transition to multi-party democracy under the supervision of the United Nations' UNAVEM II mission with a presidential election in a year. The agreement attempted to demobilize the 152,000 active fighters and integrate the remaining government troops and UNITA rebels into a 50,000-strong Angolan Armed Forces (FAA). The FAA would consist of a national army with 40,000 troops, navy with 6,000, and air force with 4,000.[97] While UNITA largely did not disarm, the FAA complied with the accord and demobilized, leaving the government disadvantaged.[98] This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Lisbon (in Portuguese, Lisboa) is the capital and largest city of Portugal. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... For other uses, see Portugal (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ... Map of Angola The United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II), established May 1991 and lasting until February 1995, was the second United Nations peacekeeping mission of four deployed to Angola during the course of the Angolan Civil War, the longest war in modern African history. ... Angolas military is called the FAA, the Portuguese acronym for Angolan Armed Forces, headed by a Chief of Staff who reports to the Minister of Defense. ...


Angola held the first round of its 1992 presidential election on September 29–30. Dos Santos officially received 49.57% of the vote and Savimbi won 40.6%. As no candidate received 50% or more of the vote, election law dictated a second round of voting between the top two contenders. Savimbi, along with many other election observers, said the election had been neither free nor fair, but he sent Jeremias Chitunda, Vice President of UNITA, to Luanda to negotiate the terms of the second round.[99][100] The election process broke down on October 31, when government troops in Luanda attacked UNITA. Civilians, using guns they had received from police a few days earlier, conducted house-by-house raids with the Rapid Intervention Police, killing and detaining hundreds of UNITA supporters. The government took civilians in trucks to the Camama cemetery and Morro da Luz ravine, shot them, and buried them in mass graves. Assailants attacked Chitunda's convoy on November 2, pulling him out of his car and shooting him and two others in their faces.[100] The Angolan presidential election of 1992 was the first multi-party election held in Angola since independence in 1975. ... Jeremias Chitunda (died 1 November 1992) was a leader in the rebel group UNITA. He served as vice-president of the group until his death in November 1992 after street battles in the capital, Luanda. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:Mass Grave Bergen Belsen May 1945. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Then, in a series of stunning victories, UNITA regained control over Caxito, Huambo, M'banza Kongo, Ndalatando, and Uíge, provincial capitals it had not held since 1976, and moved against Kuito, Luena, and Malange. Although the U.S. and South African governments had stopped aiding UNITA, supplies continued to come from Mobutu in Zaire.[101] UNITA tried to wrest control of Cabinda from the MPLA in January 1993. Edward DeJarnette, Head of the U.S. Liaison Office in Angola for the Clinton Administration, warned Savimbi that, if UNITA hindered or halted Cabinda's production, the U.S. would end its support for UNITA. On January 9, UNITA began a 55-day long battle over Huambo, the War of the Cities. Hundreds of thousands fled and 10,000 were killed before UNITA gained control on March 7. The government engaged in an ethnic cleansing of Bakongo, and, to a lesser extent Ovimbundu, in multiple cities, most notably Luanda, on January 22 in the Bloody Friday massacre. UNITA and government representatives met five days later in Ethiopia, but negotiations failed to restore the peace.[102] The United Nations Security Council sanctioned UNITA through Resolution 864 on September 15, 1993, prohibiting the sale of weapons or fuel to UNITA. Perhaps the clearest shift in U.S. foreign policy emerged when President Clinton issued Executive Order 12865 on September 23, labeling UNITA a "continuing threat to the foreign policy objectives of the U.S.".[103] By August 1993, UNITA had gained control over 70% of Angola, but the government's military successes in 1994 forced UNITA to sue for peace. By November 1994, the government had taken control of 60% of the country. Savimbi called the situation UNITA's "deepest crisis" since its creation.[93][104][105] Caxito is a town located in northwestern Angola. ... For Huambo the location in Amazonas, Peru, see Huambo District Huambo is the capital of Huambo province in Angola. ... Mbanza-Kongo, formerly known as São Salvador, is the capital of Angolas northwestern Zaire Province. ... Ndalatando (pre-1975: Vila Salazar) is a town located in northwestern Angola. ... Uíge (pre-1975: Carmona) is the capital city of Uíge Province in Angola. ... President Clintons Cabinet, circa 1993 Headed by President of the United States Bill Clinton, the Clinton Administation was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... The Bakongo people (aka. ... The Ovimbundu (aka Mbundu or Umbundu) are a large ethnic group of traders, farmers and herders who live on the Benguela Plateau of central Angola, Africa. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bloody Friday can refer to various events in history that occurred on a Friday: Bloody Friday (1919), also known as the 1919 Battle of George Square Bloody Friday (1972) Bloody Sunday Bloody Monday Bloody Thursday Bloody Saturday Bloody Mary Category: ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Category: ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... President of the United States, George W. Bush (right) at Camp David in March 2003, hosting the British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ... The presidential seal was used by Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lusaka Protocol

Main article: Lusaka Protocol

Savimbi, unwilling to personally sign an accord, had former UNITA Secretary General Eugenio Manuvakola represent UNITA in his place. Manuvakola and Angolan Foreign Minister Venancio de Moura signed the Lusaka Protocol in Lusaka, Zambia on October 31, 1994, agreeing to integrate and disarm UNITA. Both sides signed a ceasefire as part of the protocol on November 20.[104][105] Under the agreement the government and UNITA would ceasefire and demobilize. 5,500 UNITA members, including 180 militants, would join the Angolan National police, 1,200 UNITA members, including 40 militants, would join the rapid reaction police force, and UNITA generals would become officers in the Angolan Armed Forces. Foreign mercenaries would return to their home countries and all parties would stop acquiring foreign arms. The agreement gave UNITA politicians homes and a headquarters. The government agree to appoint UNITA members to head the Mines, Commerce, Health, and Tourism ministries, in addition to seven deputy ministers, ambassadors, the governorships of Uige, Lunda Sul, and Cuando Cubango, deputy governors, municipal administrators, deputy administrators, and commune administrators. The government would release all prisoners and give amnesty to all militants involved in the civil war.[104][105] Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe and South African President Nelson Mandela met in Lusaka on November 15, 1994 to boost support symbolically for the protocol. Mugabe and Mandela both said they would be willing to meet with Savimbi and Mandela asked him to come to South Africa, but Savimbi did not come. The agreement created a joint commission, consisting of officials from the Angolan government, UNITA, and the UN with the governments of Portugal, the United States, and Russia observing, to oversee its implementation. Violations of the protocol's provisions would be discussed and reviewed by the commission.[104] The protocol's provisions, integrating UNITA into the military, a ceasefire, and a coalition government, were similar to those of the Alvor Agreement that granted Angola independence from Portugal in 1975. Many of the same environmental problems, mutual distrust between UNITA and the MPLA, loose international oversight, the importation of foreign arms, and an overemphasis on maintaining the balance of power, led to the collapse of the protocol.[105] The Lusaka Protocol, signed in Lusaka, Zambia on October 31, 1994, attempted to end the Angolan Civil War by integrating and disarming UNITA and national reconciliation. ... Eugenio Manuvakola is the leader of UNITA Renovada, a breakaway faction of the UNITA political party in Angola. ... The Lusaka Protocol, signed in Lusaka, Zambia on October 31, 1994, attempted to end the Angolan Civil War by integrating and disarming UNITA and national reconciliation. ... Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... Angolas military is called the FAA, the Portuguese acronym for Angolan Armed Forces, headed by a Chief of Staff who reports to the Minister of Defense. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Zimbabwe. ... Mugabe redirects here. ... The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Alvor Agreement, signed on January 15, 1975, granted Angola independence from Portugal that November 11, ending the war for independence while marking the transition to civil war. ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ...


Arms monitoring

In January 1995, United States President Bill Clinton sent Paul Hare, his envoy to Angola, to support the Lusaka Protocol and impress the importance of the ceasefire onto the Angolan government and UNITA, both in need of outside assistance.[106] The United Nations agreed to send a peacekeeping force on February 8.[20] Savimbi met with South African President Nelson Mandela in May. Shortly after, on June 18, the MPLA offered Savimbi the position of Vice President under dos Santos with another Vice President chosen from the MPLA. Savimbi told Mandela he felt ready to "serve in any capacity which will aid my nation," but he did not accept the proposal until August 12.[107][108] The United States Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency's Angola operations and analysis expanded in an effort to halt weapons shipments,[106] a violation of the protocol, with limited success. The Angolan government bought six Mil Mi-17 from Ukraine in 1995.[109] The government bought L-39 attack aircraft from the Czech Republic in 1998 along with ammunition and uniforms from Zimbabwe Defence Industries and ammunition and weapons from Ukraine in 1998 and 1999.[109] U.S. monitoring significantly dropped off in 1997 as events in Zaire, the Congo and then Liberia occupied more of the U.S. government's attention.[106] UNITA purchased more than 20 FROG-7 scuds and three FOX 7 missiles from the North Korean government in 1999.[110] William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... UN redirects here. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... CIA redirects here. ... Mil Mi-17 The Mil Mi-17 (Also known as the Mi-8MT, NATO reporting name Hip-H) is a Russian helicopter currently in production at two factories in Kazan and Ulan-Ude. ... FROG-7B (Luna M) FROG-7B (Luna M) FROG-7B (Luna M) FROG-7B (Luna M) The FROG-7 is the final version of the FROG family of unguided, spin-stabilized, short-range artillery rockets. ...


The UN extended its mandate on February 8, 1996. In March, Savimbi and dos Santos formally agreed to form a coalition government.[20] The government deported 2,000 West African and Lebanese Angolans in Operation Cancer Two, in August 1996, on the grounds that dangerous minorities were responsible for the rising crime rate.[111] In 1996 the Angolan government bought military equipment from India, two Mil Mi-24 attack helicopters and three Sukhoi Su-17 from Kazakhstan in December, and helicopters from Slovakia in March.[109] is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Mil Mi-24 (Cyrillic Миль Ми-24, NATO reporting name Hind) is a large helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport produced by Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant and operated from 1972 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations. ... Polish decomissioned Su-20 Front view of Su-20 Polish Su-22 Two aircraft share the designation Su-17 The Sukhoi Su-17 (NATO reporting name Fitter) was a Soviet attack aircraft developed from the Su-7 fighter-bomber. ...


The international community helped install a Government of Unity and National Reconciliation in April 1997, but UNITA did not allow the regional MPLA government to take up residence in 60 cities. The UN Security Council voted on August 28, 1997 to impose sanctions on UNITA through Resolution 1127, prohibiting UNITA leaders from traveling abroad, closing UNITA's embassies abroad, and making UNITA-controlled areas a no-fly zone. The Security Council expanded the sanctions through Resolution 1173 on June 12, 1998, requiring government certification for the purchase of Angolan diamonds and freezing UNITA's bank accounts.[101] A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... A No-Fly Zone is a territory over which aircraft generally or certain unauthorized aircraft are not permitted to fly. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1173 (1998) addressed the Angolan Civil War, condemning the UNITA rebels but also urging certain reforms on the government. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


The UN spent $1.6 billion from 1994 to 1998 in maintaining a peacekeeping force.[20] The Angolan military attacked UNITA forces in the Central Highlands on December 4, 1998, the day before the MPLA's fourth Congress. Dos Santos told the delegates the next day that he believed war to be the only way to ultimately achieve peace, rejected the Lusaka Protocol, and asked MONUA to leave. In February 1999, the Security Council withdrew the last MONUA personnel. In late 1998, several UNITA commanders, dissatisfied with Savimbi's leadership, formed UNITA Renovada, a breakaway militant group. Thousands more deserted UNITA in 1999 and 2000.[101] is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... UNITA Renovada is a militant group that broke away from mainstream UNITA in Angola in late 1998 when several UNITA commanders dissatisfied with the leadership of Jonas Savimbi ended their allegiance to his organization. ...


The Angolan military launched Operation Restore, a massive offensive, in September 1999, recapturing N'harea, Mungo and Andulo and Bailundo, the site of Savimbi's headquarters just one year before. The UN Security Council passed Resolution 1268 on October 15, instructing United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan to update the Security Council to the situation in Angola every three months. Dos Santos offered an amnesty to UNITA militants on November 11. By December, Chief of Staff General João de Matos said the Angolan Armed Forces had destroyed 80% of UNITA's militant wing and captured 15,000 tons of military equipment.[112][101][113] Following the dissolution of the coalition government, Savimbi retreated to his historical base in Moxico and prepared for battle.[114] Operation Restore (Portuguese: Restaurar da Operaçao) is a highly successful military operation that the Angolan government conducted against UNITA rebels in Autumn 1999 during the civil war. ... Category: ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Angolas military is called the FAA, the Portuguese acronym for Angolan Armed Forces, headed by a Chief of Staff who reports to the Minister of Defense. ...


Diamonds

UNITA's success in mining diamonds and selling them abroad at an inflated price allowed the war to continue even as the movement's support in the Western world and among the local populace withered away. De Beers and Endiama, a state-owned diamond-mining monopoly, signed a contract allowing De Beers to handle Angola's diamond exportation in 1990.[115] According to the United Nation's Fowler Report, Joe De Deker, a former stockholder in De Beers, worked with the government of Zaire to supply military equipment to UNITA from 1993 to 1997. De Deker's brother, Ronnie, allegedly flew from South Africa to Angola, directing weapons originating in Eastern Europe. In return, UNITA gave Ronnie bushels of diamonds worth $6 million. De Deker sent the diamonds to De Beer's buying office in Antwerp, Belgium. De Beers openly acknowledges spending $500 million on legal and illegal Angolan diamonds in 1992 alone. The United Nations estimates Angolans made between three and four billion dollars through the diamond trade between 1992 and 1998.[103][116] The UN also estimates that out of that sum, UNITA made at least $3.72 billion, or 93% of all diamond sales, despite international sanctions.[117] Angolas is the fastest-growing economy in Africa, largely due to a major oil boom, but it also ranks in the bottom 10 of socioeconomic conditions in the world. ... A conflict diamond (also called a blood diamond) is a diamond mined in a war zone and sold, usually clandestinely, in order to finance an insurgent or invading armys war efforts. ... Occident redirects here. ... De Beers is a cartel of companies that trade in rough diamond exploration, diamond mining and diamond trading. ... This article is about the mineral. ... This article is about the economic term. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ...


Executive Outcomes (EO), a private military company. EO played a major role in turning the tide for the MPLA with one U.S. defense expert calling the EO the "best fifty or sixty million dollars the Angolan government ever spent". Heritage Oil and Gas, and allegedly De Beers, hired EO to protect their operations in Angola.[118] Executive Outcomes trained 4,000 to 5,000 troops and 30 pilots in combat in camps in Lunda Sul, Cabo Ledo, and Dondo.[119] Executive Outcomes logo. ... A private military company (PMC) provides specialised expertise or services of a military nature, sometimes called or classified as mercenary (soldiers for hire).[1] Such companies are equally known as Private Security Contractors (PSCs), Private Military Corporations, Private Military Firms, Military Service Providers, and generally as the Private Military Industry. ...


Cabinda separatism

Cabindan rebels kidnapped and ransomed off foreign oil workers throughout the 1990s to in turn finance further attacks against the national government. FLEC militants stopped buses, forcing Chevron Oil workers out, and setting fire to the buses on March 27 and April 23, 1992. A large-scale battle took place between FLEC and police in Malongo on May 14 in which 25 mortar rounds accidentally hit a nearby Chevron compound.[120] The government, fearing the loss of their prime source of revenue, began to negotiate with representatives from Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda-Renewal (FLEC-R), Armed Forces of Cabinda (FLEC-FAC), and the Democratic Front of Cabinda (FDC) in 1995. Patronage and bribery failed to assuage the anger of FLEC-R and FLEC-FAC and negotiations ended. In February 1997, FLEC-FAC kidnapped two Inwangsa SDN-timber company employees, killing one and releasing the other after receiving a $400,000 ransom. FLEC-FLAC kidnapped eleven people in April 1998, nine Angolans and two Portuguese, released for a $500,000 ransom. FLEC-R kidnapped five Byansol-oil engineering employees, two Frenchman, two Portuguese, and an Angolan, on March, 1999. While militants released the Angolan, the government complicated the situation by promising the rebel leadership $12.5 million for the hostages. When António Bento Bembe, the President of FLEC-R, showed up, the Angolan army arrested him and his bodyguards. The Angolan army later forcibly freed the other hostages on July 7. By the end of the year the government had arrested the leadership of all three rebel organizations.[121] is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


2000s

Main articles: 2000s in Angola, Angolagate, and Second Congo War

Illicit arms trading characterized much of the last years of the Angolan war. Each side tried to gain the upper hand by buying arms abroad in Eastern Europe and Russia. A Russian freighter delivered 500 tons of Ukrainian 7.62 mm ammunition to Simportex, a division of the Angolan government, with the help of a shipping agent in London on September 21, 2000. The ship's captain declared his cargo "fragile" to minimize inspection.[122] The next day, the MPLA began attacking UNITA, winning victories in several battles from September 22–25. The government gained control over military bases and diamond mines in Lunda Norte and Lunda Sul, hurting Savimbi's ability to pay his troops.[20] The 2000s in Angola saw the end of a 27-year-long civil war (1975-2002) and economic growth as foreign nations began to invest in Angolas untapped petroleum reserves. ... LAngolagate, as it is known in the French press, was an arms-for-oil scandal involving deals between French businessman Pierre Falcone, the head of a firm called Brenco International; his colleague Jean-Christophe Mitterrand, the son of the former French president; and a Russian-born Israeli named Arkadi... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... sagrada esperancas de province soccer team is the angolan vice chanpion deputing asa in soccer. ... Lunda Sul is a province of Angola. ...


Angola agreed to trade oil to Slovakia in return for arms, buying six Sukhoi Su-17 attack aircraft on April 3, 2000. The Spanish government in the Canary Islands prevented a Ukrainian freighter from delivering 636 tons of military equipment to Angola on February 24, 2001. The captain of the ship had inaccurately reported his cargo, falsely claiming the ship carried automobile parts. The Angolan government admitted Simportex had purchased arms from Rosvooruzhenie, the Russian state-owned arms company, and acknowledged the captain might have violated Spanish law by misreporting his cargo, a common practice in arms smuggling to Angola.[122] Polish decomissioned Su-20 Front view of Su-20 Polish Su-22 Two aircraft share the designation Su-17 The Sukhoi Su-17 (NATO reporting name Fitter) was a Soviet attack aircraft developed from the Su-7 fighter-bomber. ... A ground attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate very close to the ground, supporting infantry and tanks directly in battle. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

More than 700 villagers trekked 60 kilometres (37 mi) from Golungo Alto to Ndalatando (red dot), fleeing an UNITA attack. They remained uninjured.

UNITA carried out several attacks against civilians in May in a show of strength. UNITA militants attacked Caxito on May 7, killing 100 people and kidnapping 60 children and two adults. UNITA then attacked Baia-do-Cuio, followed by an attack on Golungo Alto, a city 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of Luanda, a few days later. The militants advanced on Golungo Alto at 2:00 pm on May 21, staying until 9:00 pm on May 22 when the Angolan military retook the town. They looted local businesses, taking food and alcoholic beverages before singing drunkenly in the streets. More than 700 villagers trekked 60 kilometres (37 mi) from Golungo Alto to Ndalatando, the provincial capital of Cuanza Norte, without injury. According to an aid official in Ndalatando, the Angolan military prohibited media coverage of the incident, so the details of the attack are unknown. Joffre Justino, UNITA's spokesman in Portugal, said UNITA only attacked Gungo Alto to demonstrate the government's military inferiority and the need to cut a deal.[123] Four days later UNITA released the children to a Catholic mission in Camabatela, a city 200 kilometres (124 mi) from where UNITA kidnapped them. The national organization said the abduction violated their policy towards the treatment of civilians. In a letter to the bishops of Angola, Jonas Savimbi asked the Catholic church to act as an intermediary between UNITA and the government in negotiations.[124] The attacks took their toll on Angola's economy. At the end of May, De Beers, the international diamond mining company, suspended its operations in Angola, ostensibly on the grounds that negotiations with the national government reached an impasse.[125] is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ndalatando (pre-1975: Vila Salazar) is a town located in northwestern Angola. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Provinces of Angola ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (August 3, 1934–February 22, 2002) was a rebel leader in Angola who founded the UNITA movement in 1966, and ultimately proved a central figure in 20th century Cold War politics. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... De Beers is a cartel of companies that trade in rough diamond exploration, diamond mining and diamond trading. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


Militants of unknown affiliation fired rockets at United Nations World Food Program (UNWFP) planes on June 8 near Luena and again near Kuito a few days later. As the first plane, a Boeing 727, approached Luena someone shot a missile at the aircraft, damaging one engine but not critically as the three man crew landed successfully. The plane's altitude, 5,000 metres (16,404 ft), most likely prevented the assailant from identifying his target. As the citizens of Luena had enough food to last them several weeks, the UNFWP temporarily suspended their flights. When the flights began again a few days later, militants shot at a plane flying to Kuito, the first attack targeting UN workers since 1999.[126] The UNWFP again suspended food aid flights throughout the country. While he did not claim responsibility for the attack, UNITA spokesman Justino said the planes carried weapons and soldiers rather than food, making them acceptable targets. UNITA and the Angolan government both said the international community needed to pressure the other side into returning to the negotiating table. Despite the looming humanitarian crisis, neither side guaranteed UNWFP planes safety. Kuito, which had relied on international aid, only had enough food to feed their population of 200,000.[127] The UNFWP had to fly in all aid to Kuito and the rest of the Central Highlands because militants ambushed trucks. Further complicating the situation, potholes in the Kuito airport strip slowed aid deliveries. Overall chaos reduced the amount of available oil to the point at which the UN had to import its jet fuel.[128] The World Food Programme (WFP) is an agency of the United Nations which distributes food commodities to support development projects, to long-term refugees and displaced persons and as emergency food assistance in situations of natural and man-made disasters. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Luena (also spelt Lwena) is a river which rises in Angola, and flows east into the Zambezi, joining it in Zambia. ... Kuito is a city located in central Angola. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... Kuito is a city located in central Angola. ...


Government troops captured and destroyed UNITA's Epongoloko base in Benguela province and Mufumbo base in Cuanza Sul in October 2001.[129] The Slovak government sold fighter jets to the Angolan government in 2001 in violation of the European Union Code of Conduct on Arms Exports.[130]


Death of Savimbi

Government troops killed Savimbi on February 22, 2002, in Moxico province.[131] UNITA Vice President Antonio Dembo took over, but died from diabetes 12 days later on March 3, and Secretary-General Paulo Lukamba became UNITA's leader.[132] After Savimbi's death, the government came to a crossroads over how to proceed. After initially indicating the counter-insurgency might continue, the government announced it would halt all military operations on March 13. Military commanders for UNITA and the MPLA met in Cassamba and agreed to a cease-fire. However, Carlos Morgado, UNITA's spokesman in Portugal, said he UNITA's Portugal wing had been under the impression General Kamorteiro, the UNITA general who agreed to the ceasefire, had been captured more than a week earlier. Morgado did say that he had not heard from Angola since Savimbi's death. The military commanders signed a Memorandum of Understanding as an addendum to the Lusaka Protocol in Luena on April 4, Dos Santos and Lukambo observing.[133][134] is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... General Antonio Dembo (1944-2002) was a leader of UNITA, an Angolan military and political opposition movement. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Paulo Lukamba Gato (born May 13, 1954) is a former leader of the Angolan rebel-group UNITA. He led the group after the death of Jonas Savimbi and Antonio Dembo in 2002 until Isaias Samakuvas election as party president in 2003. ... Planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lusaka Protocol, signed in Lusaka, Zambia on October 31, 1994, attempted to end the Angolan Civil War by integrating and disarming UNITA and national reconciliation. ... The Luena (also spelt Lwena) is a river which rises in Angola, and flows east into the Zambezi, joining it in Zambia. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1404 on April 18, extending the UNAVEM III mission by six months. Resolutions 1412 and 1432, passed on May 17 and August 15 respectively, suspended the UN travel ban on UNITA officials for 90 days each, finally abolishing the ban through Resolution 1439 on October 18. UNAVEM III, extended an additional two months by Resolution 1439, ended on December 19.[135] “Security Council” redirects here. ... Category: ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Angola Verification Mission III is a peacekeeping mission that existed began operating in Angola in 1995 during the civil war. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


UNITA's new leadership declared the rebel group a political party and officially demobilized its armed forces in August 2002.[136] That same month, the United Nations Security Council replaced the United Nations Office in Angola with the United Nations Mission in Angola, a larger, non-military, political presence.[137] August 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December // See also: Afghanistan timeline August 2002 Israeli-Palestinian conflict: A Palestinian suicide bombing claims 9 lives, near Safed; there is a shooting attack in Jerusalem, claiming 2; there is an attack upon a settler family, killing...


Legacy

The civil war spawned a disastrous humanitarian crisis in Angola, internally displacing 4.28 million people, one-third of Angola's population. The United Nations estimated in 2003 that 80 percent of Angolans lacked access to basic medical care, 60 percent lacked access to water, and 30 percent of Angolan children would die before the age of 5, with an overall life expectancy of less than 40 years of age.[138] The government spent $187 million settling IDPs between April 4, 2002 and 2004, after which the World Bank gave $33 million to continue the settling process. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) estimated that fighting in 2002 displaced 98,000 people between January 1 and February 28 alone. The IDPs, unacquainted with their surroundings, frequently and predominantly fell victim to these weapons. IDPs comprised 75% of all landmine victims. Militant forces laid approximately 15 million landmines by 2002.[137] The HALO Trust charity began demining in 1994, destroying 30,000 by July 2007. There are 1,100 Angolans and seven foreign workers who are working for HALO Trust in Angola, with operations expected to finish sometime between 2011 and 2014.[139][140] UN redirects here. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq. ... The HALO Trust is a registered British charity and registered American non-profit organization whose purpose is to remove the debris left behind by war, in particular, landmines and unexploded ordinance that might present a danger to local civilians. ...


Human Rights Watch estimates UNITA and the government employed more than 6,000 and 3,000 child soldiers respectively, some forcibly impressed, during the war. Human rights analysts found 5,000 to 8,000 underage girls married to UNITA militants. Some girls were ordered to go and forage for food to provide for the troops. If the girls did not bring back enough food as judged by their commander, then the girls would not eat. After victories, UNITA commanders would be rewarded with women who were often then sexually abused. The government and U.N. agencies identified 190 child soldiers in the Angolan army and relocated 70 of them by November 2002, but the government continued to knowingly employ other underage soldiers.[141] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... The military use of children refers to children being placed in harms way in military actions, the desire being to protect a location or provide propaganda. ...


Cultural influence

Main articles: Red Dawn and Red Scorpion

John Milius's 1984 film Red Dawn explores a future in which the United States loses a nuclear war with the Soviet Union and is invaded by a joint Cuban-Soviet force, similar to the contemporary reality in Angola. One of the officers depicted in the film, a Cuban named Bella, is said to have fought in the Cold War conflicts in Angola, El Salvador, and Nicaragua.[142][143] For other uses, see Red dawn (disambiguation). ... Red Scorpion is a 1989 film starring Dolph Lundgren. ... John Milius (born April 11, 1944 in St. ... For other uses, see Red dawn (disambiguation). ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ...


Now-disgraced lobbyist Jack Abramoff wrote and co-produced the film Red Scorpion with his brother Robert in 1989. Dolph Lundgren played Nikolai, a Soviet agent sent to assassinate an African revolutionary in a country modeled on Angola.[144][145][146] The film has a strongly anti-Communist message, and goes to great lengths to depict the sadism and violence of the Soviets, including a scene in which chemical weapons are used.[147] The South African government financed the film through the International Freedom Foundation, a front-group chaired by Abramoff, as part of its efforts to undermine international sympathy for the African National Congress.[148] Jack Abramoff (born February 28, 1958) is an American political lobbyist, a Republican political activist and businessman who is a central figure in a series of high-profile political scandals. ... Red Scorpion is a 1989 film starring Dolph Lundgren. ... // Actress Kim Basinger and her brother Mick purchase Braselton, Georgia for $20 million. ... Dolph Lundgren (born Hans Lundgren, November 3, 1957[1]) is a Swedish actor, director and karateka. ... Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The International Freedom Foundation (IFF), founded in 1986, was described as a Washington conservative think-tank with branches in Johannesburg and London, but was actually a front organization for apartheid South Africas Directorate of Military Intelligence. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...


Produced by Fernando Vendrell, and directed by Zézé Gamboa, the 2004 film The Hero is about the life of average Angolans after the civil war. The film follows the lives of three individuals: Vitório, a war veteran crippled by a landmine who returns to Luanda; Manu, a young boy searching for his soldier father; and Joana, a teacher who mentors the boy and begins a love affair with Vitório. The Hero won the 2005 Sundance World Dramatic Cinema Jury Grand Prize. A joint Angolan, Portuguese, and French production, Gamboa filmed The Hero entirely in Angola.[149] The Hero (Portuguese: O Herói) is a 2004 Angolan movie directed by Zézé Gamboa about the return of a 20 year civil war veteran returning to the capital of Luanda. ... War Veteran is a science fiction short story by Philip K. Dick. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ... For the North American Indian ceremony, see Sun Dance sundance channel is an independent film network in the United States owned by Viacom, Robert Redford, and NBC Universal. ...


See also

The Republic of Cabinda is an unrecognized entity that claims legal authority over Cabinda, a province of Angola, and its northwestern exclave. ...

Further reading

  • Brittain, Victoria. Death of Dignity, Red Sea Press, 1998. ISBN . An account of the conflict from the MPLA's point of view.
  • Stockwell, John. In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story, W.W. Norton, 1978.
  • Kapuściński, Ryszard. Another Day of Life, Penguin, 1975. ISBN 014118678X. A Polish journalist's account of Portuguese withdrawal from Angola and the beginning of the civil war.
  • Une Odyssee Africaine (Frankreich, 2006, 59mn) Regie: Jihan El Tahri
  • ICAIC (Instituto cubano del arte e industria cinematograficos)
  • Gleijeses, Piero: Kuba in Afrika 1975–1991. In: Bernd Greiner /Christian Th. Müller / Dierk Walter (Hrsg.): Heiße Kriege im Kalten Krieg. Hamburg, 2006, ISBN
  • Gleijeses, Piero: Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, (The University of North Carolina Press)
  • Saney, Isaac, "African Stalingrad: The Cuban Revolution, Internationalism and the End of Apartheid," Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 33, No. 5 (September 2006): pp. 81–117.
  • Nelson Mendela & Fidel Castro, How Far We Slaves Have Come! (New York:Pathfinder Press, 1991)
  • Pazzanita, Anthony G, "The Conflict Resolution Process in Angola." The Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 29 No 1(March 1991): pp. 83–114.

W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company. ...

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Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Michael Johns (born September 8, 1964 in Allentown, Pennsylvania) is an American health care executive, former federal government of the United States official and conservative policy analyst and writer. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... 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Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...

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Savimbi, Jonas Malheiro - MSN Encarta (955 words)
War with the Portuguese continued through 1974, when the government in Portugal was overthrown, and the Portuguese colonial empire began to disintegrate.
The United States saw the conflict in Angola as part of the Cold War, the post-1945 economic and diplomatic struggle between the USSR and its allies and the United States and its allies.
The civil war between UNITA and the Angolan government led by President José Eduardo dos Santos continued into the 1990s.
Wikipedia search result (4029 words)
The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies.
In this period, the Cold War began in 1947 and continued until the change of in leadership for both superpowers in 1953 - from Presidents Truman to Eisenhower for the United States and from Stalin to Khrushchev in the Soviet Union.
The period between the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 and the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as leader of the Soviet Union in March 1985 was characterized by a marked "freeze" in relations between the superpowers after the "thaw" of the Détente period of the 1970s.
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