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Encyclopedia > Anglican sacraments

Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. Generally speaking, Anglicans view two of those sacraments - Baptism and the Holy Eucharist - as having been ordained by Christ ("sacraments of the Gospel," as Article XXV of the Thirty-Nine Articles describes them). As such, they are the only two considered strictly necessary for salavtion. The other five are regarded variously as full sacraments by Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church Anglicans or as lesser "sacramental rites" by evangelical or Calvinist Anglicans. The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ...


The seven sacraments are:

Contents

Baptism in early Christian art. ... In criminal proceedings, a confession is a document in which a suspect admits having committed a crime. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament[1], to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... Confirmation is a rite used in many Christian Churches. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... The Christian view of marriage, until recently, according to a nearly universal consensus, has regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ... Holy Orders in the modern Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Assyrian, Old Catholic, and Independent Catholic Churches, includes three degrees: bishop, priest, and deacon. ... Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion of Churches, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and is also administered in some Protestant Churches. ...


Characteristics of sacraments

As defined by the 16th Century Anglican divine, Richard Hooker, a sacrament is defined as "an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace." It thus has the effect of conveying sanctification on the individual participating in the sacramental action. Richard Hooker was the name of a sixteenth century Anglican theologian; Richard Hooker is also the pseudonym under which author H. Richard Hornberger wrote novels, including his most famous, M*A*S*H. This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...


Sacraments have both form and matter. A form is the verbal and physical liturgical action, while the matter refers to any material objects used (e.g., water and chrism in baptism; bread and wine in the Eucharist, etc.). Not all the ritual and objects used in sacramental worship can be defined as the form and matter — the necessities are articulated in the rubrics of Anglican prayer books. Chrism (Greek word literally meaning an anointing), also called Holy Oil, or Consecrated Oil, is a consecrated oil used in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in the administration of certain sacraments and ecclesiastical functions. ... Rubrics are written directions for liturgical actions found in religious service and liturgical books, especially in Christianity. ... A Modern Prayer Book The Book of Common Prayer is the prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ...


A rite that has the intended sacramental effect is a valid sacrament. Anglicans hold that only a priest properly ordained by a bishop or a bishop consecrated by other bishops can perform valid sacramental actions (the exception is baptism, which can be performed by a layperson in cases of emergency). To be validly ordered, all Anglican clergy must be ordained and/or consecrated by bishops whose own consecration can be traced to the Apostles (see Apostolic succession). Anglicans differ as to whether the sacraments received by clergy who are not ordained in this tradition have been validly performed and received. Roman Catholic priests in traditional clerical clothing. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor of the Church of the Apostles. ...


Three of the seven sacraments may be received only once in a lifetime because they make an indelible sacramental character on the recipient's soul: baptism, confirmation, and ordination to a particular order (for example, a person who has been ordained a deacon can be ordained a priest, but cannot again receive the diaconal ordination). In case of uncertainty about whether a person has received one of those three sacraments at an earlier time, he or she may receive the sacrament conditionally. In a conditional baptism, the minister of the sacrament, rather than saying "I baptise you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit," says "If you are not baptized, I baptize you" etc. According to the Tridentine dogmas of Catholicism, a sacramental character is an indelible supernatural mark made on a persons soul by any of three of the seven sacraments: baptism, confirmation, and Holy Orders. ... Roman Catholic dogma holds that it is a grave sin to baptize a person who has already been baptized. ...


Baptism

Baptism is the sacrament by which one is initiated into the Christian faith. The sacrament thus has the effect of receiving the individual into the household of God, allowing them to receive the grace of the other sacraments. The matter consists of the water and chrism, and the form are the words of baptism (the Trinitarian formula). The intention of baptism is threefold: a renunciation of sin and of all that which is opposed to the will of God (articulated by vows); a statement of belief in God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (articulated by the recitation of the Apostles' Creed or Nicene Creed); and a commitment to follow Christ as Lord and Saviour (again, signified by vows). The effect of baptism is the reception of the Holy Spirit. The trinitarian formula is the phrase in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, or words to that form and effect referring to the persons of the Holy Trinity. ... The Apostles Creed (in Latin, Symbolum Apostolorum), is an early statement of Christian belief, possibly from the first or second century, but more likely post-Nicene Creed in the early 4th Century AD. The theological specifics of the creed appear to be a refutation of Gnosticism, an early heresy. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Eucharist

The Eucharist (Holy Communion, Mass, or the Lord's Supper), is the means by which Christ becomes present to the Christian community gathered in his name. It is the central act of gathered worship, renewing the Body of Christ as the Church through the reception of the Body of Christ as the Blessed Sacrament, his spiritual body and blood. The matter consists of bread and wine, and the form is the Eucharistic Prayer. In this sacrament, Christ is both encountered and incorporated. As such, the Eucharistic action looks backward as a memorial of Christ's sacrifice, forward as a foretaste of the heavenly banquet, and to the present as an Incarnation of Christ in the lives of the community and of individual believers. The Blessed Sacrament is displayed in a procession at the 2005 Southeastern Eucharistic Congress. ... Then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now Benedict XVI) presiding at the 2005 Easter Vigil Mass. ... Look up Incarnation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ...


Confession and absolution

Confession and absolution is the sacrament by which one is restored to God when one's relationship with God has been broken by sin. The matter and the form are one and the same: The words of absolution and the sign of the cross. Confession and absolution is normally done corporately (the congregation invited to confess their sins, a moment of silent prayer while the congrgation does so, and the words of absolution). Individuals, however, can and do also participate in aural confession, privately meeting with a priest to confess his or her sins, during which time the priest can provide both counselling, urge reconciliation with parties that have been sinned against, and suggest certain spiritual disciplines (penance). Unlike the Roman Catholic tradition, Anglican clergy do not typically require acts of penance as a precondition to receiving absolution — rather, such acts are intended to be healing and preventitive. The priest is bound by the seal of confession. This binds the priest to never speak of what he has heard in the confessional to anyone. Penance (via Old French penance from the Latin Poenitentia, the same root as penitence, which in English means repentance, the desire to be forgiven, see contrition; in many languages only one single word is derived) is, strictly, repentance of sins as well as the actual name of the Catholic Sacrament...


Confirmation

Confirmation is derived from the Latin word confirmare - to strengthen. In this sense, confirmation involves the reaffirmation of faith through the strengthening and renewal of one's baptismal vows accomplished through prayer and the laying on of hands by a bishop. Traditionally, baptism and confirmation were a unified rite, with the bishop performing both activities. With the proliferation of the faith in Europe during the early Middle Ages, the rite became separated. In recent centuries, it has been seen as an opportunity for those baptised as infants to make an adult profession of faith, and to affirm the vows made on their behalf. Until very recently, it was also a precondition to participation in the Eucharist throughout the Communion. Several provinces now view baptism as sufficient for accessing the grace of all the sacraments, since it is the means of initiation into the faith. Many baptised as adults still participate in confirmation as a way of completing the ancient rite of initiation, or because they have been received into the Communion from other denominations.


Matrimony

Holy Matrimony is the blessing of a union between a man and woman, acknowledging the presence and grace of God in the life of the couple. The form is manifested as the vows (contrary to popular belief, the blessing and exchanging of rings is customary, and not necessary for the rite of matrimony to be valid). In marriage, the husband and wife seek God's blessing, and through the mediation of the priest, the prayer is answered. Although the couple are thus generally regarded as the ministers of the sacrament through their voluntary exchange of vows, the sacrament must be celebrated under the presidency of a priest, who witnesses and mediates the prayers. Matrimony was the last sacrament added, having arisen as a result of civil necessity in the Middle Ages in order to regularise intimate relationships and legitimize children. In many parts of the Anglican Communion, there is provision to bless civil marriages (on the understanding that a couple cannot be married twice); and in some dioceses there is also provision for the blessing of same-sex unions. Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Same-sex marriage is marriage between two people who are of the same sex (i. ...


Ordination

Ordination is the setting aside of individuals to specific ministries in the Church, namely that of deacon, priest, and bishop. The matter and form are the laying on of hands by a bishop and prayers. Originally, there were two orders: deacons and bishops; however, the expansion of the Church following its legitimisation by Constantine the Great led to the development of the presbyterate. In this sense, priests are essentially delegates of the bishop to minister to congregations in which the bishop cannot be physically present. Deacons have always had the role of being "the church in the world," administering to the pastoral needs of the community and assisting the priest in worship (usually by proclaiming the Gospel and "setting the table" of the altar). The bishop is the chief pastor of a diocese, and consecration as an archbishop does not involve transition into a new order, but rather signifies the taking on of additional episcopal responsibilities as a metropolitan or primate. Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ... Roman Catholic priests in traditional clerical clothing. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (Latin: IMP CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among some Catholic[2] and Orthodox Christians) Saint Constantine, was proclaimed... The presbyterium of the Archdiocese of Chicago processed into Holy Name Cathedral to concelebrate the funeral Mass of Joseph Cardinal Bernardin. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, whose incumbent is usually called simply a metropolitan, apertains to the bishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ...


In keeping with the ancient practice, the Anglican Communion (like the Eastern Orthodox communion) has never required clerical celibacy. In the last thirty years, the ordination of women has become a reality in many parts of the Communion, and in some places there are female bishops. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage, sexual relationships including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ...


Anointing of the Sick

The Anointing of the Sick is an act of healing through prayer and sacrament, conveyed on both the sick and the dying. The matter consists of laying on of hands and/or anointing with oil; while the form consists of prayers. In this sacrament, the priest acts as a mediator of Christ's grace, and will frequently adminster the consecrated bread (and sometimes wine) as a part of the sacramental action. Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion of Churches, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, and is also administered in some Protestant Churches. ...


References

  • Anglican Church of Canada, Book of Common Prayer. Toronto, 1962.
  • Dom Gregory Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy, 2nd ed. London, 1945.
  • Arthur Michael Ramsey, The Gospel and the Catholic Church, 2nd ed. London, 1956.
  • Ian Stuchbery, This is Our Faith: A Guide to Life and Belief for Anglicans. Toronto, 1990
  • Stephen Sykes and John Booty (eds.), The Study of Anglicanism. London, 1988.

 
 

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