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Encyclopedia > Anglicanism
Part of a series on
Anglicanism
Organization

Anglican Communion
its 'instruments of unity':
Archbishop of Canterbury
Lambeth Conferences
Primates' Meeting
Anglican Consultative Council
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x2400, 1040 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: United Kingdom Canterbury Cathedral ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Anglican Communion Primates Meetings are regular meetings of the senior archbishops and bishops of the Anglican Communion. ... The Anglican Consultative Council is one of the four Instruments of Unity of the Anglican Communion. ...

Background

Christianity
Catholicism
Apostolic Succession
English Reformation
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal [1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ...

People

Henry VIII
Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cromwell
Elizabeth I
Richard Hooker
Charles I
William Laud
Henry VIII redirects here. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (c. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... This article is about the Anglican theologian. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ...

Liturgy and Worship

Book of Common Prayer
High Church · Low Church
Broad Church
Oxford Movement
Thirty-Nine Articles
Doctrine · Ministry
Sacraments
Saints in Anglicanism
For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Look up doctrine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... The provinces of the Anglican Communion commemorate many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorate various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ...

Anglicanism Portal

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Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a Medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 meaning the English Church. The faith of Anglicans is founded in the Scriptures and the Gospels, the traditions of the apostolic Church, the historic episcopate, and the early Church Fathers. Anglicanism, in its structures, theology and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism or a via media (middle way) between these traditions. The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic is routinely a matter of debate both within specific Anglican Churches and throughout the Anglican Communion by members themselves. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries. Whilst it has since undergone many revisions and Anglican churches in different countries have developed other service books, the Prayer Book is still acknowledged as one of the ties that bind the Anglican Communion together. There is no single Anglican Church with universal juridical authority, since each national or regional church has full autonomy. As the name suggests, the Anglican Communion is an association of these churches in full communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury.[1] With over seventy-seven million members, the Anglican Communion is the third largest communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. Photograph by Keith Edkins File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The term Radical Middle refers to a type of third way philosophy as well as an associated political movement, which defines itself by simultaneously affirming both sides of an apparently contradictory issue, whether that be Left-Right politics or a false dilemma. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...

Contents

Terminology

For more details on the universal Church of which Anglicanism is a part, see Christian Church.

word Anglicanism was a neologism in the 19th century, being constructed from the much older word Anglican.[1] The word refers to the teachings and rites of Christians in communion with the see of Canterbury. It has come to be used to refer to the claim of those Churches to a unique religious and theological tradition apart from all other Christian churches, be they Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, or Protestant.[1] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... Arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior bishop of the state Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion, outranking the other English archbishop, the Archbishop of York. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a Medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 meaning "the English Church".[2] As an adjective, Anglican is used to describe the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England.[1] As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion but not all member churches of the Anglican Communion use the word Anglican in their names; some use the word Episcopal: for example, the Episcopal Church in the United States of America and the Scottish Episcopal Church. The word is also claimed by followers of dissenting groups which have left the Communion or have been founded separately from it, though that use is disputed by the Anglican Communion. Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Episcopalian and Episcopal may refer to: Note: Episcopalian refers to a person only, as in he or she is an Episcopalian. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Anglicanism defined

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New Covenant Theology Christian doctrine redirects here. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... 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Anglicanism, in its structures, theology and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism and, as such, is often referred to as being a via media (or middle way) between these traditions. The faith of Anglicans is founded in the Scriptures and the Gospels, the traditions of the apostolic Church, the historic episcopate, at least the first four Ecumenical Councils, and the early Church Fathers. Anglicans understand the Old and New Testaments as 'containing all things necessary for salvation' and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. Anglicans understand the Apostles' Creed as the baptismal symbol, and the Nicene creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. Catholic Church redirects here. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The term Radical Middle refers to a type of third way philosophy as well as an associated political movement, which defines itself by simultaneously affirming both sides of an apparently contradictory issue, whether that be Left-Right politics or a false dilemma. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Episcopalian government in the church is rule by a hierarchy of bishops (Greek: episcopoi). ... See also General Council (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ...

Jesus Christ depicted in a stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent.

Anglicans celebrate the traditional sacraments, with special emphasis being given to the Holy Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or the Mass. The Eucharist is central to worship for most Anglicans as a communal offering of prayer and praise in which the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ are recalled through prayer, reading of the Bible, singing, and the consecration of bread and wine as instituted at the Last Supper. Whilst many Anglicans celebrate the Eucharist in similar ways to the Roman Catholic tradition a considerable degree of liturgical freedom is permitted and worship styles vary from simple to elaborate. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 479 KB) Summary Photograph of a stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 479 KB) Summary Photograph of a stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent, England. ... Rochester Cathedral is a Norman church in Rochester, Kent. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the painting by Leonardo da Vinci, see The Last Supper (Leonardo). ...


Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries. It was called "common prayer" because all Anglicans used to use it around the world. In 1549 the first Book of Common Prayer (BCP) was compiled by Thomas Cranmer, who was then Archbishop of Canterbury. Whilst it has since undergone many revisions and Anglican churches in different countries have developed other service books, the Prayer Book is still acknowledged as one of the ties that bind the Anglican Communion together. For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


Anglicans uphold the Catholic and Apostolic faith and follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In practice Anglicans believe this is revealed in Holy Scripture and the catholic creeds, and interpret these in light of Christian tradition, scholarship, reason, and experience.


Doctrine

Main article: Anglican doctrine

Look up doctrine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Catholic and Reformed

In the time of Henry VIII rather than theological disagreement, the nature of Anglicanism was based on questions of jurisdiction - namely, the belief of the Crown that national churches should be autonomous. The effort to create a national church in legal continuity with its traditions, but inclusive of the doctrinal and liturgical belief of the Reformers, was joined by a real concern to make the institution as hospitable as possible to people of different theological inclinations, so as to maintain social peace and cohesion. The result has been a movement with a distinctive self-image among Christian movements. The question often arises whether the Anglican Communion should be identified as a Protestant or Catholic church, or perhaps as a distinct branch of Christianity altogether. The word Reformer, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The distinction between Protestant and Catholic, and the coherence of the two, is routinely a matter of debate both within specific Anglican Churches and throughout the Anglican Communion by members themselves. Since the Oxford Movement of the mid-19th century, many churches of the Communion have embraced and extended liturgical and pastoral practices dissimilar to most Reformed Protestant theology. This extends beyond the ceremony of High Church services to even more theologically significant territory, such as sacramental theology (see Anglican sacraments). While Anglo-Catholic practices, particularly liturgical ones, have become more common within the tradition over the last century, there remain many places where practices and beliefs remain on the more Protestant or Evangelical side. The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ...


Guiding principles

Richard Hooker (1554–1600), one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity
Richard Hooker (1554–1600), one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity

For high church Anglicans, doctrine is neither established by a magisterium, nor derived from the theology of an eponymous founder (such as Lutheranism or Calvinism), nor summed up in a confession of faith (beyond those of the creeds). For them, the earliest Anglican theological documents are its prayer books, which they see as the products of profound theological reflection and compromise. They emphasise the Book of Common Prayer as a key expression of Anglican doctrine. The principle of looking to the prayer books as a guide to the parameters of belief and practice is called by the Latin name lex orandi, lex credendi ("the law of prayer is the law of belief"). Within the prayer books are the so-called fundamentals of Anglican doctrine: The Apostles' and Nicene Creeds, the scriptures (via the lectionary), the sacraments, daily prayer, the catechism, and apostolic succession in the context of the historic threefold ministry. Image File history File links Hooker-Statue. ... Image File history File links Hooker-Statue. ... Richard Hooker (March 1554 - November 3, 1600) was an influential Anglican theologian. ... Magisterium (from the Latin magister, teacher) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the teaching ability and authority of the Pope and those Bishops who are in union with him. ... An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Lex orandi—lex credendi refers to the relationship between worship and belief which is a fundamental character of Anglicanism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Codex Manesse, fol. ...


Evangelical Anglicans point more to the more Protestant Thirty Nine Articles, with their insistence on justification by faith and predestination, and their hostility to the Roman Catholic church. Following the passing of the 1604 Canons, all Anglican clergy had formally to subscribe to the articles. Now, however, they are no long viewed as binding. The degree to which each of the articles has remained influential varies. Arguably, the most influential of them has been Article VI on the "sufficiency of Scripture," which states that "Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation: so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation." This article has informed Anglican biblical exegesis and hermeneutics since earliest times. Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... This box:      The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion were established in 1563, and are the historic defining statements of Anglican doctrine in relation to the controversies of the English Reformation; especially in the relation of Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practices to the nascent Anglican doctrine of the evolving English... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ...


Anglicans look for authority in their so-called "standard divines" (see below). Historically, the most influential of these - apart from Cranmer - has been the sixteenth century cleric and theologian Richard Hooker who after 1660 was increasingly portrayed as the founding father of Anglicanism. Hooker's description of Anglican authority as being derived primarily from Scripture, informed by reason (the intellect and the experience of God) and tradition (the practices and beliefs of the historical church), has influenced Anglican self-identity and doctrinal reflection perhaps more powerfully than any other formula. The analogy of the "three-legged stool" of scripture, reason and tradition is often incorrectly attributed to Hooker. Rather Hooker's description is a hierarchy of authority, with scripture as foundational, and reason and tradition as vitally important but secondary authorities. Richard Hooker (March 1554 - November 3, 1600) was an influential Anglican theologian. ...


Finally, the extension of Anglicanism into non-English cultures, the growing diversity of prayer books, and the increasing interest in ecumenical dialogue has led to further reflection on the parameters of Anglican identity. Many Anglicans look to the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888 as the "sine qua non" of Communal identity.[3] In brief, the Quadrilateral's four points are the Holy Scriptures, as containing all things necessary to salvation; the Creeds (specifically, the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds), as the sufficient statement of Christian faith; the dominical sacraments of Baptism and Holy Communion; and the historic episcopate.[3] The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Communions doctrine and as a reference-point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... Episcopalian government in the church is rule by a hierarchy of bishops (Greek: episcopoi). ...


Anglican divines

See also: John Donne, George Herbert, and William Laud

Within the Anglican tradition, there have been certain theological writers whose works have been considered standards for faith, doctrine, worship, and spirituality. While there is no authoritative list of these Anglican divines, there are some whose names would likely be found on most lists - those who are commemorated in lesser feasts of the Church, and those whose works are frequently anthologised.[4] For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... For other persons named George Herbert, see George Herbert (disambiguation). ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... Image File history File links William_Laud. ... Image File history File links William_Laud. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... The Anglican church commemorates many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorates various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ... An anthology, literally a garland or collection of flowers, is a collection of literary works, originally of poems. ...


The corpus produced by Anglican divines is diverse. What they have in common is a commitment to the faith as conveyed by Scripture and the Book of Common Prayer, thus regarding prayer and theology in a manner akin to that of the Apostolic Fathers.[5] On the whole, Anglican divines view the via media of Anglicanism, not as a compromise, but "a positive position, witnessing to the universality of God and God's kingdom working through the fallible, earthly ecclesia Anglicana."[6] These theologians regard Scripture as interpreted through tradition and reason as authoritative in matters concerning salvation. Reason and tradition, indeed, is extant in and presupposed by Scripture, thus implying co-operation between God and humanity, God and nature, and between the sacred and secular. Faith is thus regarded as incarnational, and authority as dispersed. The Apostolic Fathers were a small collection of Christian authors who lived and wrote in the late 1st century and early 2nd century who are acknowledged as leaders in the early church, but whose writings were not included in the collection of Christian scripture, the New Testament Biblical canon, at... The term Radical Middle refers to a type of third way philosophy as well as an associated political movement, which defines itself by simultaneously affirming both sides of an apparently contradictory issue, whether that be Left-Right politics or a false dilemma. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Among the early Anglican divines of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the names of Thomas Cranmer, John Jewel, Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes, and Jeremy Taylor predominate. The influential character of Hooker's Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity cannot be overestimated. Published in 1593 and subsequently, Hooker's eight volume work is primarily a treatise on Church-state relations, but it deals comprehensively with issues of biblical interpretation, soteriology, ethics, and sanctification. Throughout the work, Hooker makes clear that theology involves prayer and is concerned with ultimate issues, and that theology is relevant to the social mission of the church. John Jewel (sometimes spelled Jewell) (May 24, 1522 - September 23, 1571), bishop of Salisbury, son of John Jewel of Buden, Devon, was educated under his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton, and other private tutors until his matriculation at Merton College, Oxford, in July 1535. ... Lancelot Andrewes (1555 - September 25, 1626) was an English clergyman and scholar. ... Jeremy Taylor is depicted in this portrait at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge University. ... Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity was a defense of the practices and beliefs of the Anglican Church against the Puritans, written by Richard Hooker in 1593. ... Hermeneutics is a philosophical technique concerned with the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...

The eighteenth century saw the rise of two important movements in Anglicanism: Cambridge Platonism, with its mystical understanding of reason as the "candle of the Lord," and the Evangelical Revival, with its emphasis on the personal experience of the Holy Spirit. The Cambridge Platonist movement evolved into a school called Latitudinarianism, which emphasised reason as the barometer of discernment and took a stance of indifference towards doctrinal and ecclesiological differences. The Evangelical Revival, influenced by such figures as John Wesley and Charles Simeon, re-emphasised the importance of justification through faith and the consequent importance of personal conversion. Some in this movement, such as Wesley and George Whitefield, took the message to the United States, influencing the First Great Awakening, and created an Anglo-American movement called Methodism that would eventually break away, structurally, from the Anglican churches after the American Revolution. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 3. ... Christ Church Cathedral spire. ... The Cambridge Platonists were a group of divines at Cambridge University in England in the middle of the 17th century (between 1633 and 1688). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Latitudinarian was initially a pejorative term applied to a group of 17th century British theologians who believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but who felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, and ecclesiastical organization were of relatively little importance. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... Charles Simeon (1759 - November 13, 1836), was an English evangelical clergyman. ... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... George Whitefield (December 16, 1714 - September 30, 1770), was a minister in the Church of England and one of the leaders of the Methodist movement. ... The First Great Awakening is the name sometimes given to a period of heightened religious activity, primarily in the southwester belly US during the 1730s and 1740s. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ...


By the nineteenth century, there was a renewed emphasis on the teachings of the earlier Anglican divines: Theologians such as John Keble, Edward Bouverie Pusey, and John Henry Newman had widespread influence in the realm of polemics, homiletics, and theological and devotional works, not least because they largely repudiated the Old High Church tradition and replaced it with a dynamic appeal to antiquity which looked beyond the Reformers and Anglican formularies.[7] Their work is largely credited with the development of the Oxford Movement, which sought to reassert Catholic identity and practice in the Anglican Church. Through such works as The Kingdom of Christ, Frederick Denison Maurice played a pivotal role in inaugurating another movement, Christian socialism. In this, Maurice transformed Hooker's emphasis on the incarnational nature of Anglican spirituality to an imperative for social justice. In the nineteenth century, Anglican biblical scholarship began to assume a distinct character, represented by the so-called "Cambridge triumvirate" of Joseph Lightfoot, F. J. A. Hort, and Brooke Foss Westcott. Their orientation is best summed up by Lightfoot's observation that "Life which Christ is and which Christ communicates, the life which fills our whole beings as we realise its capacities, is active fellowship with God." John Keble John Keble (April 25, 1792- March 29, 1866) was an English churchman, one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement, and gave his name to Keble College, Oxford (1870). ... Edward Bouverie Pusey (August 22, 1800 - September 16, 1882), was an English churchman, and one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement. ... J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... John Frederick Denison Maurice (August 29, 1805 - April 1, 1872) was an English theologian. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian socialism generally refers to those... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fenton J.A. Hort Fenton John Anthony Hort (April 23, 1828–November 30, 1892) was an Irish theologian and editor, with Brooke Westcott of a critical edition of the The New Testament in the Original Greek. ... Brooke Foss Westcott (January 12, 1825–July 27, 1901) was an English churchman and theologian, Bishop of Durham from 1890 until his death. ...


The twentieth century is marked by figures such as Charles Gore, with his emphasis on natural revelation, William Temple's focus on Christianity and society, J.A.T. Robinson's provocative discussions of deism and theism, Darwell Stone's and E. L. Mascall's thomism and defence of Catholic orthodoxy, and Kenneth Kirk's Moral Theology.[8] Outside England, one sees such figures as William Porcher DuBose, William Meade, and Charles Henry Brent in the United States. More recently, theologians such as Henry Chadwick. John Macquarrie and Don Cupitt, who rejected all the doctrines of historic Christianity in favour of a "Christian Buddism",[9] Jeffrey John, N.T. Wright, and Rowan Williams have added to the mix. Statue of Charles Gore, outside St Philips Cathedral, Birmingham Charles Gore (born 1853 in Wimbledon; died January 17 (though usually commemorated on January 23), 1932) was an English divine and Anglican bishop. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dr John Arthur Thomas Robinson (1919 in Canterbury, England–December 5, 1983) was a New Testament scholar, author, and former Anglican bishop of Woolwich, England. ... William Porcher DuBose (April 11, 1836-1918) was a priest and theologian in the Protestant Episcopal Church. ... William Meade (November 11, 1789 - March 14, 1862), was a United States Episcopal bishop. ... Charles Henry Brent (April 9, 1862–March 27, 1929) was an American Episcopal bishop who served in the Philippines and western New York. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Don Cupitt is often referred to as a radical theologian, the term implying that he is a theological thinker but with atheist beliefs. ... The Reverend Dr Jeffrey Philip Hywel John, MA DPhil (born 1953) is a Church of England cleric, and the current Dean of St Albans. ... Tom (N.T.) Wright, Bishop of Durham Tom (N.T.) Wright is the Bishop of Durham of the Anglican Church and a leading British New Testament scholar. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ...


Churchmanship

An eastward-facing solemn high mass, a Catholic liturgical phenomenon which re-emerged in Anglicanism following the Catholic Revival of the nineteenth century.
An eastward-facing solemn high mass, a Catholic liturgical phenomenon which re-emerged in Anglicanism following the Catholic Revival of the nineteenth century.

"Churchmanship" can be defined as the manifestation of theology in the realms of liturgy, piety and — to some extent — spirituality. Anglicanism diversity in this respect has tended to reflect the diversity in the tradition's Protestant and Catholic identity. Different individuals, groups, parishes, dioceses and provinces may identify more with one or the other, or some balance of the two. Image File history File links Tridentine_mass. ... Image File history File links Tridentine_mass. ... The Elevation during Solemn High Mass Solemn Mass (in Latin Missa solemnis) or Solemn High Mass or simply High Mass, when used as technical terms, not merely as descriptions, refer to the full ceremonial form of the Tridentine Mass, to which rules applied which were rigidly distinct from those that... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ...


The range of Anglican belief and practice became particularly divisive during the 19th century when some clergy were disciplined and even imprisoned on charges of ritualism while, at the same time, others were criticised for engaging in public worship services with ministers of Reformed churches. Resistance to the growing acceptance and restoration of traditional Catholic ceremonial by the mainstream of Anglicanism ultimately led to the formation of small breakaway churches such as the Free Church of England in England (1844) and the Reformed Episcopal Church in North America (1873). In general, the term, Ritualism can be used to describe an outlook which places a great (or even exaggerated) emphasis on ritual. ... The Free Church of England is an Anglican church which separated from the established Church of England in 1844. ... The Reformed Episcopal Church is an Anglican church in the United States and Canada. ...


Anglo-Catholic (and some Broad Church) Anglicans celebrate public liturgy in a way that sets off the act of worship as something special and very important. To that end, vestments a are used by the priests and servers, special settings for the service are sung, often incense is used. Nowadays in most Anglican churches the Eucharist will be celebrated in a manner quite similar to the Lutherans or Roman Catholics, though in many churches more traditional models of worship are common, (e.g., an "eastward orientation" at the altar). The Eucharist may be conducted by priest, deacon and subdeacon dressed in their traditional vestments, using incense and sanctus bells and with prayers adapted from the missal or other sources said by the presiding celebrant. Such churches may practice Eucharistic adoration, such as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. In terms of personal piety, some Anglicans may recite the rosary and angelus, be involved in a devotional society dedicated to "Our Lady" (the Blessed Virgin Mary) and seek the intercession of the saints. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Methodists, Lutheran and Anglican Churches. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity. ... It has been suggested that altar bell be merged into this article or section. ... The Missal, by John William Waterhouse Missal, in the Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... Anglican prayer beads Sometimes known as the Anglican rosary, Christian prayer beads, or ecumenical prayer beads, Anglican prayer beads are a loop of strung beads which Anglicans and other Christians use as a focus for prayer. ... This article is about a religious devotion. ... Our Lady redirects here. ...


In recent years the prayer books of several provinces have, out of deference to a greater agreement with Eastern Conciliarism (and a perceived greater respect accorded Anglicanism by Eastern Orthodoxy than by Roman Catholicism), instituted a number of historically Eastern and Oriental Orthodox elements in their liturgies, including introduction of the Trisagion and deletion of the filioque clause from the Nicene Creed. In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... The Trisagion (Thrice Holy) is a standard hymn of the Divine Liturgy in most of the Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodox Churches and Eastern Catholic Churches. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause (and the Son) is a disputed part of the Nicene Creed. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ...


For their part, those Evangelical (and some Broad Church) Anglicans who emphasise the more Protestant aspects of the Church stress the Reformation theme of salvation by grace through faith. They emphasise the two dominical sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist, viewing the other five as "lesser rites". Some Evangelical Anglicans may even tend to take the inerrancy of Scripture literally, adopting the view of Article VI that it contains all things necessary to salvation in an explicit sense. Worship in churches influenced by these principles tends to be significantly less elaborate, with greater emphasis on the Liturgy of the Word (the reading of the scriptures, the sermon and the intercessory prayers). The Order for Holy Communion may be celebrated bi-weekly or monthly (in preference to the daily offices), by ministers attired in choir habit, or more regular clothes, rather than Eucharistic vestments. Ceremony may be in keeping with their view of the provisions of the controversial Ornaments Rubric of the historic English prayer books — no candles, no incense, no bells and a minimum of manual action by the presiding celebrant (such as touching the elements at the Words of Institution). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... Choir dress is the vestiture of the clerics, seminarians and religious of traditional churches worn for public prayer apart from the eucharist. ... The instruction placed in the Book of Common Prayer of 1662. ... The words of institution are the words of Jesus Christ as recorded in the New Testament used in some forms of Christian liturgy to consecrate the Eucharist. ...


In recent decades there has been a growth of charismatic worship among Anglicans. Both Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals have been affected by this movement such that it is not uncommon to find typically charismatic postures, music, and other themes evident during the services of otherwise Anglo-Catholic or Evangelical parishes. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began...


The spectrum of Anglican beliefs and practice is too large to be fit into these labels. Many Anglicans locate themselves somewhere in the spectrum of the Broad Church tradition, and consider themselves an amalgam of Evangelical and Catholic. Such Anglicans stress that Anglicanism is the "via media" (middle way) between the two major strains of Western Christianity. Via media may be understood as underscoring Anglicanism's preference for a communitarian and methodological approach to theological issues rather than relativism. The term Radical Middle refers to a type of third way philosophy as well as an associated political movement, which defines itself by simultaneously affirming both sides of an apparently contradictory issue, whether that be Left-Right politics or a false dilemma. ...


Sacramental doctrine and practice

Main article: Anglican sacraments

As befits its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity, Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as being both a church in the Catholic tradition as well as a church of the Reformation. With respect to sacramental theology the Catholic heritage is perhaps most strongly asserted in the importance Anglicanism places on the sacraments as a means of grace, sanctification and salvation as expressed in the church's liturgy. Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... The term Radical Middle refers to a type of third way philosophy as well as an associated political movement, which defines itself by simultaneously affirming both sides of an apparently contradictory issue, whether that be Left-Right politics or a false dilemma. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ...


Of the seven sacraments, Anglicans recognise baptism and the Eucharist as being directly instituted by Christ. The other five are regarded variously as full sacraments by Anglo-Catholics or as "sacramental rites" by Evangelicals. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to...


The seven sacraments are Baptism, Confession and absolution, Holy Matrimony, Holy Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or Mass), Confirmation, Holy Orders (also called Ordination), and Anointing of the Sick (also called Unction.) This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... In criminal proceedings, a confession is a document in which a suspect admits having committed a crime. ... The Christian view of marriage, until recently, according to a nearly universal consensus, has regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Confirmation is a rite used in many Christian Churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ...


Whilst infant baptism is still the norm in Anglicanism, services of thanksgiving and dedication of children are sometimes celebrated, especially when baptism is being deferred. Anglicans regard baptism as an unrepeatable sacrament. People baptised in other traditions will be confirmed without being baptised again unless there is doubt about the validity of their original baptism. Already confirmed Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians are simply received into the Anglican Church. This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Eucharistic theology

Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. Some few Low Church Anglicans take a strictly memorialist (Zwinglian) view of the sacrament. In other words, they see Holy Communion as a memorial to Christ's suffering, and participation in the Eucharist as both a re-enactment of the Last Supper and a foreshadowing of the heavenly banquet -- the fulfillment of the Eucharistic promise. Most Low Church Anglicans believe in the Real Presence but deny that the presence of Christ is carnal or can be localised in the bread and wine. Despite explicit criticism in the Thirty-Nine Articles, some High Church or Anglo-Catholic Anglicans hold, more or less, the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, seeing the Eucharist as a re-enactment of Christ's atoning sacrifice, with the elements actually transformed into Christ's Body and Blood. Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Most Anglicans, however, implicitly or explicitly adopt the Eucharistic theology of consubstantiation, first articulated by the Lollards, or Sacramental Union, first articulated by Martin Luther. Luther's analogy of Christ's presence was that of the heat of a horseshoe thrust into a fire until it is glowing. In the same way, Christ is present in the bread and the wine. Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ...


The classical Anglican aphorism regarding Christ's presence in the sacrament is found in a poem by John Donne: For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ...

He was the Word that spake it;
He took the bread and brake it;
and what that Word did make it;
I do believe and take it.[10]

An Anglican position on the Eucharistic sacrifice ("Sacrifice of the Mass") was expressed in the response Saepius Officio of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York to Pope Leo XIII's Papal Encyclical Apostolicae curae. Anglican and Roman Catholic representatives declared that they had "substantial agreement on the doctrine of the Eucharist" in the Windsor Statement on Eucharistic Doctrine from the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Consultation and the Elucidation of the ARCIC Windsor Statement. Saepius Officio is the definitive reply of the Church of England to Apostolicae Curae, the Papal Bull of 1896 declaring Anglican Ordinations invalid, intended to prove the sufficiency of the form and intention used in the Anglican rite. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest pontificate... Apostolicae Curae is the title of a papal bull issued in 1896 by Pope Leo XIII, declaring all Anglican holy orders null and void. ...

Practices: prayer and worship

For more details on on the daily Anglican morning office, see Morning Prayer.
see also Evensong and Prayer of Humble Access

In Anglicanism there is a distinction between liturgy, which is the formal public and communal worship of the Church, and personal prayer and devotion which may be public or private. Liturgy is regulated by the prayer books and consists of the Holy Eucharist (some call it Holy Communion or Mass), the other Sacraments, and the Divine Office or Liturgy of the Hours. Morning Prayer, in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, also known as Mattins or Matins, was, until the last quarter of the 20th century, the main Sunday morning service most Sundays in all but the most high church Anglican parishes, with Holy Communion being the main Sunday morning service once... Evening Prayer according to the Book of Common Prayer is a liturgy used in the Church of England in the late afternoon or evening. ... Details is the premiere album by the musical group Frou Frou. ...


Book of Common Prayer

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the foundational prayer book of Anglicanism. The original was one of the instruments of the English Reformation and was later to be adapted and revised in other countries where Anglicanism became established. The BCP replaced the various 'uses' or rites in Latin that had been used in different parts of the country with a single compact volume in the language of the people so that "now from henceforth all the Realm shall have but one use". Image File history File links Book_of_common_prayer_1596. ... Image File history File links Book_of_common_prayer_1596. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ...


With British colonial expansion from the seventeenth century onwards, the Anglican church was planted across the globe. These churches at first used and then revised the use of the Prayer Book, until they, like their parent, produced prayer books which took into account the developments in liturgical study and practice in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which come under the general heading of the Liturgical Movement. The Liturgical Movement is a movement of scholarship and the reform of worship within the Roman Catholic Church which has taken place over the last century and a half and which has affected many Reformed Churches including the Church of England and other Churches of the Anglican Communion. ...


Anglican worship: an overview

See also: Church of England parish church

Anglican worship services are open to all visitors. Anglican worship originates principally in the reforms of Thomas Cranmer, who aimed to create a set order of service like that of the pre-Reformation church but less complex in its seasonal variety and in the vernacular language rather than Latin. This use of a set order of service sets Anglican worship apart from most Protestant traditions. Traditionally the pattern was that laid out in the Book of Common Prayer. Although many Anglican churches now use a wide range of modern service books the structures of the Book of Common Prayer are largely retained and churches which call themselves Anglican will have identified themselves so because they use some form or variant of the Book of Common Prayer in the shaping of their worship. A parish church in the Church of England, is the place of Christian worship which acts as the religious centre for the people of the smallest and most basic Church of England administrative unit, known as a parish. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ...


Anglican worship, however, is as diverse as Anglican theology. A contemporary "low church" or Evangelical service may differ little from the worship of many mainstream Protestant churches. The service is constructed around a sermon focused on Biblical exposition and opened with one or more Bible readings and closed by a series of prayers (both set and extemporized) and hymns or songs. A "high church" or Anglo-Catholic service, by contrast, is usually a more formal liturgy celebrated by clergy in distinctive vestments and may be almost indistinguishable from a Roman Catholic service. Between these extremes are a variety of styles of worship, often involving a robed choir and the use of the organ to accompany the singing and to provide music before and after the service. Anglican churches tend to have pews or chairs and it is usual for the congregation to kneel for some prayers but to stand for hymns and other parts of the service such as the Gloria, Collect, Gospel reading, Creed and either the Preface or all of the Eucharistic Prayer. High Anglicans may genuflect or cross themselves in the same way as Roman Catholics. Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican Churches. ... Pews in rows in a church. ...


Until the mid-twentieth century the main Sunday service was typically morning prayer, but the Eucharist has slowly become the standard form of Sunday worship in many Anglican churches; this again is a distinction from typical Protestant practice. Other common Sunday services include an early morning Eucharist without music, an abbreviated Eucharist following a service of morning prayer and a service of evening prayer, sometimes in the form of sung Evensong, usually celebrated between 3 and 6 p.m. The late-evening service of Compline was revived in parish use in the early 20th century. Many Anglican churches will also have daily morning and evening prayer and some have midweek or even daily celebration of the Eucharist. Morning Prayer, in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, also known as Mattins or Matins, was, until the last quarter of the 20th century, the main Sunday morning service most Sundays in all but the most high church Anglican parishes, with Holy Communion being the main Sunday morning service once... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... ... The term evensong can refer to the following: Evening Prayer (Anglican), the Anglican liturgy of Evening Prayer, especially (but not exclusively) so called when it is sung. ... Compline or Complin is the final church service (or office) of the day in the Christian tradition of canonical hours. ...


An Anglican service (whether or not a Eucharist) will include readings from the Bible that are generally taken from a standardised lectionary, which provides for the entire Bible (and some passages from the Apocrypha) to be read out loud in the church over a three year cycle. The sermon (or homily) is typically about ten to twenty minutes in length, though it may be much longer in Evangelical churches. Even in the most informal Evangelical services it is common for set prayers such as the weekly Collect to be read. There are also set forms for intercessory prayer, though this is now more often extemporaneous. In high and Anglo-Catholic churches there may be prayers for the dead. A Lectionary is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings for Christian worship. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... In the Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, a homily is usually given during Mass (or Divine Liturgy for Orthodox) at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ... In Christian liturgy, a collect is both a liturgical action and a short, general prayer. ... // Christianity In Christian practice, intercessory prayer is the act of one person praying for or on behalf of another person or situation. ...


Although Anglican public worship is usually ordered according to the canonically approved services, in practice many Anglican churches use forms of service outside these norms. Many Evangelical churches sit lightly to the set forms of morning and evening prayer, though generally respecting the canonical order of Holy Communion. Liberal churches may use freely-structured or experimental forms of worship, including patterns borrowed from ecumenical traditions such as those of Taizé Community or the Iona Community. Prayer in the Church of Reconciliation at Taizé The Taizé Community is an ecumenical Christian mens monastic order in Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy, France. ... The Iona Community, founded in 1938 by the Rev George MacLeod, is an ecumenical Christian community of men and women from different walks of life and different traditions in the Christian church that is committed to seeking new ways of living the gospel of Jesus in todays world. ...


Anglo-Catholic parishes might use the modern Roman Catholic liturgy of the Mass or more traditional forms, such as the Tridentine Mass, which is translated into English in the English Missal. Traditional Catholic devotions such as the Rosary, Angelus and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament are also common among Anglo-Catholics. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The Tridentine Mass (Pontifical High Mass) being celebrated at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Wyandotte, Michigan - 1949. ... The English Missal is a prayer book published first by W.Knott & son Limited in 1933 as a compilation of those prayers and rubrics which had come to be used by Anglo-Catholic churches in conjunction with the Book of Common Prayer and which derived largely from the Roman Catholic... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... This article is about a religious devotion. ... In Roman Catholic and Anglo-Catholic churches, Benediction usually refers to the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. ...


Eucharistic discipline

Only baptized persons are eligible to receive communion[11]. In the past, it was common to restrict communion to those who had not only been baptised but also confirmed. In many Anglican provinces, however, all baptised Christians are now often invited to receive communion and some dioceses have regularised a system for admitting baptised young people to communion before they are confirmed. This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... confirmed redirects here. ...


The discipline of fasting before communion is practised by some High Church Anglicans.


Most Anglican priests require the presence of at least one other person for the celebration of the Eucharist, though some Anglo-Catholic priests (like Roman Catholic priests) may say private Masses. ...


As in the Roman Catholic Church, it is a canonical requirement to use fermented wine for the Eucharist, Unlike in Roman Catholicism, however, the consecrated bread and wine are always offered to the congregation. In some churches the sacrament is reserved in a tabernacle or aumbry with a lighted candle or lamp nearby. For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ...


Divine Office

Evensong at York Minster
Evensong at York Minster

All Anglican prayer books contain offices for Morning Prayer (Matins) and Evening Prayer (Evensong). In the original Book of Common Prayer these were derived from combinations of the ancient monastic offices of Matins and Lauds; and Vespers and Compline respectively. The prayer offices have an important place in Anglican history. Prior to the Catholic revival of the nineteenth century, which eventually restored the Holy Eucharist as the principal Sunday liturgy, Matins and Evensong were the usual expressions of common worship. This nurtured a tradition of distinctive Anglican chant applied to the canticles and psalms used at the offices (although plainsong is often used as well). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 691 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 691 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. ... Morning Prayer, in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, also known as Mattins or Matins, was, until the last quarter of the 20th century, the main Sunday morning service most Sundays in all but the most high church Anglican parishes, with Holy Communion being the main Sunday morning service once... Evening Prayer is a liturgy used in the Anglican Communion (and other churches in the Anglican tradition, such as the Continuing Anglican Movement) used in the late afternoon or evening. ... For the Anglican service of Mattins see Morning Prayer Matins is the early morning prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... Lauds is one of the two major hours in the Roman Catholic Liturgy of the Hours. ... Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... Compline or Complin is the final church service (or office) of the day in the Christian tradition of canonical hours. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... Anglican chant is a method of singing prose translations of the Psalms used in the Anglican church. ... A canticle is a hymn (strictly excluding the Psalms) taken from the Bible. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Broadly speaking, plainsong is the name given to the body of traditional songs used in the liturgies of the Catholic Church. ...


In some official and unofficial Anglican service books these offices are supplemented by other offices such as the Little Hours of Prime and prayer during the day such as (Terce, Sext, None and Compline). Some Anglican monastic communities have a Daily Office based on that of the Book of Common Prayer but with additional antiphons and canticles, etc. for specific days of the week, specific psalms, etc. See, for example, Order of the Holy Cross [1] and Order of St Helena, editors, A Monastic Breviary (Wilton, Conn.: Morehouse-Barlow, 1976). The All Saints Sisters of the Poor [2], with convents in Catonsville, Maryland and elsewhere use an elaborated version of the Anglican Daily Office. The Society of St. Francis publishes Celebrating Common Prayer which has become especially popular for use among Anglicans. The Little Hours are the fixed daytime hours of prayer in the Liturgy of the Hours of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Prime is a fixed time of prayer of the traditional Divine Office, said at 6 a. ... Terce is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of the almost all the Christian liturgies. ... Sext is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of almost all the traditional Christian liturgies. ... Compline or Complin is the final church service (or office) of the day in the Christian tradition of canonical hours. ... This article deals with the Anglican Benedictine monastic community known as the Order of the Holy Cross. ... The Society of Saint Francis is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion. ...


In England, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and some other Anglican provinces the modern prayer books contains four offices:

  • Morning Prayer, corresponding to Matins and Lauds
  • Prayer During the Day, roughly corresponding to the combination of Terce, Sext and None (Noonday Prayer in the USA)
  • Evening Prayer, corresponding to Vespers
  • Compline

In addition, most prayer books include a section of prayers and devotions for family use. In the US, these offices are further supplemented by an "Order of Worship for the Evening", a prelude to or an abbreviated form of Evensong, partly derived from Orthodox prayers. In the United Kingdom, the publication of Daily Prayer, the third volume of Common Worship was published in 2005. It retains the services for Morning and Evening Prayer and Compline and includes a section entitled "Prayer during the Day". 'A New Zealand Prayer Book' of 1989 provides different outlines for Matins and Evensong on each day of the week, as well as "Midday Prayer", "Night Prayer" and "Family Prayer". Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Common Worship is a series of books of services and prayers, known as a liturgy, published by the Church of England. ...


Some Anglicans who pray the office on daily basis use the present Divine Office of the Roman Catholic Church. In many cities, especially in England, Anglican and Roman Catholic priests and lay people often meet several times a week to pray the office in common. A small but enthusiastic minority use the Anglican Breviary, or other translations and adaptations of the Pre-Vatican II Roman Rite and Sarum Rite, along with supplemental material from cognate western sources, to provide such things as a common of Octaves, a common of Holy Women and other additional material. Others may privately use idiosyncratic forms borrowed from a wide range of Christian traditions. Canonical hours are ancient divisions of time (also called offices), developed by the Christian Church, serving as increments between prayers. ... Categories: ... The Sarum Rite, more properly called the Sarum Use, was a variant of the Latin Rite practiced in Great Britain & Ireland from the late 11th Century until the Reformation. ...


Organization and mission of the Church

Principles of governance

Contrary to popular misconception, the British monarch is not the constitutional "Head" but in law "The Supreme Governor" of the Church of England, nor does he or she have any role in provinces outside England and Wales. The role of the crown in the Church of England is practically limited to the appointment of bishops, including the Archbishop of Canterbury. This process is accomplished through collaboration with and consent of ecclesial representatives (see Ecclesiastical Commissioners). The monarch has no constitutional role in Anglican churches in other parts of the world, although the prayer books of several countries where she is head of state maintain prayers for her as sovereign. ECCLESIASTICAL COMMISSIONERS, in England, a body corporate, whose full title is Ecclesiastical and Church Estates Commissioners for England, invested with very important powers, under the operation of which extensive changes have been made in the distribution of the revenues of the Established Church. ...


A characteristic of Anglicanism is that it has no international juridical authority. All thirty-nine provinces of the Anglican Communion are independent, each with their own primate and governing structure. These provinces may take the form of national churches (such as in Canada, Uganda, or Japan) or a collection of nations (such as the West Indies, Central Africa, or South Asia), or geographical regions (such as Vanuatu and Solomon Islands) etc. Within these Communion provinces may exist subdivisions called ecclesiastical provinces, under the jurisdiction of a metropolitan. All provinces of the Anglican Communion consist of dioceses, each under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the Anglican tradition, bishops must be consecrated according to the strictures of apostolic succession, which Anglicans consider one of the marks of catholicity. Apart from bishops, there are two other orders of ordained ministry: deacon and priest. No requirement is made for clerical celibacy and women may be ordained as deacons in almost all provinces, as priests in some, and as bishops in a few provinces. Anglican religious orders and communities, suppressed in England during the Reformation, have re-emerged since the mid-nineteenth century, and now have an international presence and influence. Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... An ecclesiastical province is a unit of religious government existing in certain Christian churches. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious workers. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Government in the Anglican Communion is synodical, consisting of three houses of laity (usually elected parish representatives), clergy, and bishops. National, provincial, and diocesan synods maintain different scopes of authority, depending on their canons and constitutions. Anglicanism is not congregational in its polity: It is the diocese, not the parish church, which is the smallest unit of authority in the church, and bishops must give their assent to resolutions passed by synods. (See Episcopal polity). A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ...


Focus of Unity: The Archbishop of Canterbury

Arms of the see of Canterbury.
Arms of the see of Canterbury.

The Archbishop of Canterbury has a precedence of honour over the other primates of the Anglican Communion, and for a province to be considered a part of the Communion means specifically to be in communion with the See of Canterbury. The Archbishop is, therefore recognised as primus inter pares, or first amongst equals even though he does not exercise any direct authority in any province outside England, of which he is chief primate. The current Archbishop of Canterbury as of 2007, Rowan Williams is the first appointed from outside the Church of England since the Reformation: he was the former Archbishop of Wales, . Arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... The Province of Canterbury consists of the following dioceses of the Church of England: Their archbishop is the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... First among equals redirects here. ... Member churches of the Anglican Communion are often referred to as provinces. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ... The Province of Wales in the Anglican Communion was created in 1920, as the Church in Wales, independent from the Church of England (of which the four Welsh dioceses had previously been part). ...


As "spiritual head" of the Communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury maintains a certain moral authority, and has the right to determine which churches will be in communion with his See. He hosts and chairs the Lambeth Conferences of Anglican Communion bishops, and decides who will be invited to it. He also hosts and chairs the Anglican Communion Primates' Meeting and is responsible for the invitations to it. He acts as president of the secretariat of the Anglican Communion Office, and its deliberative body, the Anglican Consultative Council. A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Anglican Communion Primates Meetings are regular meetings of the senior archbishops and bishops of the Anglican Communion. ... The Anglican Consultative Council is one of the four Instruments of Unity of the Anglican Communion. ...


Instruments of unity

The Anglican Communion has no international juridical organization. All international bodies are consultative and collaborative, and their resolutions are not legally binding on the independent provinces of the Communion. There are three international bodies of note.

  1. The Lambeth Conference is the oldest international consultation. It was first convened by Archbishop Charles Longley in 1867 as a vehicle for bishops of the Communion to "discuss matters of practical interest, and pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action." Since then, it has been held roughly every ten years. Invitation is by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
  2. The Anglican Consultative Council was created by a 1968 Lambeth Conference resolution, and meets biennially. The council consists of representative bishops, clergy, and laity chosen by the thirty-eight provinces. The body has a permanent secretariat, the Anglican Communion Office, of which the Archbishop of Canterbury is president.
  3. The Anglican Communion Primates' Meeting is the most recent manifestation of international consultation and deliberation, having been first convened by Archbishop Donald Coggan in 1978 as a forum for "leisurely thought, prayer and deep consultation."

The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ... A photo of Charles Thomas Longley by Lewis Carroll Charles Thomas Longley (1794-1868) was an English churchman, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1862 until his death. ... The Anglican Consultative Council is one of the four Instruments of Unity of the Anglican Communion. ... Look up Biennial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Biennial is a term referring to a period of two years, much in the same way centennial refers to 100 years. ... The Anglican Communion Primates Meetings are regular meetings of the senior archbishops and bishops of the Anglican Communion. ... Frederick Donald Coggan, Baron Coggan (December 23, 1909 - May 17, 2000) was the 101st Archbishop of Canterbury from 1974 to 1980, during which time he visited Rome and met the Pontiff, in company with Bishop Cormac Murphy-OConnor, future Cardinal of England and Wales. ...

Ordained ministry

An Anglican priest in Eucharistic vestments. Anglican clergy usually vest at the Eucharist. While the chasuble is considered to be more "high church" by some Anglicans, the alb and stole have become common vesture.
An Anglican priest in Eucharistic vestments. Anglican clergy usually vest at the Eucharist. While the chasuble is considered to be more "high church" by some Anglicans, the alb and stole have become common vesture.
For more details on on the Anglican priesthood, see Anglican ministry.

Like the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches (but unlike most Protestant churches), the Anglican Communion maintains the threefold ministry of deacons, priests, and bishops. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 79 KB) Summary An Anglican priest wearing a chasuble over alb and stole. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 79 KB) Summary An Anglican priest wearing a chasuble over alb and stole. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Methodists, Lutheran and Anglican Churches. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... A modern chasuble A fiddleback chasuble from the church of Saint Gertrude in Maarheeze in the Netherlands An old chasuble from RacÅ‚awice (województwo podkarpackie), Poland A fifteenth-century chasuble The chasuble is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition... ALB is a three-letter abbreviation may refer to: Albumin Albania, from its ISO code Albanian language, from its ISO 639 code Albany International Airport, from its IATA code Albrighton railway station, from its National Rail code Asian long-horned beetle Abraham Lincoln Brigade All-weather Life Boat Category: ... The stole (a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations) is an embroidered band of cloth, formerly usually of silk, about two and one-half to three metres long and seven to ten centimetres wide, whose ends are usually broadened out. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Episcopate

The bishops, who possess the fullness of Christian priesthood, are the successors of the Apostles. The primates, archbishops and metropolitans are all bishops and members of the historical episcopate, and derive their authority through apostolic succession — an unbroken line of bishops that can be traced back to the apostles of Jesus. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... The episcopate is either the status of a bishop or the collective body of all bishops of a church. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Priesthood (Presbyterate)

Bishops are assisted by priests and deacons. Most ordained ministers in the Anglican communion are priests, who usually work in Parishes within a diocese. The priest in charge of the spiritual life of a parish is called by various titles, most commonly rector or vicar. A curate is an old-fashioned term for a priest who assists the rector at a parish. This article is about religious workers. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... Vicariate redirects here. ... From the Latin curatus (compare Curator), a curate is a person who is invested with the care, or cure (cura), of souls of a parish. ...


Non-parochial priests may earn their living by any vocation, though these are usually related to the educational, social service or healing professions. Many other non-stipendiary priests will work in Christian related fields as chaplains of hospitals, schools, cruise ships etc.


An archdeacon is a priest responsible for administration of an archdeaconry, which is often the name given to the principal subdivision of a diocese. In the Church of England the position of Archdeacon can only be held by someone under priestly orders who has been practicing for 6 years; in some other parts of the Anglican Communion the position can be held by a deacon as well. In parts of the Anglican Communion where women cannot be ordained as priests or bishops, the position of archdeacon is effectively the most senior office a clergywoman can be promoted to. For the Major League Baseball player, see Maurice Archdeacon. ... An archdeacon is a senior position in some Christian churches, above that of most clergy and below a bishop. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


The Anglican Communion recognises Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox ordinations as valid. Outside the Anglican Communion, Anglican ordinations (at least of male priests) are recognised by the Old Catholics and various Independent Catholic Churches. The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ... Independent Catholic is a term used by many small groups who are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church or other traditional Episcopally governed Churches such as Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Anglican or Old Catholic; all of whom function as small (frequently tiny) episcopally-governed Church bodies in many...


Diaconate

An Anglican deacon wearing a purple stole over his left shoulder.
An Anglican deacon wearing a purple stole over his left shoulder.
Main article: Deacon

In Anglican churches, deacons often work directly in ministry to the marginalised inside and outside the church: the poor, the sick, the hungry, the imprisoned. Unlike Orthodox and Roman Catholic deacons who may be married only before ordination, deacons are permitted to marry freely both before and after ordination, as are priests. Most deacons are preparing for priesthood, and usually only remain as deacons for about a year before being ordained priests. However, there are some deacons who remain deacons. Many provinces of the Anglican Communion ordain both women and men as deacons. Many of those provinces that ordain women to the priesthood previously allowed them to be ordained only to the diaconate. The effect of this was the creation of a large and overwhelmingly female diaconate for a time, as most men proceeded to be ordained priest after a short time as a deacon. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 78 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Deacon Stole Alb ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 78 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Deacon Stole Alb ... The stole (a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations) is an embroidered band of cloth, formerly usually of silk, about two and one-half to three metres long and seven to ten centimetres wide, whose ends are usually broadened out. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ...


Deacons may baptise and in some dioceses are granted licenses to solemnize matrimony, usually under the instruction of their parish priest and bishop. They sometimes officiate at Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, in the handful of churches that have borrowed this service. Deacons are not permitted to preside at the eucharist (but can lead worship with the distribution of already-consecrated Communion where this is permitted), absolve sins or pronounce a blessing in the name of the Church [3], (however, these last two are often permitted in an indirect form). It is the prohibition against deacons pronouncing a blessing in the Church's name that leads some in the church to believe that a deacon cannot properly solemnize matrimony. In most cases, deacons minister alongside other clergy. This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... In Roman Catholic and Anglo-Catholic churches, Benediction usually refers to the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Absolution in a liturgical church refers to the pronouncement of Gods forgiveness of sins. ... Look up blessing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Laity

All baptised members of the Church are called Christian faithful, truly equal in dignity and in the work to build the Church. Some of the non-ordained exercise formal, public ministry in the name of the church, often on a full time and life-long basis. Lay Readers, also known as Readers, churchwardens, vergers and sextons are auxiliaries who do not hold holy orders. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An Anglican lay reader in choir habit. ... A Churchwarden is a lay official in a parish church of the Anglican Communion. ... This is a traditional verger gown. ... A sexton is a church officer charged with the maintenance of the church buildings and/or the surrounding graveyard. ...


Religious life

See also: Anglican religious order and Anglican devotions

A small yet influential aspect of Anglicanism is its religious orders and communities. Shortly after the beginning of the Catholic Revival in the Church of England, there was a renewal of interest in re-establishing religious and monastic orders and communities. One of Henry VIII's earliest acts was their dissolution and seizure of their assets. In 1841 Marion Rebecca Hughes became the first woman to take the vows of religion in communion with the Province of Canterbury since the Reformation. In 1848, Priscilla Lydia Sellon became the superior of the Society of the Most Holy Trinity at Devonport, the first organised religious order. Sellon is called "the restorer, after three centuries, of the religious life in the Church of England."[12] For the next one hundred years, religious orders for both men and women proliferated throughout the world, becoming a numerically small but disproportionately influential feature of global Anglicanism. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Province of Canterbury consists of the following dioceses of the Church of England: Their archbishop is the Archbishop of Canterbury. ...


Anglican religious life at one time boasted hundreds of orders and communities, and thousands of religious. An important aspect of Anglican religious life is that most communities of both men and women lived their lives consecrated to God under the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience (or in Benedictine communities, Stability, Conversion of Life, and Obedience) by practicing a mixed life of reciting the full eight services of the Breviary in choir, along with a daily Eucharist, plus service to the poor. The mixed life, combining aspects of the contemplative orders and the active orders remains to this day a hallmark of Anglican religious life. Another distinctive feature of Anglican religious life is the existence of some mixed-gender communities. Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A vow (Lat. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ... Look up Obedience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... Breviary of Cologne, 12th or 13th century (Helsinki University Library) A breviary (from Latin brevis, short or concise) is a liturgical book containing the public or canonical prayers, hymns, the Psalms, readings, and notations for everyday use, especially for priests, in the Divine Office (i. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Since the 1960s there has been a sharp decline in the number of professed religious in most parts of the Anglican Communion, especially in North America, Europe, and Australia. Many once large and international communities have been reduced to a single convent or monastery comprised of elderly men or women. In the last few decades of the 20th century, novices have for most communities been few and far between. Some orders and communities have already become extinct. There are however, still several thousand Anglican religious working today in approximately 200 communities around the world, and religious life in many parts of the Communion - especially in developing nations - flourishes. North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The most significant growth has been in the Melanesian countries of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. The Melanesian Brotherhood, founded at Tabalia, Guadalcanal, in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, is now the largest Anglican Community in the world with over 450 brothers in the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and the United Kingdom. The Sisters of the Church, started by Mother Emily Ayckbowm in England in 1870, has more sisters in the Solomons than all their other communities. The Community of the Sisters of Melanesia, started in 1980 by Sister Nesta Tiboe, is a growing community of women throughout the Solomon Islands. The Society of Saint Francis, founded as a union of various Franciscan orders in the 1920s, has experienced great growth in the Solomon Islands. Other communities of religious have been started by Anglicans in Papua New Guinea and in Vanuatu. Most Melanesian Anglican religious are in their early to mid 20s — vows may be temporary and it is generally assumed that brothers, at least, will leave and marry in due course — making the average age 40 to 50 years younger than their brothers and sisters in other countries. Growth of religious orders, especially for women, is marked in certain parts of Africa. Map showing Melanesia. ... The Melanesian Brotherhood was formed in 1925 by Ini Kopuria, a policeman from Maravovo, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. ... Tabalia (pronounced TAHM ba lia) The land given by Ini Kopuria to the the Ira Reta Tasiu on North Eastern Guadalcanal. ... Guadalcanal, a 2,510 square mile (6,500 km²) island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands, is largely a jungle. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... The Community of the Sisters of Melanesia, more usually called The Sisters of Melanesia, is the third order for women to be established in the Church of Melanesia, which is the Anglican Church of Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. ... The Society of Saint Francis is a Franciscan religious order within the Anglican Communion. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Worldwide distribution

A world map showing the Provinces of the Anglican Communion (Blue). Shown are the Churches in full communion with the Anglican Church: The Nordic Lutheran churches of the Porvoo Communion (Green), and the Old Catholic Churches in the Utrecht Union (Red).

Anglicanism represents the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. The number of Anglicans in the world is approximately 77 million.[13] The 11 provinces in Africa saw explosive growth in the last two decades. They now include 36.7 million members, more Anglicans than there are in England. England remains the largest single Anglican province, with 26 million members. In most industrialised countries, church attendance has decreased since the 19th century. Anglicanism's presence in the rest of the world is due to large-scale emigration, the establishment of expatriate communities or the work of missionaries. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2140x942, 141 KB) A world map showing the Provinces of the Anglican Communion (Blue). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2140x942, 141 KB) A world map showing the Provinces of the Anglican Communion (Blue). ... The Porvoo Communion is an agreement between 12 European Protestant churches establishing full communion. ... The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ... The Union of Utrecht is a federation of Old Catholic Churches, not in communion with Rome, that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of Papal infallibility. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


The Church of England has been a church of missionaries since the seventeenth century when the Church first left English shores with colonists who founded what would become the United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa and established Anglican churches. For example, an Anglican chaplain -Robert Wolfall - with Martin Frobisher's Arctic expedition celebrated the Eucharist in 1578 in Frobisher Bay. The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... The priest Robert Wolfall, chaplain to Martin Frobishers expedition to the Arctic, celebrated the first Anglican (i. ... Martin Frobisher by Cornelis Ketel. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ...

CSI St. Mary's Church, Chennai. This is the first Anglican Church in India
CSI St. Mary's Church, Chennai. This is the first Anglican Church in India[14]

The first Anglican church in the Americas was built at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. By the eighteenth century, missionaries worked to establish Anglican churches in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The great Church of England missionary societies were founded; for example the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) in 1698. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) in 1701, and the Church Mission Society (CMS) in 1799. The nineteenth century saw the founding and expansion of social oriented evangelism with societies such as the Church Pastoral Aid Society (CPAS) in 1836, Mission to Seafarers in 1856, Mothers' Union in 1876 and Church Army in 1882 all carrying out a personal form of evangelism. The twentieth century saw the Church of England developing new forms of evangelism such as the Alpha course in 1990 which was developed and propagated from Holy Trinity Brompton Church in London. In the twenty-first century, there has been renewed effort to reach children and youth. Fresh expressions is a Church of England missionary initiative to youth begun in 2005, and has ministries at a skate park[15] through the efforts of St George's Church, Benfleet, Essex - Diocese of Chelmsford - or youth groups with evocative names, like the C.L.A.W (Christ Little Angels - Whatever!) youth group at Coventry Cathedral. And, for the un-churched who don't actually wish to visit a bricks and mortar church there are Internet ministries such as the Diocese of Oxford's on-line Anglican i-Church which appeared on the web in 2005. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2220 × 3042 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2220 × 3042 pixel, file size: 3. ... CSI St. ... St. ... , Madras redirects here. ... // Jamestown may refer to: Jamestown, South Australia Mount Olive-Silverstone-Jamestown, a neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario Jamestown, Ghana, a district of the city of Accra Jamestown, Dublin Jamestown, Laois Jamestown, Offaly Jamestown, County Leitrim I live there! Jamestown, Saint Helena, a harbour and the capital of Saint Helena Jamestown, the... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) is the oldest Anglican mission organisation. ... Seal of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG), formed in 1701, was a missionary organization of the Church of England. ... The Church Mission Society, known as the Church Missionary Society in Australia and New Zealand, is an evangelistic society working with the Anglican Church and other Protestant Christians around the world. ... The Church Pastoral Aid Society was founded in 1836 to help the home mission of the Church of England in by providing funds for employing parish workers. ... The Mission to Seafarers (formerly, The Missions to Seamen) is an international Anglican mission serving mariners and sailors through chapels in over 300 ports around the world. ... The Mothers Union (often abbreviated MU) is a worldwide movement of Anglican women, whose aim is to strengthen and preserve marriage and family life through Christianity. ... Church Army is an evangelistic Church of England organisation operating in many parts of the Anglican Communion. ... The Alpha course is a basic course on the Christian faith, commonly advertised as an opportunity to explore the meaning of life. It has spread all over the world and is currently run in 152 countries by many different denominations. ... Holy Trinity, Brompton (HTB) is an Anglican church in Brompton, London, UK. It is where the Alpha course was first developed and is one of the most influential churches in the Church of England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... fresh expressions of church are part of a new movement that attempts to make the Christian message relevant to people who are not already part of a church. ... A skate park is a recreational area where skateboarders, inline skaters, and bicyclists can perform tricks. ... St. ... Statistics Population: Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ782860 Administration District: Castle Point Shire county: Essex Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Essex Historic county: Essex Services Police force: Essex Police Ambulance service: East of England Post office and telephone Post town: BENFLEET... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... The Diocese of Chelmsford is a Church of England diocese based in Chelmsford, covering Essex and north-east London. ... The roofless ruins of the old cathedral. ... The Diocese of Oxford forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ...


Ecumenism

For more details on the on-going dialogue between Anglicanism and the wider Church, see Anglican communion and ecumenism.

Anglican interest in ecumenical dialogue can be traced back to the time of the Reformation and dialogues with both Orthodox and Lutheran churches in the sixteenth century. In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the Oxford Movement, there arose greater concern for reunion of the churches of "Catholic confession." This desire to work towards full communion with other denominations led to the development of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, approved by the Third Lambeth Conference of 1888. The four points (the sufficiency of scripture, the historic creeds, the two dominical sacraments, and the historic episcopate) were proposed as a basis for discussion, although they have frequently been taken as a non-negotiable bottom-line for reunion. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglican interest in ecumenical dialogue can... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism... The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ... The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Communions doctrine and as a reference-point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations. ... The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ...


Role of the Church in civilization

Anglican concern with broader issues of social justice can be traced to its earliest divines. Richard Hooker, for instance, wrote that "God hath created nothing simply for itself, but each thing in all things, and of every thing each part in other have such interest, that in the whole world nothing is found whereunto any thing created can say, 'I need thee not.'" This, and related statements, reflect the deep thread of incarnational theology running through Anglican social thought - a theology which sees God, nature, and humanity in dynamic interaction, and the interpenetration of the secular and the sacred in the make-up of the cosmos. Such theology is informed by a traditional English spiritual ethos, rooted in Celtic Christianity and reinforced by Anglicanism's origins as an established church, bound up by its structure in the life and interests of civil society. Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ...


Repeatedly, throughout Anglican history, this principle has reasserted itself in movements of social justice. For instance, in the eighteenth century the influential Evangelical Anglican William Wilberforce, along with others, campaigned against the slave trade. In the nineteenth century, the dominant issues concerned the adverse effects of industrialization. The usual Anglican response was to focus on education and give support to 'The National Society for the Education of the Children of the Poor in the principles of the Church of England'.[16] Lord Shaftesbury, a devout Evangelical, campaigned to improve the conditions in factories, in mines, for chimney sweeps, and for the education of the very poor. For years he was chairman of the Ragged School Board. Frederick Denison Maurice was a leading figure advocating reform , founding so-called "producer's co-operatives" and the Working Men's College. His work was instrumental in the establishment of the Christian socialist movement, although he himself was not in any real sense a socialist but, "a Tory paternalist with the unusual desire to theories his acceptance of the traditional obligation to help the poor",[17] influenced Anglo-Catholics such as Charles Gore, who wrote that, "the principle of the incarnation is denied unless the Christian spirit can be allowed to concern itself with everything that interests and touches human life." Anglican focus on labor issues culminated in the work of William Temple in the 1930s and 1940s. William Wilberforce (24 August 1759–29 July 1833) was a British politician and philanthropist. ... Founded in 1854 it has been at the forefront of further education for 150 years, offering everyone a second chance to enrich their lives, enhance their skills and compete on equal terms in the workplace. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian socialism generally refers to those... Notable William Temples include: William Temple, 17th century British politician, employer of Jonathan Swift William Temple, Acting Governor of Delaware (1846-1847) William Temple, Archbishop of York (1929-1942) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1942-1944) William Temple, VC, recipient of the Victoria Cross Rev. ...


Pacifism

A question of whether or not Christianity is a pacifist religion has remained a matter of debate for Anglicans. In 1937, the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship emerged as a distinct reform organization, seeking to make pacifism a clearly defined part of Anglican theology. The group rapidly gained popularity amongst Anglican intellectuals, including Vera Brittain, Evelyn Underhill and former British political leader George Lansbury. Furthermore, the Reverend Dick Sheppard, who during the 1930s was one of Britain's most famous Anglican priests due to his landmark sermon broadcasts for BBC radio, founded the Peace Pledge Union a secular pacifist organization for the non-religious that gained considerable support throughout the 1930s. Vera Mary Brittain, Lady Catlin (1893 – March 29, 1970) was an English writer, feminist and pacifist, best remembered as the author of the best-selling memoir Testament of Youth, recounting her experiences during the First World War and the growth of her ideology of specifically Anglican Christian pacifism. ... Evelyn Underhill (1875-1941) was an Anglican writer on mysticism, a novelist, and a metaphysical poet. ... George Lansbury (21 February 1859 – 7 May 1940) was a British politician, socialist, Christian pacifist and newspaper editor. ... Hugh Richard Lawrie Sheppard, known as Dick Sheppard (2 September 1880 - 31 October 1937) was an English Anglican clergyman, Dean of Canterbury and pacifist. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Peace Pledge Union is a British non-governmental organization which emerged from an initiative by Richard Sheppard, canon of St Pauls Cathedral, in 1933. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


Whilst never actively endorsed by the Anglican Church, many Anglicans unofficially have adopted the Augustinian "Just War" doctrine. The Anglican Pacifist Fellowship remain highly active throughout the Anglican world. It rejects this doctrine of "just war" and seeks to reform the Church by reintroducing the pacifism inherent in the beliefs of many of the earliest Christians and present in their interpretation of Christ's Sermon on the Mount. Just War theory is an international law doctrine that postulates that a war can be just only if it satisfies a set of moral or legal rules. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ...


Confusing the matter was the fact that the 37th Article of Religion in the Book of Common Prayer states that "it is lawful for Christian men, at the commandment of the Magistrate, to wear weapons, and serve in the wars." Therefore, the Lambeth Council in the modern era has sought to provide a clearer position by repudiating modern war and developed a statement that has been affirmed at each subsequent meeting of the Council. This statement was strongly reasserted when "the 67th General Convention of the Episcopal Church reaffirms the statement made by the Anglican Bishops assembled at Lambeth in 1978 and adopted by the 66th General Convention of the Episcopal Church in 1979, calling "Christian people everywhere ... to engage themselves in non-violent action for justice and peace and to support others so engaged, recognizing that such action will be controversial and may be personally very costly... this General Convention, in obedience to this call, urges all members of this Church to support by prayer and by such other means as they deem appropriate, those who engaged in such non-violent action, and particularly those who suffer for conscience' sake as a result; and be it further Resolved, that this General Convention calls upon all members of this Church seriously to consider the implications for their own lives of this call to resist war and work for peace for their own lives."

Desmond Tutu (born 1931), former Primate of the Anglican Church of the Province of South Africa, noted pacifist and a leading figure in the successful fight against apartheid
Desmond Tutu (born 1931), former Primate of the Anglican Church of the Province of South Africa, noted pacifist and a leading figure in the successful fight against apartheid

Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 96 KB)Desmond Tutu, provided by personal assistant Lavinia Browne; 1200 px X 1800 px, stated in public domain User:Alex756 received the following email in this regard: Return-path: <[email protected] ... Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 96 KB)Desmond Tutu, provided by personal assistant Lavinia Browne; 1200 px X 1800 px, stated in public domain User:Alex756 received the following email in this regard: Return-path: <[email protected] ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... The Church of the Province of Southern Africa is the Anglican province in the southern part of Africa, including dioceses in Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Saint Helena, South Africa and Swaziland. ... Pacifist may mean: an advocate of pacifism. ...

After World War II

The focus on other social issues became increasingly diffuse after the Second World War. On the one hand, the growing independence and strength of Anglican churches in the global south brought new emphasis to issues of global poverty, the inequitable distribution of resources, and the lingering effects of colonialism. In this regard, figures such as Desmond Tutu and Ted Scott were instrumental in mobilizing Anglicans worldwide against the apartheid policies of South Africa. Rapid social change in the industrialised world during the twentieth century compelled the church to examine issues of gender, sexuality and marriage. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... Edward (Ted) Scott, CC (April 30, 1919 - June 21, 2004) was a Canadian clergyman. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


These changes led to Lambeth Conference resolutions countenancing contraception and the remarriage of divorced persons. They led to most provinces approving the ordination of women. In more recent years it has led some jurisdictions to permit the ordination of people in same-sex relationships and to authorise rites for the blessing of same-sex unions (see Anglican views of homosexuality). More conservative elements within Anglicanism (primarily African churches and factions within North American Anglicanism) are opposed to these changes. Some liberal and moderate Anglicans see this opposition as representing a new fundamentalism within Anglicanism. The lack of social consensus among and within provinces of diverse cultural traditions has resulted in considerable conflict and even schism concerning some or all of these developments (see Anglican realignment). For the record label, see Marriage Records. ... In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ... The issue of homosexuality is controversial in the Anglican Communion. ... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anglican realignment is term sometimes used to describe a movement within some theologically conservative Anglican dioceses and parishes, chiefly but not exclusively focused on homosexuality in the Episcopal Church in the USA. This movement differs from previous ones in that conservative Anglicans are seeking to establish different ecclesiological arrangements within...


These latter trends reflect a countervailing tendency in Anglicanism towards insularity, reinforced perhaps by the "big tent" nature of the movement, which seeks to be comprehensive of various views and tendencies. The insularity and complacency of the early established Church of England has tended to influence Anglican self-identity, and inhibit engagement with the broader society in favour of internal debate and dialogue. Nonetheless, there is significantly greater cohesion among Anglicans when they turn their attention outward. Anglicans worldwide are active in many areas of social and environmental concern. The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church by F. L. Cross (Editor), E. A. Livingstone (Editor) Oxford University Press, USA; 3 edition p.65 (March 13, 1997)
  2. ^ "Anglicanism". Catholic Encyclopedia. 
  3. ^ a b Sydnor, William (1980). Looking at the Episcopal Church. USA: Morehouse Publishing, 80. 
  4. ^ Booty, John. "Standard Divines", The Study of Anglicanism, 163 ff. 
  5. ^ Booty, John. "Standard Divines", The Study of Anglicanism, 163. 
  6. ^ Booty, John. "Standard Divines", The Study of Anglicanism, 164. 
  7. ^ Nockles, P.B. (1994). The Oxford Movement in Context - Anglican High Churchmanship, 1760 – 1857. CUP, pp 7–8, 113, 125, 127. 
  8. ^ Nichols, A (1993). The Panther and the Hind — A Theological History of Anglicanism. Clark, dedication page and p. 128. 
  9. ^ Nichols, A (1993). The Panther and the Hind — A Theological History of Anglicanism. Clark, p. 167. 
  10. ^ Donne, John. Divine Poems—On the Sacrament, (Flesher's Edition) http://www.giga-usa.com/quotes/topics/doctrine_t001.htm
  11. ^ "Upholding Communion of the Baptized", ECUSA, June 22, 2006. 
  12. ^ Williams, Thomas J. (1950). Priscilla Lydia Sellon. London: SPCK. 
  13. ^ Major Branches of Religions
  14. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2005/12/18/stories/2005121801371100.htm The Hindu Restoration work under way at St. Mary's Church
  15. ^ Legacy XS Youth Centre & Skatepark, St. George's, Benfleet
  16. ^ Kitson Clark, G (1973). Churchmen and the Condition of England 1832–1885. Methuen, p100. 
  17. ^ Norman, E R (1976). Church and Society in England 1770 – 1970. Clarendon Press, pp. 171–172. 

is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

Further reading

  • Anson, Peter F (1955). The Call to the Cloister: Religious Communities and kindred bodies in the Anglican Communion. SPCK. 
  • Hein, David, ed. (1991) Readings in Anglican Spirituality. Cincinnati: Forward Movement.
  • Hein, David, and Gardiner H. Shattuck Jr. (2005). The Episcopalians. New York: Church Publishing. 
  • Jasper, R.C.D. (1989). The development of the Anglican Liturgy, 1662-1980. London: SPCK. 
  • More and Cross. Anglicanism. 
  • Neill, Stephen. Anglicanism. 
  • Nichols, Aidan (1993). The Panther and the Hind: A Theological History fo Anglicanism. T&T Clark. 
  • Norman, Edward (2004). Anglican Difficulties: A New Syllabus of Errors. Morehouse. 
  • Sachs, William L. (1993). The Transformation of Anglicanism: From State Church to Global Community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Sykes, Stephen, Booty, John, & Knight, Jonathan, (eds.). The Study of Anglicanism. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. 
  • Temple, William. Doctrine in the Church of England. 

This article is about the city in England. ... The Right Reverend Professor Stephen Whitefield Sykes (b. ... John David Booty (born January 3, 1985 in Shreveport, Louisiana) is a college football quarterback attending the University of Southern California (USC). ... Notable William Temples include: William Temple, 17th century British politician, employer of Jonathan Swift William Temple, Acting Governor of Delaware (1846-1847) William Temple, Archbishop of York (1929-1942) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1942-1944) William Temple, VC, recipient of the Victoria Cross Rev. ...

External links


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Anglicanism (277 words)
Anglicanism is that tradition in CHRISTIANITY whose members are in full communion with the see of Canterbury, England.
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