FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Anglo Irish Treaty
Irish Political History series
REPUBLICANISM

Key documents
Proclamation of the Republic
Declaration of Independence
Message to Free Nations
Democratic Programme
Dáil Constitution
Anglo-Irish Treaty
External Relations Act
Bunreacht na hÉireann
Republic of Ireland Act
New Ireland Forum Report
Anglo-Irish Agreement
Belfast Agreement
Articles 2 & 3 Image File history File links Ireland-up. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... The Proclamation of the Republic, also known as the 1916 Proclamation or Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916. ... The Declaration of Independence was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21st January, 1919. ... In 1919 the First Dáil issued a Message to the Free Nations of the World. ... The Democratic Programme was a declaration of economic and social principles adopted by the First Dáil at its first meeting on 21st January, 1919. ... The Constitution of Dáil Éireann (Irish: Bunreacht Dála Éireann), more commonly known as the Dáil Constitution, was a short, provisional constitution adopted by the First Dáil in January 1919. ... The Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936 was an enactment of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament) in 1936. ... The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ... The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949 and which declared that the official description of Ireland was to be the Republic of Ireland. ... The New Ireland Forum was established in Ireland in 1983 by then Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald to discuss ways of bringing peace and stability to the whole of Ireland, and the structures and processes through which this might be achieved. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... Article 2 and Article 3 of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, were adopted with the constitution as a whole in 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took full effect in 1999. ...


For full template, go to {{IrishR}}


The Anglo-Irish Treaty (Irish: An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the de facto Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. It established an Irish dominion, known as the Irish Free State, within the British Empire and provided Northern Ireland, which had been created by the 1920 Government of Ireland Act, an option to opt out of the Irish Free State, which it duly exercised. This does not cite any references or sources. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... This article is about the prior state. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ...


The treaty was signed in London by representatives of the British government, (which included David Lloyd George who was head of the British delegates) and envoys plenipotentiary of the Irish Republic (i.e., negotiators empowered to sign a treaty without reference back to their superiors) (which would include Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith) on December 6, 1921. Threefold ratification of the treaty by Dáil Éireann, the House of Commons of Southern Ireland and the British Parliament was required. The Irish side was split on the Treaty, and it was only narrowly ratified in the Dáil. Though the treaty was duly enacted, the split led to the Irish Civil War, which was ultimately won by the pro-treaty side. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... The term plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) refers to, as a noun, a person who has, or as an adjective that confers, full powers. ... Michael Collins is the name of: Michael Collins (Irish leader), the Irish patriot and revolutionary of the 20th century Michael Collins (Limerick politician), a modern-day Irish politician Michael Collins (astronaut), the American astronaut Michael Collins (footballer), an Irish footballer currently playing for Huddersfield Town Michael P. Collins, a Canadian... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... House of Commons of Southern Ireland was the lower house of the Irish parliament created by the Government of Ireland Act, passed in 1920, during the Irish War of Independence. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Dáil Éireann[1] is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ...


The Irish Free State created by the Treaty came into force on 6 December 1922 by royal proclamation after its constitution had been enacted by the Third Dáil and the British parliament. is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A proclamation (Lat. ... The Third Dáil, also known as the Provisional Parliament or the Constituent Assembly, was the parliament of the post-partition twenty-six county Irish state which met from 9th September, 1922 until 9th August 1923. ...

Contents

Content of the Treaty

Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty

Among its main clauses were that: Download high resolution version (433x684, 11 KB)Signature page from the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 From the National Archives of Ireland at [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Anglo-Irish Treaty Categories: UK Government images ... Download high resolution version (433x684, 11 KB)Signature page from the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 From the National Archives of Ireland at [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Anglo-Irish Treaty Categories: UK Government images ...

  • British forces would withdraw from most of Ireland.
  • Most of Ireland was to become a self-governing dominion of the British Empire; a status shared by Canada, Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand and The Union of South Africa.
  • As with the other dominions, the British monarch would be the head of state of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) and would be represented by a Governor General (See Representative of the Crown).
  • Members of the new free state's parliament would be required to take an Oath of Allegiance to the Irish Free State. A secondary part of the Oath was to "be faithful to His Majesty King George V., his heirs and successors by law, in virtue of the common citizenship".
  • Northern Ireland (which had been created earlier by the Government of Ireland Act) would have the option of withdrawing from the Irish Free State within one month of the Treaty coming into effect.
  • If Northern Ireland chose to withdraw, a Boundary Commission would be constituted to draw the boundary between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland.
  • Britain, for its own security, would continue to control a limited number of ports, known as the Treaty Ports, for the Royal Navy.
  • The Irish Free State would assume responsibility for its part of the Imperial debt.
  • The Treaty would have superior status in Irish law, i.e., in the event of a conflict between it and the new 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State, the treaty would take precedence.

The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... This article is about the country on the southern tip of the African continent. ... The Governor-General (Irish: Seanascal) was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. ... The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Irish parliament) and Senators were required to take, in order to take their seats in Dáil Éireann (The Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (the Irish Senate). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... The Irish Boundary Commission was established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War in 1921. ... After the Irish Free State won independence in 1922, three deep water Treaty Ports, at Berehaven, Queenstown (renamed Cobh) and Lough Swilly, were retained by the United Kingdom as sovereign bases. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...

Negotiators of the Treaty

Page from a draft of the Treaty, as annotated by Arthur Griffith

The negotiators included Download high resolution version (608x870, 29 KB)Page from a draft of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, annotated by Arthur Griffith From the National Archives of Ireland [1] [2] Treaty is a work of the British Government pre-1954, Griffith died in 1922. ... Download high resolution version (608x870, 29 KB)Page from a draft of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, annotated by Arthur Griffith From the National Archives of Ireland [1] [2] Treaty is a work of the British Government pre-1954, Griffith died in 1922. ...

British Side:
Irish Side:

(Robert Erskine Childers, the author of the Riddle of the Sands and former Clerk of the British House of Commons served as one of the secretaries of the Irish delegation. Tom Jones was one of Lloyd George's principal assistants, and described the negotiations in his book Whitehall Diary.) Notably, the Irish President Éamon de Valera did not attend. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Time magazine, August 20, 1923 Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead, commonly known as F.E. Smith (July 12, 1872 - September 30, 1930) was a British Conservative statesman and lawyer of the early Twentieth Century. ... Churchill redirects here. ... The Rt. ... Ko-ko (Sir Gordon Hewart). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... Robert Childers Barton (1881- August 10, 1975) was an Irish lawyer, statesman and farmer who participated in the negotiations leading up to the signature of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. ... Eamonn Duggan (1874- June 6, 1936) was an Irish lawyer, nationalist and politician. ... George Gavan Duffy (1882 - 1951) was an Irish politician. ... Robert Erskine Childers Robert Erskine Childers DSO (25 June 1870 - 24 November 1922) was an author and Irish nationalist who was executed by the authorities of the newly independent Irish Free State during the Irish Civil War. ... Thomas (Tom) Jones, CH was born at 100 High Street, Rhymney on 27 September 1870 and died in London on 15 October 1955. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ...


Winston Churchill had a dual role in the British cabinet concerning the Treaty. Firstly as Secretary for War hoping to end the Irish War of Independence in 1921; then in 1922 as Secretary for the Colonies (which included Dominion affairs) he was charged with implementing it.
Churchill redirects here. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...


Background and details

Éamon de Valera, who as President of the Republic opposed the Treaty. He later regarded this opposition as his biggest mistake.[citation needed]

Éamon de Valera sent the Irish plenipotentiaries to the 1921 negotiations in London with several draft treaties and secret instructions from the cabinet. The Irish delegates set up headquarters in 22 Hans Place, Knightsbridge. The first two weeks of the negotiations were spent in formal sessions. Upon the request of Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins, the two delegations began informal negotiations, in which only two members of each negotiating team were allowed to attend. On the Irish side, these members were always Collins and Griffith, while on the British side, Neville Chamberlain always attended, though the second British negotiator would vary from day to day. In late November, the Irish delegation returned to Dublin to consult the cabinet according to their instructions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (479 × 640 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (479 × 640 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date c. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... The term plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) refers to, as a noun, a person who has, or as an adjective that which confers, full powers. ... Hans Place is a prime residential garden square situated immediately south of Harrods in Knightsbridge. ... Knightsbridge is a street and district spanning the City of Westminster and theRoyal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London notable for its eclectic mix of rich, famous, and international residents including several billionaires Roman Abramovich, oligarchs from Russia, China and India, international businessman Lord Marshall of Knightsbridge, trend setters Charles... This article is about the British prime minister. ...


When they returned, Collins and Griffith hammered out the final details of the treaty, which included British concessions on the wording of the oath and the defence and trade clauses, along with the addition of a Boundary Commission to the treaty and a clause upholding Irish unity. Collins and Griffith in turn convinced the other plenipotentiaries to sign the treaty. The final decisions to sign the Treaty was made in private discussions at 22 Hans Place at 11.15am on 5 December 1921. Negotiations closed by signing on at 2.20am 6 December 1921. It has been said that at the last minute Lloyd George threatened a renewal of war if the Treaty was not signed at once, but this was not mentioned as a threat in the Irish memorandum about the close of negotiations, merely a reflection of the reality.[2] The Irish Boundary Commission was established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War in 1921. ... Hans Place is a prime residential garden square situated immediately south of Harrods in Knightsbridge. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Éamon de Valera called a cabinet meeting to discuss the treaty on 8th December, where he came out against the treaty as signed. The cabinet decided by 5 votes to 3 to recommend the Treaty to the Dáil on 14 December.[3]

Arthur Griffith
Minister for Foreign Affairs, Leader of the Irish delegation

The contents of the Treaty divided the Irish Republic's leadership, with the President of the Republic, Éamon de Valera, leading the anti-Treaty minority. The Treaty Debates were difficult but also comprised a wider and robust stock-taking of the position by the contending parties. Their differing views of the past and their hopes for the future were made public. The focus had to be on the constitutional options, but little mention was made of the economy, nor of how life would now be improved for the majority of the population. Though Sinn Féin had also campaigned to preserve the Irish language, very little use was made of it in the debates. Some of the female TDs were notably in favour of continuing the war until a 32-county state was established. Much mention was made of '700 years' of British occupation, and even '700 centuries'. Personal bitterness developed; Arthur Griffith said of Erskine Childers: "I will not reply to any damned Englishman in this Assembly" and Cathal Brugha reminded everyone that the position of Michael Collins in the IRA was technically inferior to his. historical image of Arthur Griffith who died in August 1922. ... historical image of Arthur Griffith who died in August 1922. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ... The Treaty Debates was a series of debates of the Second Dáil sitting in Dublin between the supporters and opponents of the Treaty signed on 6 December 1921 between representatives of the Irish Republic and the coalition government of Lloyd George. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... Erskine Childers was the name of two Irish leaders of British birth who were key players in 20th century Ireland. ... Cathal Brugha Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St. ...


The main dispute was centred on the status as a dominion (as represented by the Oath of Allegiance and Fidelity) rather than as an independent republic. Partition, though certainly a factor, was not the most important; both sides believed that the Irish Boundary Commission would transfer many large nationalist areas in Ulster to the Free State, reducing Northern Ireland's size so as to make it too small to be a viable political entity, leading to Irish unity. This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921. ... The Irish Boundary Commission was established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War in 1921. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Ratification

Under the terms of the treaty, three separate parliaments had to approve the document.

  1. The British parliament did so on 14 December 1921 by a vote of 401 to 58. .
  2. So too did Dáil Éireann after long debate on 7 January 1922 by vote of 64 to 57.
  3. In addition the treaty required the approval of a third body, the House of Commons of Southern Ireland, which constituted the "lawful" parliament of the twenty-six county state called Southern Ireland created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920 (of its 128 members, 124, having been elected, had formed the "Second Dáil" in 1921, the body which had approved the new Treaty in December 1921). Though few Irish people recognised it as a valid or legal entity, it too needed to give approval in order to satisfy British Constitutional theory, which it did overwhelmingly. Anti-Treaty members stayed away, meaning only pro-treaty members and the four elected unionists (who had never sat in Dáil Éireann) attended its meeting in January 1922.

is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... House of Commons of Southern Ireland was the lower house of the Irish parliament created by the Government of Ireland Act, passed in 1920, during the Irish War of Independence. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Capital Dublin Head of State King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Head of Government Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Chairman of the Provisional Government from Jan 1922. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ...

Dáil debate

The Dáil debates lasted much longer and exposed the diversity of opinion in Ireland. Opening the debate on 14 December, President de Valera stated his view on procedure: it would be ridiculous to think that we could send five men to complete a treaty without the right of ratification by this assembly. That is the only thing that matters. Therefore it is agreed that this Treaty is simply an agreement and that it is not binding until the Dáil ratifies it. That is what we are concerned with. However when the Treaty was ratified on 7 January, he refused to accept it.


Private sessions were held on 15, 16 and 17 December, and a.m. on 6 January, to keep the discord out of the press and the public arena. Here De Valera produced his "Document No.2" which was not in most respects radically different from the signed agreement.


The public sessions lasted 9 days from 19 December to 7 January. On 19 December Arthur Griffith moved: That Dáil Éireann approves of the Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland, signed in London on December 6th, 1921.


By 6 January, the day before the vote, de Valera acknowledged the deep division within his cabinet: When these Articles of Agreement were signed, the body in which the executive authority of this assembly, and of the State, is vested became as completely split as it was possible for it to become. Irrevocably, not on personalities or anything of that kind or matter, but on absolute fundamentals.


The Second Dáil formally ratified the Treaty on 7 January 1922 by a vote of 64 to 57. De Valera resigned as President on 9 January and was replaced by Arthur Griffith, on a vote of 60 to 58. Griffith as President of the Dáil worked with Michael Collins who chaired the new Provisional Government of Ireland, theoretically answerable to the House of Commons of Southern Ireland, as the Treaty laid down. In December 1922 a new Irish constitution was enacted by the Third Dáil, sitting as a Constituent Assembly. The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16th August, 1921 until 8th June, 1922. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the pre-Free State Provisional Government. ... House of Commons of Southern Ireland was the lower house of the Irish parliament created by the Government of Ireland Act, passed in 1920, during the Irish War of Independence. ... The Third Dáil, also known as the Provisional Parliament or the Constituent Assembly, was the parliament of the post-partition twenty-six county Irish state which met from 9th September, 1922 until 9th August 1923. ... A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ...


The House of Commons of Southern Ireland, which was made up largely of the same membership as the Dáil, but which was in British constitutional theory the parliament legally empowered to ratify the Treaty, did so unanimously on 14 January 1922. House of Commons of Southern Ireland was the lower house of the Irish parliament created by the Government of Ireland Act, passed in 1920, during the Irish War of Independence. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Results

David Lloyd George
Prime Minister and head of the British delegation

The split over the Treaty was to eventually lead to the Irish Civil War (192223). In 1922 its two main Irish signatories, President Griffith and Michael Collins, both died. Griffith died partially from exhaustion; Collins, at the signing of the Treaty, had said that in signing it, he may have signed his "actual death warrant", and he was correct: he was assassinated by anti-Treaty republicans in Béal na mBláth in August 1922, barely a week after Griffith's death. Both men were replaced in their posts by W. T. Cosgrave. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ...


The Treaty's provisions relating to the monarch, the governor-general, and the treaty's own superiority in law were all deleted from the Constitution of the Irish Free State in 1932, following the enactment of the Statute of Westminster by the British Parliament. The Statute removed the ability of the British Parliament to legislate on behalf of the dominions without their consent. Thus, the Government of the Irish Free State was free to change any laws previously passed by the British Parliament on their behalf. This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ...


Nearly 10 years earlier, Michael Collins had argued that the Treaty would give "the freedom to achieve freedom". De Valera himself acknowledged the accuracy of this claim both in his actions in the 1930s but also in words he used to describe his opponents and their securing of independence during the 1920s. "They were magnificent", he told his son in 1932, just after he had entered government and read the files left by Cosgrave's Cumann na nGaedhael Executive Council. The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Cumann na nGaedhael (IPA: ; Society of the Gaels), sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedheal,[1] was an Irish language name given to two Irish political parties, the second of which had the greater impact. ...

Michael Collins, Minister for Finance, deputy leader of the Irish delegation. He was assassinated less than eight months later.

Although the British government of the day had, since 1914, desired home rule for the whole of Ireland, the British Parliament believed that it could not possibly grant complete independence to all of Ireland in 1921 without provoking a massacre of Ulster Catholics at the hands of their heavily-armed Protestant Unionist neighbours. At the time, although there were Unionists throughout the country, they were concentrated in the northeast and their parliament first sat on 7 June 1921. An uprising by them against home rule would have been an insurrection against the "mother county" as well as a civil war in Ireland. (See Ulster Volunteer Force). Dominion status for 26 counties, with partition for the six counties that the Unionists felt they could comfortably control, seemed the best compromise possible at the time. Image File history File linksMetadata Portrait_of_Micheál_Ó_Coileáin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Portrait_of_Micheál_Ó_Coileáin. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) is a Loyalist group in Northern Ireland. ...


In fact, what Ireland received in dominion status, on par with that enjoyed by Canada, New Zealand and Australia, was far more than the Home Rule Act 1914, and certainly a considerable advance on the Home Rule once offered to Charles Stewart Parnell in the nineteenth century. Even de Valera's proposals made in secret during the Treaty Debates differed very little in essential matters from the accepted text, and were far short of the autonomous 32-county republic that he publicly claimed to pursue.[4] This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the (Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill), and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... Charles Stewart Parnell, the uncrowned King of Ireland Charles Stewart Parnell[1] (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone described him as the most remarkable person he had...

Winston Churchill
Secretary of State for the Colonies, a member of the British delegation.

Further, though it was not generally realised at the time, the Irish Republican Army was in trouble. It had little ammunition or weaponry left. When Collins first heard that the British had called a Truce in mid-1921, following King George V's appeal for reconciliation at the opening of the Parliament of Northern Ireland under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, he commented: "We thought they were mad". The British, though they may never have realised it, were weeks, perhaps even days, away from inflicting severe losses on an exhausted IRA; though, even if they had, it is unlikely that some form of autonomy in excess of home rule would not have been achieved, given the extent to which the Irish population had turned its back on continuing British rule. It is also doubtful that British public opinion would have tolerated the larger and more frequent atrocities this would have entailed. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Winston Churchill Anglo-Irish Treaty ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Winston Churchill Anglo-Irish Treaty ... Churchill redirects here. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which existed from June 7, 1921 to March 30, 1972, when it was suspended. ...


De Valera was once asked in a private conversation what had been his biggest mistake. His answer was blunt: "Not accepting the Treaty". Current Taoiseach (prime minister) Bertie Ahern has conceded that the date that marks the real achievement of independence is 1922, when the Irish Free State created by the Anglo-Irish Treaty came into being, as this brought about British and international recognition of Irish independence. The Taoiseach (IPA: or ) — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach[1], is the head of government of Ireland or prime minister. ... Bartholomew Bertie Ahern (Irish: ;[1] born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician who, since 26 June 1997, has served as the tenth Taoiseach of Ireland. ...


Further reading

  • Lord Longford, Peace By Ordeal (long out of print)
  • Tim Pat Coogan, Michael Collins (ISBN 0-09-174106-8)
  • Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera (ISBN 0-09-175030-X)
  • Winston Churchill, The World Crisis; the Aftermath (Thornton 1929) pp.277-352.
  • The Treaty Debates on-line

Cover image: Peter Stanfords biography of Lord Longford, The Outcasts Outcast (2003) Francis Aungier Pakenham, 7th Earl of Longford, KG, PC (5 December 1905–3 August 2001) was a politician, author, and social reformer. ... Timothy Patrick Coogan is an Irish historian, broadcaster, newspaper columnist and was appointed editor of the Irish Press newspaper in 1968. ... Churchill redirects here. ...

See also

 Personal and legislative unions of the
constituent countries of the United Kingdom 
  Statute of Rhuddlan (1284)
  Laws in Wales Acts (153542)
  Crown of Ireland Act (1542)
  Union of the Crowns (1603)
  Acts of Union (1707)
  Act of Union (1801)
  Government of Ireland Act (1920)
  Anglo–Irish Treaty (1921)
  Royal & Parliamentary Titles Act (1927)

Other treaties between Britain and Ireland: It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... United Kingdom legislation comes from a number of different sources. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the OECD has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia[1]; the Soviet Union referring to the... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... The Statute of Rhuddlan was enacted on 3 March 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. The Statute of Rhuddlan was issued from Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales, which was built as one of the iron ring of fortresses by Edward I, in his late... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 was an act of the Parliament of Ireland (33 Hen 8 c. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Lord_Lieutenant_of_Ireland. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Passed on April 12, 1927, the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 () was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that formed a significant landmark in the constitutional history of the UK and British Empire as a whole. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the prior state. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ...

The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange. ... The Sunningdale Agreement on December 9, 1973, was an attempt to end the Northern Ireland troubles by forcing unionists to share power with nationalists. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... The St Andrews Agreement is an agreement proposed by the British and Irish Governments in relation to devolution of power to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Robert Barton was the last surviving signatory. He died on August 10, 1975 at the age of 94.
  2. ^ Notes by Robert Barton of two sub-conferences held on December 5/6, 1921.
  3. ^ Minutes of a Cabinet Meeting held on 8 December, 1921
  4. ^ De Valera's 2 proposals publicised on 10 January 1922

is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m