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Encyclopedia > Anglican doctrine
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Anglicanism
Organization

Anglican Communion
Episcopal polity
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x2400, 1040 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: United Kingdom Canterbury Cathedral ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ...

Instruments of Communion

Lambeth Conferences
Primates' Meeting
Anglican Consultative Council
The focus of unity:
Archbishop of Canterbury
This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Anglican Communion Primates Meetings are regular meetings of the senior archbishops and bishops of the Anglican Communion. ... The Anglican Consultative Council is one of the four Instruments of Unity of the Anglican Communion. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...

Background

Christianity
Catholicism
Apostolic Succession
English Reformation
Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a Christian ecclesiastical... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political...

People

Henry VIII
Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cromwell
Elizabeth I
Richard Hooker
Charles I
William Laud
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... Thomas Cromwell: portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1532–3 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex ( 1485 – July 28, 1540) was an English statesman, King Henry VIII of Englands chief minister 1532–1540. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... This article is about the Anglican theologian. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ...

Liturgy and Worship

Book of Common Prayer
High Church · Low Church
Broad Church
Oxford Movement
Thirty-Nine Articles
Doctrine · Ministry
Sacraments
Saints in Anglicanism For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... The provinces of the Anglican Communion commemorate many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorate various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ...

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Anglican doctrine (or Episcopal doctrine) is a wide body of Christian religious teachings that are variously taught in Anglican churches, Sunday schools and theological colleges, and used to guide the religious and moral practices of Anglican believers. The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ...

Contents

Approach to doctrine

Anglicanism does not possess an agreed-upon confession of faith, like the Presbyterian Westminster Confession, nor does it claim a founding theologian, like a John Calvin or a Martin Luther, or a central authority, such as the Roman Catholic magisterium, to set the parameters of acceptable belief and practice. The only agreed-upon foundations of Anglican doctrine, shared universally, are the three great creeds of the early ecumenical councils (the Apostles', Nicene and Athanasian Creeds), the principles enshrined in the so-called Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, and the dispersed authority of the four instruments of unity of the Anglican Communion. Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is the chief doctrinal product of the Protestant Westminster Assembly. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Apostles Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The Athanasian Creed (Quicunque vult) is a statement of Christian doctrine traditionally ascribed to St. ... The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Communions doctrine and as a reference-point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ...


In addition to this, there are two parallel streams informing doctrinal development and understanding in Anglicanism. First, there is the informal stream of appeal to the historical formularies, prayer-books and ordinals, and the so-called "standard divines." Most prominent of the historical formularies are the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion, principally authored by Thomas Cranmer. These are divided into four sections, moving from the general (the fundamentals of the faith) to the particular (the interpretation of scripture, the structure and authority of the church, and the relationship between church and society). Anglicans also take the principle of lex orandi, lex credendi seriously; regarding the content, form, and rubrics of liturgy as an important element of doctrinal understanding, development, and interpretation. Finally, Anglicans cite the work of the standard divines — in other words, foundational theologians — of Anglicanism as instructive. Such divines usually include such figures as Cranmer, Richard Hooker, Lancelot Andrewes, and John Jewel, amongst others. The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion were established in 1563, and are the historic defining statements of Anglican doctrine in relation to the controversies of the English Reformation; especially in the relation of Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practices to the nascent Anglican doctrine of the evolving English Church. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... Lex orandi—lex credendi refers to the relationship between worship and belief which is a fundamental character of Anglicanism. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... This article is about the Anglican theologian. ... Lancelot Andrewes (1555 - September 25, 1626) was an English clergyman and scholar. ... John Jewel (sometimes spelled Jewell) (May 24, 1522 - September 23, 1571), bishop of Salisbury, son of John Jewel of Buden, Devon, was educated under his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton, and other private tutors until his matriculation at Merton College, Oxford, in July 1535. ...


The second stream of doctrine is contained in the formally adopted doctrinal positions of the constitutions and canon law of various churches of the Communion ("Communion provinces"). These are usually formulated by General Synods of national or regional churches, and interpreted and enforced by a bishop-in-council structure, involving consultation between the episcopacy and delegated lay and clerical leadership, although the extent of the devolution of authority from the episcopacy varies from place to place. This stream is the only binding, enforceable expression of doctrine in Anglicanism, which can sometimes result in conflicting doctrinal understandings between Communion provinces. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... The General Synod is the title of the governing body of some church organizations. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title...


Interpretation of doctrine

The foundations and streams of doctrine are interpreted through the lenses of various Christian movements, which have gained wide acceptance among clergy and laity. Prominent among those in the latter part of the 20th century and the early 21st century are Liberal Christianity, Anglo-Catholicism, and Evangelicalism. The lenses afforded by these perspectives emphasise or supplement particular aspects of historical theological writings, canon law, formularies, and prayer books. These perspectives often conflict with each other, and can conflict with the formal doctrines. Some of these differences help to define parties or factions within Anglicanism. However, with certain notable exceptions that led to schisms, Anglicans have grown a tradition of tolerating internal differences. This tradition of tolerance is sometimes known as comprehensiveness. Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The 21st century is the present century of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Comprehension has the following meanings: In general usage, and more specifically in reference to education and psychology, it has roughly the same meaning as understanding. ...


Origins of Anglican doctrine

Anglican doctrine emerged from the interweaving of two main strands of Christian doctrine during the English Reformation in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first strand is the Catholic doctrine taught by the established church in England in the early 1500s. The second strand is a range of Protestant Reformed teachings brought to England from neighbouring countries in the same period, notably Calvinism and Lutheranism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... The decade of years from 1500 to 1509, inclusive. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


At the time of the Reformation, the Church of England was the national expression of the institutional Catholic Church. The formal doctrines had been documented in canon law over the centuries, and the Church of England still follows an unbroken tradition of canon law today. The English Reformation did not dispense of all previous doctrines. The church not only retained the core Catholic beliefs common to Reformed doctrine in general, such as the Trinity, the Virgin Birth of Jesus, the nature of Jesus as fully human and fully God, the Resurrection of Jesus, Original Sin, and Excommunication (as affirmed by the Thirty-Nine Articles), but also retained some Catholic teachings which were rejected by true Protestants, such as the three orders of ministry and the apostolic succession of bishops. It is for this reason that Anglican doctrine is often said to tread a middle path, or via media between Roman Catholic and Protestant perspectives. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... According to Christian tradition, original sin is the general condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born (Psalm 51:5). ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... The term Radical Middle refers to a type of third way philosophy as well as an associated political movement, which defines itself by simultaneously affirming both sides of an apparently contradictory issue, whether that be Left-Right politics or a false dilemma. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Foundational elements of Anglican doctrine

Scripture, creeds, and ecumenical councils

At the root of Anglican doctrine are the foundational documents of Christianity – all the books of the Old and New Testaments are accepted, but the books of the Apocrypha, while recommended as instructive by Article VI of the Thirty-Nine Articles, are declared not “to establish any doctrine.” Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ...


Article VIII of the Thirty-Nine Articles declared the three Catholic creeds — the Apostles’, the Nicene, and the Athanasian — to be “be proved by most certain warrants of holy Scripture,” and were included in the first and subsequent editions of The Book of Common Prayer. All Anglican prayer books continue to include the Apostles’ and Nicene Creed. Some — such as the Church of England’s Common Worship or A New Zealand Prayer Book — omit the Athanasian Creed, but include alternative "affirmations." This liturgical diversity suggests that the principles enunciated by the Apostles’ and Nicene Creeds remain doctrinally unimpeachable. Nonetheless, metaphorical or spiritualised interpretations of some of the creedal declarations — for instance, the virgin birth of Jesus and his resurrection — have been commonplace in Anglicanism since the integration of biblical critical theory into theological discourse in the nineteenth century. Common Worship is a series of books of services and prayers, known as a liturgy, published by the Church of England. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ...


The first four ecumenical councils of Nicea, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon "have a special place in Anglican theology, secondary to the Scriptures themselves."[1] This authority is usually considered to pertain to questions of the nature of Christ (the hypostasis of divine and human) and the relationships between the Persons of the Holy Trinity, summarised chiefly in the creeds which emerged from those councils. Nonetheless, Article XXI of The Thirty-Nine Articles limit the authority of these and other ecumenical councils, noting that "they may err, and sometimes have erred." In other words, their authority being strictly derivative from and accountable to scripture. The First Council of Nicaea, which took place during the reign of the emperor Constantine in 325, was the first ecumenical (from Greek oikumene, worldwide) conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... See: First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council); or Fifth Ecumenical Council (Second Council of Constantinople). ... The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ...


The Thirty-Nine Articles

Main article: Thirty-Nine Articles
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Thirty-Nine Articles

Reformed doctrine and theology were developed into a distinctive English form by bishops and theologians led by Thomas Cranmer and Matthew Parker. Their doctrine was summarised in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion which were adopted by the Parliament of England and the Church of England in 1571. The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (647x800, 46 KB) Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) im 57 Lebensjahr von Gerlach Flicke Öl auf Leinwand 1564 in National Portrit Gallery, London Der Erzbischof von Canterbury hält die Episteln des Paulus in der Hand. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (647x800, 46 KB) Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) im 57 Lebensjahr von Gerlach Flicke Öl auf Leinwand 1564 in National Portrit Gallery, London Der Erzbischof von Canterbury hält die Episteln des Paulus in der Hand. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Matthew Parker Matthew Parker (August 6, 1504 - May 17, 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ...


The early English Reformers, like contemporaries on the European continent such as John Calvin, John Knox and Martin Luther, rejected many Roman Catholic teachings. The Thirty-Nine Articles list core Reformed doctrines such as the sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for salvation, the execution of Jesus as "the perfect redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction for all the sins of the whole world", Predestination and Election. Some of the articles are simple statements of opposition to Roman Catholic doctrine, such as Article XIV which denies "Works of Supererogation", Article XV which implicitly excludes the Immaculate Conception, and XXII which explicitly rejects the concept of Purgatory. Catholic worship and teaching was at the time conducted in Latin, while the Articles required church services to use the vernacular. By the same token, the Articles show their Calvinist influence by rejecting other strands of Protestant teaching, such as those of the doctrine of common property of "certain Anabaptists." John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Predestination and foreordination are religious concepts, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... Doctrine of Election, the doctrine that the salvation of a man depends on the election of God for that end, of which there are two chief phases: one is election to be Christs, or unconditional election or Doctrine of Free Will, and the other that it is election in... Supererogation (Late Lat. ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré. Purgatory refers to the Catholic doctrine of the the final purification of the elect which states that, all who die in Gods grace and friendship, but still imperfectly purified, are indeed assured of their eternal salvation; but after death they... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ...


Unlike the Scottish Reformers the Articles hew out a via media between Roman Catholic and extreme Protestant views, alluded to above. For example, in contrast to Calvin, the Articles did not explicitly reject the Lutheran doctrine of consubstantiation. They also endorse an Episcopal polity, appointing the English monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England to replace the Bishop of Rome. The Articles can also be read as permitting the acceptance of the five so-called "non-dominical" sacraments as legitimately sacramental, in addition to Baptism and the Eucharist. John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Over the years, the Church of England has not amended the Thirty-Nine Articles. However, synodical legislators made changes to canon law to accommodate those who feel unable to adhere strictly to the Thirty-Nine Articles. The legal form of the declaration of assent required of clergy on their appointment, which was at its most rigid in 1689, was amended in 1865 and again in 1975 to allow more latitude. Outside the Church of England, the Articles have an even less secure status, and are generally treated as an edifying historical document not binding on the doctrine or practice of Communion provinces. The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prayer-books

Main article: Book of Common Prayer

The original Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England was published in 1549, and its most recently approved successor was issued in 1662. It is this edition that national prayer-books (with the exception of Scotland’s) used as a template as the Anglican Communion spread outside England. The foundational status of the 1662 edition has led to its being cited as an authority on doctrine. This status reflects a more pervasive element of Anglican doctrinal development, namely that of lex orandi, lex credendi, or "the law of prayer is the law of belief"[2] (see below). For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ...


The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral

Main article: Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral

The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral is a summation of Anglican theology, often cited as a basic summary of the essentials of Anglican doctrine. The four points are: The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Communions doctrine and as a reference-point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations. ...

  1. The Holy Scriptures, as containing all things necessary to salvation;
  2. The Creeds (specifically, the Apostles’ and Nicene), as the sufficient statement of Christian faith;
  3. The dominical sacraments of Baptism and Holy Communion;
  4. The historic episcopate, locally adapted.

The four points were included in resolutions of the Episcopal Church in the United States of 1886 and (more significantly) the 1888 Lambeth Conference of bishops of the Anglican Communion. Primarily intended as a means of pursuing ecumenical dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church, the Quadrilateral soon became a “sine qua non” for essential Anglican identity. Episcopalian government in the church is rule by a hierarchy of bishops (Greek: episcopoi). ... The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the nations capital is the national cathedral of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. ... The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ...


Standard divines

As mentioned above, Anglicanism has no theologian comparable to the founding theologians of eponymous schools, like Lutheranism, Calvinism, or Thomism. Nonetheless, it has writers whose works are regarded as standards for faith and doctrine. While there is no definitive list, such individuals are implicitly recognised as authoritative by their inclusion in Anglican liturgical calendars or in anthologies of works on Anglican theology. These include such early figures as Lancelot Andrewes, John Cosin, Thomas Cranmer, Richard Hooker, John Jewel, Matthew Parker, and Jeremy Taylor; and later figures such as Joseph Butler, William Law, John Wesley, and George Whitefield. The nineteenth century produced several prominent Anglican thinkers, notably John Keble, Frederick Denison Maurice, John Henry Newman, and Edward Pusey. More recently, Charles Gore, Michael Ramsey, and William Temple have been included among the pantheon. While this list gives a snapshot, it is not exhaustive, but while many Anglicans would include other names to the list, few would exclude any of the ones enumerated. Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... In a Catholic sense the term saint refers to any person in Heaven—however, since the 10th century, the title Saint is only given to persons who have been officially recognized by the Church. ... Lancelot Andrewes (1555 - September 25, 1626) was an English clergyman and scholar. ... John Cosin (November 30, 1594 - January 15, 1672) was an English churchman. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... This article is about the Anglican theologian. ... John Jewel (sometimes spelled Jewell) (May 24, 1522 - September 23, 1571), bishop of Salisbury, son of John Jewel of Buden, Devon, was educated under his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton, and other private tutors until his matriculation at Merton College, Oxford, in July 1535. ... Matthew Parker Matthew Parker (August 6, 1504 - May 17, 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559. ... Jeremy Taylor is depicted in this portrait at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge University. ... Joseph Butler (May 18, 1692 O.S. – June 16, 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. ... William Law (1686 – April 9, 1761), English divine, was born at Kings Cliffe, Northamptonshire. ... John Wesley (June 28 [O.S. June 17] 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an eighteenth-century Anglican minister and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... George Whitefield (December 16, 1714 - September 30, 1770), was a minister in the Church of England and one of the leaders of the Methodist movement. ... John Keble John Keble (April 25, 1792- March 29, 1866) was an English churchman, one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement, and gave his name to Keble College, Oxford (1870). ... John Frederick Denison Maurice (August 29, 1805 - April 1, 1872) was an English theologian. ... J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ... Edward Bouverie Pusey (August 22, 1800 - September 16, 1882), was an English churchman, one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement. ... Statue of Charles Gore, outside St Philips Cathedral, Birmingham Charles Gore (born 1853 in Wimbledon; died January 17 (though usually commemorated on January 23), 1932) was an English divine and Anglican bishop. ... Archbishop Ramsey (left) meets Pope Paul VI. Arthur Michael Ramsey, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury (1904- 23 April 1988) was Archbishop of Canterbury from June 1961 to 1974. ... Notable William Temples include: William Temple, 17th century British politician, employer of Jonathan Swift William Temple, Acting Governor of Delaware (1846-1847) William Temple, Archbishop of York (1929-1942) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1942-1944) William Temple, VC, recipient of the Victoria Cross Rev. ...


The importance of doctrinal development in Anglicanism

Given that the foundational elements of Anglican doctrine are either not binding or are subject to local interpretation, methodology has tended to assume a place of key importance. Hence, it is not so much a body of doctrinal statements so much as the process of doctrinal development that is important in Anglican theological identity. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lancelot Andrewes (1555 - September 25, 1626) was an English clergyman and scholar. ...


Lex orandi, lex credendi

Anglicanism has traditionally expressed its doctrinal convictions based on the prayer texts and liturgy of the church. In other words, appeal has typically been made to what Anglicans do and prescribe in common worship, enunciated in the texts of the Book of Common Prayer and other national prayer books, to guide theology and practice. Applying this axiom to doctrine, there are three venues for its expression in the worship of the Church: Lex orandi—lex credendi refers to the relationship between worship and belief which is a fundamental character of Anglicanism. ...

  • The selection, arrangement, and composition of prayers and exhortations;
  • The selection and arrangement of the lectionary; and
  • The rubrics (regulations) for liturgical action and variations in the prayers and exhortations.[3]

The principle of lex orandi, lex credendi functions according to the so-called "three-legged stool" of scripture, tradition, and reason attributed to Richard Hooker.[4] This doctrinal stance is intended to enable Anglicanism to construct a theology that is pragmatic, focused on the institution of the church, yet engaged with the world. It is, in short, a theology that places a high value on the traditions of the faith and the intellect of the faithful, acknowledging the primacy of the worshipping community in articulating, amending, and passing down the church’s beliefs. In doing so, Anglican theology is inclined towards a comprehensive consensus concerning the principles of the tradition and the relationship between the church and society. In this sense, Anglicans have viewed their theology as strongly incarnational — expressing the conviction that God is revealed in the physical and temporal things of everyday life and the attributes of specific times and places. Rubrics are often used in alternative assessments in education but have gained ground as a way of establishing written guidelines or standards of assessments for formal professionally administered essay tests like some of the teacher assessment exams found in the PRAXIS series. ... Comprehension has the following meanings: In general usage, and more specifically in reference to education and psychology, it has roughly the same meaning as understanding. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


This approach has its hazards, however. For instance, there is a countervailing tendency to be "text-centric," that is, to focus on the technical, historical, and interpretative aspects of prayer books and their relationship to the institution of the church, rather than on the relationship between faith and life. Second, the emphasis on comprehensiveness often instead results in compromise or tolerance of every viewpoint. The effect that is created is that Anglicanism may appear to stand for nothing or for everything, and that an unstable and unsatisfactory middle-ground is staked while theological disputes wage interminably. Finally, while lex orandi, lex credendi helped solidify a uniform Anglican perspective when the 1662 Prayer Book and its successors predominated, and while expatriate bishops of the United Kingdom enforced its conformity in territories of the British Empire, this has long since ceased to be true. Liturgical reform and the post-colonial reorganisation of national churches has led to a growing diversity in common worship since the middle of the twentieth century. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The process of doctrinal development

The principle of lex orandi, lex credendi discloses a larger theme in the approach of Anglicanism to doctrine, namely, that doctrine is considered a lived experience; since in living it, the community comes to understand its character. In this sense, doctrine is considered to be a dynamic, participatory enterprise rather than a static one. John Henry Newman Project Gutenberg eText 13103: Great Britain and Her Queen, by Anne E. Keeling http://www. ... John Henry Newman Project Gutenberg eText 13103: Great Britain and Her Queen, by Anne E. Keeling http://www. ... J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ...


This inherent sense of dynamism was articulated by John Henry Newman a century and a half ago, when he asked how, given the passage of time, we can be sure that the Christianity of today is the same religion as that envisioned and developed by Jesus Christ and the apostles.[5] As indicated above, Anglicans look to the teaching of the Bible and of the undivided Church of the first five centuries as the sufficient criterion for an understanding of doctrine, as expressed in the creeds. Yet they are only a criterion: interpretation, and thus doctrinal development, is thoroughly contextual. The reason this is the case is chiefly due to three factors: J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Twelve Apostles...

  1. Differing theories of interpretation of scripture, developed as a result of the symbolic nature of language, the difficulty of translating its cultural and temporal aspects, and the particular perceptual lenses worn by authors;
  2. The accumulation of knowledge through science and philosophy; and
  3. The emerging necessity of giving some account of the relationship of Christ to distinct and evolving cultural realities throughout the world, as Christianity has spread to different places.

Newman’s suggestion of two criteria for the sound development of doctrine has permeated Anglican thinking. These are, first, that development must be open and accessible to the faithful at every stage; and second, that it must be subject to appeal to scripture and the precedents of antiquity through the process of sound scholarship. The method by which this is accomplished is by the distillation of doctrine through, and its subordination to a dominant Anglican ethos consisting of the maintenance of order through consensus, comprehensiveness, and contract; and a preference for pragmatism over speculation.[6] In other words, the former — experience — flows from the latter — method. Anglican doctrinal methodology means concurrence with a base structure of shared identity: An agreement on the fundamentals of the faith articulated in the creeds; the existence of Protestant and catholic elements creating both a via media as well as a "union of opposites"[7]; and the conviction that there is development in understanding the truth, expressed more in practical terms rather than theoretical ones.[8] In short, the character of Anglicanism is that the church "contains in itself many elements regarded as mutually exclusive in other communions."[9] Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Semiotics (also spelled Semeiotics) is the study of signs and sign systems. ... Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... Methodology is defined as the analysis of the // == Headline text == principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline or the development of methods, to be applied within a discipline a particular procedure or set of procedures. [1]. It should be noted that methodology is frequently used when method...


Formal doctrine

Anglican churches in other countries generally inherited the doctrinal apparatus of the Church of England, consisting most commonly an adaptation of the Thirty-Nine Articles and the Quadrilateral into general principles. From the earliest times, they have adapted them to suit their local needs.


Constitutions and canon law

Canon law in the churches of the Anglican Communion stem from the law of the patristic and Medieval Western church which was received, along with the limiting conditions of the English Reformation. Canon law touches on several areas of church life: ecclesiology, that is, the governance and structure of the church as an institution; liturgy; relationships with secular institutions; and the doctrines which implicitly or explicitly touch on these matters. Such laws have varying degrees and means of enforcement, variability, and jurisdiction. Patristics is the study of early Christian writers, known as the Church Fathers. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ...


The nature of canon law is complicated by the status of the Church of England as subordinate to the crown; a status which does not affect jurisdictions outside England, including those of the Scottish Episcopal Church, the Church of Ireland, and the Church in Wales. It is further complicated by the relationship between the autonomous churches of the Communion itself; since the canon law of one jurisdiction has no status in that of another. Moreover, there is — as mentioned above — no international juridical system which can formulate or enforce uniformity in any matter. This has led to conflict regarding certain issues (see below), leading to calls for a "covenant" specifying the parameters of Anglican doctrinal development (see Anglican realignment for discussion). The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ... See also Portal:Law The stela of King Hammurabi depicts the god Shamash revealing a code of laws to the king. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Instruments of unity

Main article: Anglican Communion

As mentioned above, the Anglican Communion has no international juridical organisation. The Archbishop of Canterbury's role is strictly symbolic and unifying; and the Communion's three international bodies are consultative and collaborative, their resolutions having no legal effect on the independent provinces of the Communion. Taken together, however, the four do function as "instruments of unity", since all churches of the Communion partcipate in them. In order of antiquity, they are: The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ...

  1. The Archbishop of Canterbury, as the spiritual head of the Communion, is the focus of unity, since no church claims membership in the Communion without being in communion with him.
  2. The Lambeth Conference is a consultation of the bishops of the Communion, intended to reinforce unity and collegiality through manifesting the episcopate, to discuss matters of mutual concern, and to pass resolutions intended to act as guideposts. It is held roughly every ten years and invitation is by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
  3. The Anglican Consultative Council meets usually at three year intervals. Consisting of representative bishops, clergy, and laity chosen by the thirty-eight provinces, the body has a permanent secretariat, the Anglican Communion Office, of which the Archbishop of Canterbury is president.
  4. The Primates' Meeting is the most recent manifestation of international consultation and deliberation, having been first convened by Archbishop of Canterbury Donald Coggan as a forum for "leisurely thought, prayer and deep consultation."[10]

Since there is no binding authority in the Communion, these international bodies are a vehicle for consultation and persuasion. In recent years, persuasion has tipped over into debates over conformity in certain areas of doctrine, discipline, worship, and ethics. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ... Episcopalian government in the church is rule by a hierarchy of bishops (Greek: episcopoi). ... The Anglican Consultative Council is one of the four Instruments of Unity of the Anglican Communion. ... The Anglican Communion Primates Meetings are regular meetings of the senior archbishops and bishops of the Anglican Communion. ... Frederick Donald Coggan, Baron Coggan (December 23, 1909 - May 17, 2000) was the 101st Archbishop of Canterbury from 1974 to 1980, during which time he visited Rome and met the Pontiff, in company with Bishop Cormac Murphy-OConnor, future Cardinal of England and Wales. ...


Controversies

Historical background

The effect of nationalising the Christian faith in England inevitably led to conflict between factions wishing to remain obedient to the Pope, those wishing more radical reform, and those holding a middle ground. A range of Presbyterian, Congregational, Baptist and other Puritan views gained currency in the Church in England, Ireland, and Wales through the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Although the Pilgrim Fathers felt compelled to leave for New England, other Puritans gained increasing ecclesiastical and political authority, while Royalists advocated Arminianism and the Divine Right of Kings. This conflict was one of the ultimate causes of the English Civil War. The Church of England, with the assistance of Presbyterian Church of Scotland theologians and clergy, set down their newly developed Calvinist doctrines in the Westminster Confession of 1648, which was never formally adopted into church law. After the Restoration of 1660 and the 1662 Act of Uniformity reinforced Cranmer's Anglicanism, those wishing to hold to the stricter views set out at Westminster either emigrated or covertly founded non-conformist Presbyterian, Congregational, or Baptist churches at home. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging... A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking purity of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Reformation of the Church of England. ... This article is about the colonists of North America. ... This article presents the History of New England, the oldest clearly-defined region of the United States, unique among U.S. geographic regions in that it is also a former political entity. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Westminster Confession of Faith is the chief doctrinal product of the Protestant Westminster Assembly. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... The Act of Uniformity was an Act of the Parliament of England, 14 Charles II c. ...


The 1700s saw the Great Awakening, the Methodist schism, and the identification of the Evangelical party among the many conservatives who remained in the Anglican churches. The schism with the Methodists in the 18th century had a theological asepct, particularly concerning the Methodist emphasis on personal salvation by faith alone, although John Wesley continued to regard himself as a member of the Church of England. The same period also saw the emergence of the High Church movement, which began to identify with the Catholic heritage of Anglicanism, and to emphasise the importance of the Eucharist and church tradition, while mostly rejecting the legitimacy of papal authority in England. The High Churchmen gave birth to the Oxford Movement and Anglo-Catholicism in the 1800s, which also saw the emergence of Liberal Christianity across the Protestant world. Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Revivalism. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... John Wesley (June 28 [O.S. June 17] 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an eighteenth-century Anglican minister and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The mid 19th century saw doctrinal debate between adherents of the Oxford Movement and their Low Church or Evangelical opponents, though the most public conflict tended to involve more superficial matters such as the use of church ornaments, vestments, candles, and ceremonial (which were taken to indicate a sympathy with Roman Catholic doctrine), and the extent to which such matters ought to be restricted by the church authorities. These conflicts led to further schism, for example in the creation of the Reformed Episcopal Church in North America. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... The Reformed Episcopal Church is an Anglican church in the United States and Canada. ...


Doctrinal controversies in the 20th century

William Temple, a leading figure of liberal social thought in Anglicanism in the early twentieth century.

Beginning in the sixteenth century, Anglicanism came under the influence of Latitudinarianism, chiefly represented by the Cambridge Platonists, who held that doctrinal orthodoxy was less important than applying rational rigour to the examination of theological propositions. The increasing influence of German higher criticism of the Bible throughout the nineteenth century, however, resulted in growing doctrinal disagreement over the interpretation and application of scripture. This debate was intensified with the accumulation of insights derived from the natural and social sciences which tended to challenge literally-read biblical accounts. Figures such as J.B. Lightfoot and Brooke Foss Westcott helped mediate the transition from the theology of Hooker, Andrewes, and Taylor to accommodate these developments. In the early twentienth century, the liberal catholicism of Charles Gore and William Temple attempted to fuse the insights of modern biblical criticism with the theology expressed in the creeds and by the Apostolic Fathers, but the following generations of scholars, such as E.G. Selwyn and John A.T. Robinson questioned what had hitherto been the sacrosanct status of these verities. As the century progressed, the conflict sharpened, chiefly finding its expression in the application of biblically-derived doctrine to social issues. Image File history File links Williamtemple1. ... Image File history File links Williamtemple1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Latitudinarian was initially a pejorative term applied to a group of 17th century British theologians who believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but who felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, and ecclesiastical organization were of relatively little importance. ... The Cambridge Platonists were a group of divines at Cambridge University in England in the middle of the 17th century (between 1633 and 1688). ... Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Joseph Barber Lightfoot (April 13, 1828–December 21, 1889) was an English theologian and Bishop of Durham. ... Brooke Foss Westcott (January 12, 1825–July 27, 1901) was an English churchman and theologian, Bishop of Durham from 1890 until his death. ... Statue of Charles Gore, outside St Philips Cathedral, Birmingham Charles Gore (born 1853 in Wimbledon; died January 17 (though usually commemorated on January 23), 1932) was an English divine and Anglican bishop. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Apostolic Fathers were a small collection of Christian authors who lived and wrote in the late 1st century and early 2nd century who are acknowledged as leaders in the early church, but whose writings were not included in the collection of Christian scripture, the New Testament Biblical canon, at... Dr John Arthur Thomas Robinson (1919 in Canterbury, England–December 5, 1983) was a New Testament scholar, author, and former Anglican bishop of Woolwich, England. ...


Anglicans have debated the relationship between doctrine and social issues since its origins, when the focus was chiefly on the church's proper relationship to the state. Later, in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the focus shifted to slavery. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Anglicans fiercely debated the use of artificial contraception by Christian couples, which was prohibited by church teaching. In 1930 the Lambeth Conference took a lone stand among major Christian denominations at the time and permitted its use in some circumstances[11](see also Christian views on contraception). Slave redirects here. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ... Prior to the 20th century, contraception was generally condemned by all the major branches of Christianity, including by major reformers like Luther and Calvin. ...


The 20th century also saw an intense doctrinal debate among Anglicans over the ordination of women, which led to schism, as well as to the conversion of some Anglican clergy to Roman Catholicism or Eastern Orthodoxy. Even today, there is no unanimity of doctrine or practice in the Anglican Communion as it relates to women's ordination. Finally, in the 1950s, 60s, and 70s Anglican churches wrestled with the issue of the the remarriage of divorced persons, which was prohibited by dominical commandment. Once again, there is presently no unanimity of doctrine or practice. In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ... Many countries in Europe, such as France, once prohibited divorce, as it is not condoned by the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Current controversies

Peter Akinola, Archbishop of the Anglican Church of Nigeria, a principal figure in the debate over doctrine as it pertains to homosexual activity

The focus of doctrinal debate on issues of social theology has continued into the twenty-first century. Indeed, the total eclipse of issues of classical doctrine, such as confessions of faith, has been exemplified by the relatively non-controversial decisions by some Communion provinces to amend the Nicene Creed by dropping the filioque clause, or supplementing the historic creeds with other affirmations of faith. As of 2006, the two prominent doctrinal issues being actively debated in Anglican synods and convocations across the world are the consecration of women as bishops and the place of gays and lesbians in the life of the church — specifically with respect to same-sex unions and ordination (see Anglican views of homosexuality). Peter Jasper Akinola, Anglican Primate of Nigeria Comments moved from Wikipedia:Image sleuthing Found here http://www. ... Peter Jasper Akinola, Anglican Primate of Nigeria Comments moved from Wikipedia:Image sleuthing Found here http://www. ... The Most Revd Peter Akinola The Most Reverend Peter Jasper Akinola (born 1944) is the current Anglican Primate of Nigeria. ... The Church of Nigeria is the Anglican Church in Nigeria. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, marriage equality, and often just marriage by its proponents, and—usually by its opponents—homosexual marriage) refers to non-traditional marriage between partners of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions that are different from marriages, see the... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... The issue of homosexuality is controversial in the Anglican Communion. ...


The consecration of bishops and the extension of sacraments to individuals based on gender or sexual orientation would ordinarily be matters of concern to the synods of the autonomous provinces of the Communion. Insofar as they affect other provinces, it is by association — either the physical association between the individuals to whom the sacraments have been extended and those who oppose such extension; or the perceptual association of Anglicanism generally with such practices. Regardless, these issues have incited debate over the parameters of domestic autonomy in doctrinal matters in the absence of international consensus. Some dioceses and provinces have moved further than others can easily accept, and some conservative parishes within them have sought pastoral oversight from bishops of other dioceses or provinces, in contravention of traditional Anglican polity (see Anglican realignment). These developments have led some to call for a covenant to delimit the power of provinces to act on controversial issues independently, while others have called for a renewed commitment to comprehensiveness and tolerance of diverse practice. Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, normally conceived of as falling into several significant categories based around the sex or gender that the individual finds attractive. ... Polity (Greek: Πολιτεία or Πολίτευμα transliterated as Politeía or Políteuma) was originally a term used in Ancient Greece to refer to the many Greek city states that had an assembly of citizens as part of the political process. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


See also

Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. ... The history of the Calvinist-Arminian debate arguably extends back to the first century church but was not formulated until the fifth century. ... Anglican Marian theology is the doctrines and beliefs of Anglicanism concerning the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Communions doctrine and as a reference-point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations. ... Image of a thurible in a stained glass window, St. ... The Bangorian Controversy was a theological argument within the Church of England in the 18th century. ... The Nonjuring schism was a split in the Anglican Church in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution, over whether William of Orange could legally be recognized as King of England. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christian theology. ...

Some contemporary advocates of Anglican doctrine

Anglo-Catholicism: The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ...

Evangelicalism: Kenneth Leech (b. ... Eric Lionel Mascall (born 12 December 1905, died 14 February 1993) was a leading theologian in the Anglo-Catholic wing of the Church of England and a philosophical exponent of the Thomist tradition. ... Graham Douglas Leonard, KCVO, is a British cleric, a former Anglican bishop who converted to Roman Catholicism. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to...

Liberalism: This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... J. I. Packer James Innell Packer (born July 22, 1926 in Gloucester, England) is a British-born Canadian Christian theologian in the Reformational Anglican tradition. ... John Stott John Robert Walmsley Stott, CBE (born 27 April 1921) is a British Christian leader and Anglican presbyter who is noted as a leader of the worldwide evangelical movement. ... Nicholas Thomas Tom Wright (b. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called...

Marcus Borg is a contemporary Jesus Scholar and religious author. ... David Edward Jenkins (born January 26, 1925) is best known as the Bishop of Durham, a post he held from 1984 until 1994. ... John Shelby Spong (born 16 June 1931 in Charlotte, North Carolina) is the retired Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Newark (based in Newark, New Jersey). ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ...

References

  1. ^ Frederick P. Shriver, "Councils, Conferences, and Synods," in Anglicanism, ed. by S. Sykes and J. Booty, 188-99 (London: SPCK, 1988), p. 189.
  2. ^ For an excellent short article on this concept, from which much of the content of this section is derived, see W. Taylor Stevenson, "Lex Orandi—Lex Credendi," in The Study of Anglicanism, op cit., pp. 174-88
  3. ^ Ibid., 175
  4. ^ Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, III.8.13-15; and V.8.2. Hooker himself, however, never used the "stool" analogy.
  5. ^ For Newman’s discussion of doctrinal development, see his Essays on the Development of Doctrine (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1909 [originally published 1845])
  6. ^ Stevenson, 177-79
  7. ^ A phrase used by Frederick Denison Maurice in The Kingdom of Christ, Vol. II (London: SCM, 1958 [originally published 1842]), 311.
  8. ^ Stephen Sykes, The Integrity of Anglicanism (London and Oxford: Mowbray & Co., 1978), 10ff.
  9. ^ Ibid., 8
  10. ^ Quoted, for example, by the 2004 Windsor report (accessed 2007-07-17), where it is sourced to the Lambeth Conference 1978, Report, p. 123.
  11. ^ O'Grady, Kathleen, 1999 "Contraception and religion, A short history" from The Encyclopedia of Women and World Religion (Serinity Young et al. eds). Macmillan, 1999, reprinted on http://www.mum.org/contrace.htm, retrieved August 15, 2006

Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity was a defense of the practices and beliefs of the Anglican Church against the Puritans, written by Richard Hooker in 1593. ... The Right Reverend Professor Stephen Whitefield Sykes (b. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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