FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Anglican Eucharistic theology
Part of the series on
Communion

also known as
"The Eucharist" or
"The Lord's Supper" For the death metal band from Sweden, see Eucharist (band) The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfilment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ...

Theology
Consecration
Consubstantiation
Impanation
Memorialism
Real Presence
Sacramental Union
Transignification
Transubstantiation
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1211x1096, 178 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Impanation is a name employed to denote the union of the body of Christ with the bread of the Eucharist. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Transignification[1] is a doctrine, largely in progressive Roman Catholic circles, which attempts a rational explanation of the Real Presence of Christ at Mass. ... Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ that, according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, occurs in the Eucharist and that is called in Greek (see Metousiosis). ...

Theologies contrasted
Anglican Eucharistic theology
Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ...

Important theologians
Paul ·Aquinas
Augustine · Calvin
Chrysostom · Cranmer
Luther · Zwingli Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... A millennium-old Byzantine mosaic of Saint John Chrysostom, Hagia Sophia John Chrysostom (347 - 407, Greek Ιωάννης ο Χρυσόστομος ) was a notable Christian bishop from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... An oil painting of Thomas Cranmer by Gerlach Flicke (1545) - National Portrait Gallery, London Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ...

Related Articles
Christianity
Catholic Historic Roots
Closed and Open Table
Divine Liturgy
Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic discipline
First Communion
Infant Communion
Mass · Sacrament
Sanctification This article is becoming very long. ... The historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology are the basis upon which a number of ecclesial communities, or churches, express their faith in the bread of life as given by Jesus, and are to be found in the Church Fathers, Scripture, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and other early church... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... Eucharistic discipline is the term applied to the regulations and practices associated with an individual preparing for the reception of the Eucharist. ... The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... Infant Communion (also Paedocommunion) refers to the practice of giving the Eucharist, often in the form of consecrated wine, to infants and children. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy [[Mystery The root meaning of the Latin word sacramentum is making sacred. One example of its use was as the term for the oath of dedication taken by Roman soldiers; but the ecclesiastical use of the word is... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...

Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. Some few Low Church Anglicans, expressing a Zwinglian ethos, tend to take a strictly memorialist view of the sacrament. In other words, they see Holy Communion as a memorial to Christ's suffering, and participation in the Eucharist as both a re-enactment of the Last Supper and a foreshadowing of the heavenly banquet -- the fulfillment of the Eucharistic promise. Most Low Church Anglicans believe in the Real Presence but merely deny that the presence of Christ is carnal or can be localised in the bread and wine. Some High Church or Anglo-Catholic Anglicans hold closely to the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, first promulgated by Scholastic theologians in the Middle Ages. This sees the Eucharist as a re-enactment of Christ's atoning sacrifice, with the elements physically transformed into Christ's body and blood. Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 10, 1531) was the leader of the Swiss Reformation and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Columbia University physics professor, see Norman Christ. ... According to gospel, the Last Supper was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ that, according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, occurs in the Eucharist and that is called in Greek (see Metousiosis). ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ...


Most Anglicans, however, implicitly or explicitly adopt the Eucharistic theology of consubstantiation, first articulated by the Lollards, or Sacramental Union, first articulated by Martin Luther. Luther's analogy of Christ's presence was that of the heat of a horseshoe thrust into a fire until it is glowing. In the same way, Christ is present in the bread and the wine. Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards in late 14th century and early 15th century England. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Modern horseshoes are most commonly made of iron and nailed onto the hoof. ...

Contents

Sacramental theology

Main article: Anglican sacraments

With the Eucharist, as with other aspects of theology, Anglicans are largely directed by the principle of lex orandi, lex credendi (ie., "the law of prayer is the law of belief"). In other words, sacramental theology as it pertains to the Eucharist is sufficiently and fully articulated by the prayer book of a given jurisdiction. As defined by the 16th Century Anglican divine, Richard Hooker, a sacrament is defined as "an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace." It thus has the effect of conveying sanctification on the individual participating in the sacramental action. In the Eucharist, the outward and visible sign is that of bread and wine, while the inward and spiritual grace is that of the presence of Christ (either symbolically or actually). Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... Lex orandi—lex credendi refers to the relationship between worship and belief which is a fundamental character of Anglicanism. ... A Modern Prayer Book The Book of Common Prayer is the prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... Richard Hooker (March 1554 - November 3, 1600) was an influential Anglican theologian. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...


Sacraments have both form and matter. A form is the verbal and physical liturgical action, while the matter refers to any material objects used. In the Anglican Eucharist, the form is contained in the Rite and its rubrics, as articulated in the authrorized missal of the ecclesiastical province. Central to the Rite is the Eucharistic Prayer, or "Great Thanksgiving." The matter is the bread and the wine. Rubrics are written directions for liturgical actions found in religious service and liturgical books, especially in Christianity. ... Missal, in the Roman Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. ... An ecclesiastical province is a unit of religious government existing in certain Christian churches. ... Then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now Benedict XVI) presiding at the 2005 Easter Vigil Mass. ...


For all Anglicans, the Eucharist (also called "Holy Communion," "Mass," or "the Lord's Supper"), is the central act of gathered worship, and is the means by which Christ becomes present to the Christian community gathered in his name. For the majority of Anglicans, this event constitutes the renewal of the Body of Christ as the Church through the reception of the Body of Christ as the Blessed Sacrament, his spiritual body and blood. In this sacrament, Christ is both encountered and incorporated. As such, the Eucharistic action looks backward as a memorial of Christ's sacrifice, forward as a foretaste of the heavenly banquet, and to the present as an Incarnation of Christ in the lives of the community and of individual believers. The Blessed Sacrament is displayed in a procession at the 2005 Southeastern Eucharistic Congress. ... Look up Incarnation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ...


Varieties of Eucharistic theology

Anglican incarnational theology emphasizes the importance of God using the mundane and temporal as a means of giving people the transcendent and eternal. For many who hold such a view, they consider the transubstantiation/metousiosis of Christ in the Eucharistic elements to belong to the realm of spirit and eternity, and not to be about Christ's corporeal presence. This "middle view" does not necessarily negate memorialist and transubstantiationist views, but instead allows for a comprehensive range of perspectives and for an emphasis on the fundamental mystery of how Christ is present. This respect for the mystery of the Real Presence is reflected in the aphorism attributed to Elizabeth I: "He was the Word that spake it; He took the bread and brake it; And what that Word did make it; I do believe and take it" without any further explicit detail. Look up Incarnation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ... Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ that, according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, occurs in the Eucharist and that is called in Greek (see Metousiosis). ... Metousiosis is a Greek mystical term that literally means a great change of essence. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


Transubstantiationism

Article XXVIII of the Thirty-Nine Articles declares that "Transubstantiation...cannot be proved by Holy Writ; but is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthrowtheth the nature of a Sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions." Nonetheless, a minority of High Church Anglicans adhere to this view, at least implicitly. In this connection, the priest may declare at the outset of the offertory that "The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass is offered for x ""(where x denotes a specific intention or thanksgiving). Having said this, some non-transubstantiationist Anglo-Catholics view the "sacrifice" as being one of our "praise and thanksgiving," pace the words of the Eucharistic Prayer. The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... High Church is a term that may now be used in speaking of viewpoints within a number of denominations of Protestant Christianity in general, but it is one which has traditionally been employed in Churches associated with the Anglican tradition in particular. ... Offertory (from the ecclesiastical Latin offertorium, French offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. ...


Anglicans and Roman Catholics declared that they had "substantial agreement on the doctrine of the Eucharist" in the Windsor Statement on Eucharistic Doctrine developed by the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission, as well as the Commission's Elucidation of the ARCIC Windsor Statement. Many Anglicans who believe in transubstantiationism split from the Anglican Communion, becoming members of the Traditional Anglican Communion. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Traditional Anglican Communion (TAC) is an international communion of churches in the Anglican tradition that are independent of the Anglican Communion centred on the Archbishop of Canterbury. ...


Memorialism

The concept of Memorialism is largely found in the Diocese of Sydney of the Anglican Church of Australia. These and some other Low Church Anglicans tend to reject belief in the Real (Bodily) Presence of Christ, as well as reservation and adoration of the sacrament. Instead, they adopt a Calvinistic (Spiritual Presence) or Zwinglian (Dynamic Memorialism) view of the Eucharist, resembling views held by Protestant denominations such as Presbyterians and Baptists. Low Church parishes tend to celebrate the Eucharist less frequently (e.g., monthly or quarterly) and prefer the terms "Holy Communion" or "Lord's Supper". Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... The Sydney Diocese of the Anglican Church of Australia is unique in Western Anglicanism in that the majority of the diocese is Evangelical (low church) in nature, and committed to Reformed and Calvinist theology. ... Arms of the Anglican Church of Australia The Anglican Church of Australia, a member church of the Anglican Communion, was previously officially known as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania (renamed in 1981). ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 10, 1531) was the leader of the Swiss Reformation and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ...


Consubstantiation or Sacramental Union

Thomas Cranmer, principal author of the first Book of Common Prayer, wrote on the Eucharist in his treatise On the True and Catholic Doctrine of the Lord's Supper that Christians truly receive Christ's "self-same" Body and Blood at Communion--but in "an heavenly and spiritual manner". He also maintains in the 39 Articles that the "wicked" only consume the elements and do not receive Christ. In some ways, Cranmer's Eucharistic doctrine resembles the idea of transignification. An oil painting of Thomas Cranmer by Gerlach Flicke (1545) - National Portrait Gallery, London Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books... 1979 ECUSABCP The Book of Common Prayer[1] is foundational prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... Transignification[1] is a doctrine, largely in progressive Roman Catholic circles, which attempts a rational explanation of the Real Presence of Christ at Mass. ...


This view has tended to predominate in Anglican Eucharistic theological discourse and practice. A common maxim in Anglicanism concerning Christ's presence in the matter is that "it may not be about a change of substance, but it is about a substantial change." This view is expressed in the allied but metaphysically different doctrines of consubstantiation and Sacramental Union. In sum, both views hold that Christ is present in the Eucharistic elements spiritually. Such spiritual presence may or may not be in bodily form, depending on the doctrine with which one allies oneself. Many contemporary Anglicans would concur with the views of the 19th Century divine Edward Bouverie Pusey, who argued strongly for the Lutheran idea of Sacramental Union. In this doctrine, the Bread and Wine do not disappear at the consecration, but that the Body and Blood become present without diminishing the former. Plato and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... Edward Bouverie Pusey (August 22, 1800 - September 16, 1882), was an English churchman, and one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement. ...


While a consubstantionist or Sacramental Union view is typically associated with the Broad Church or Latitudinarian camps of Anglicanism, it is also widely held by those who would identify with the evangelical or Anglo-Catholic wings. Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... Latitudinarian was initially a pejorative term applied to a group of 17th century British theologians who believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but who felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, and ecclesiastical organization were of relatively little importance. ...


Shape of the Rite

Main article: Mass (liturgy)

As mentioned above, the liturgy for Eucharist is important in Anglican Eucharistic theology because of the principle of lex orandi, lex credendi. The liturgy is derived from the authorised prayer books of the national churches and ecclesiastical provinces of the Communion. The structure of the liturgy, crafted in the tradition of the Elizabethan Settlement, allows for a variety of theological interpretations, and generally follows the same rough shape, derived from the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. Some or all of the following elements may be altered or absent depending on the rite used by the province or national church: A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was Elizabeth I’s response to the religious divisions created over the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. This response was set out in two Acts of the Parliament of England. ...

  • The Gathering of the Community: Beginning with a Trinitarian-based greeting or seasonal acclamation; followed by the prayer of humble approach; the Gloria in Excelsis Deo, Kyrie eleison, and/or Trisagion; and then the collect of the day. During Lent and/or Advent especially, this part of the service may begin or end with a penitential rite.
  • The Proclamation of the Word: Usually two to three readings of Scripture, one of which is always from the Gospels, plus a psalm (or portion thereof) or canticle. This is followed by a sermon or homily; the recitation of the Apostles', Nicene or Athanasian Creeds; the prayers of the congregation or a general intercession, a general confession and absolution, and the passing of the peace.
  • The Celebration of the Eucharist: The gifts of bread and wine are received, along with other gifts (such as money and/or food for a food bank, etc.), and an offertory prayer is recited. Following this, a Eucharistic Prayer (called "The Great Thanksgiving") is offered. This prayer consists of a dialogue (the Sursum Corda), a preface, the sanctus and benedictus, the Words of Institution, and the epiclesis. The Lord's Prayer usually follows, followed by the fraction (the breaking of the bread), the Prayer of Humble Access, the Agnus Dei, and the distribution of the sacred elements (the bread and wine). After all who have desired to have received, there is a post-Communion prayer. A doxology or general prayer of thanksgiving may follow. The service concludes with a Trinitarian blessing and the dismissal.

The trinitarian formula is the phrase in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit (original Greek εις το ονομα του πατρος και του υιου και του αγίου πνεύματος, eis to onoma tou patros kai tou huiou kai tou hagiou pneumatos), or words to that form and effect referring to the persons of the Holy Trinity. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Gloria in Excelsis Deo (Latin for Glory to God on High) is the title and beginning of the great doxology (song of praise) used in the Roman Catholic Mass and, in translation, in the services of many other Christian churches. ... Kyrie is a Greek word that means Lord or Oh, Lord. ... The Trisagion (thrice Holy) is a standard hymn of the Orthodox Christian Divine Liturgy, chanted immediately before the Prokeimenon and the Epistle Reading. ... In Christian liturgy, a collect is both a liturgical action and a short, general prayer. ... In Western Christianity, Lent is the period (or season) from Ash Wednesday to Holy Saturday (forty days). ... Advent (from the Latin Adventus, implicitly coupled with Redemptoris, the coming of the Saviour) is a holy season of the Christian church, the period of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Christ, also known as the season of Christmas. ... Penance (via Old French penance from the Latin Poenitentia, the same root as penitence, which in English means repentance, the desire to be forgiven, see contrition; in many languages only one single word is derived) is, strictly, repentance of sins as well as the actual name of the Catholic Sacrament... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... A canticle is a hymn (strictly excluding the Psalms) taken from the Bible. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, a homily is usually given during Mass at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ... The Apostles Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum), sometimes titled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief, a creed or symbol. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The Athanasian Creed (Quicunque vult) is a statement of Christian doctrine traditionally ascribed to St. ... Offertory (from the ecclesiastical Latin offertorium, French offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. ... Then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now Benedict XVI) presiding at the 2005 Easter Vigil Mass. ... Sursum Corda Cooperative is a small neighborhood located in Washington, DC, bounded by North Capitol Street on the east, First Street NW to the west, K Street NW to the south, and M Street NW to the north. ... Sanctus is the Latin word for holy, and is the name of an important hymn of Christian liturgy. ... Benedictus is: a prayer that is said at Lauds. ... The words of institution are the words of Jesus Christ as recorded in the New Testament used in some forms of Christian liturgy to consecrate the Eucharist. ... In Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Roman Catholic churches, the epiclesis (also sometimes spelled epiklesis, since it is a transliterated Greek word) is that part of the prayer of consecration of the Eucharistic elements (bread and wine) by which the priest invokes the Holy Spirit. ... The Fraction is the ceremonial act of breaking the bread during Communion in some Christian denominations. ... The Prayer of Humble Access was an integral part of the early Books of Common Prayer of the Church of England, and has continued to be used throughout the Anglican Communion. ... Agnus Dei is a Latin term meaning Lamb of God, and was originally used to refer to Jesus Christ in his role of the perfect sacrificial offering that atones for the sins of man in Christian theology, harkening back to ancient Jewish Temple sacrifices. ... A doxology (from the Greek doxa, glory + logos, word or speaking) is a short hymn of praise to God in various Christian worship services, often added to the end of canticles, psalms, and hymns. ...

Ritual and objects

A typical Anglican altar
A typical Anglican altar

The rubrics of a given prayer book outline the parameters of acceptable practice with regard to ritual, vestments, ornaments, and method and means of distribution of the sacrament. The communal piety of a given parish or diocese will determine the expression of these rubrics, and thus the implicit eucharistic theology maintained by the congregation. Download high resolution version (1500x1122, 438 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1122, 438 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican Churches. ...


Until the latter part of the 19th Century, the so-called "Ornaments Rubric" of the 1662 Prayer Book inhibited much of the ceremonial contemporary Anglicans take for granted. Priests were directed to stand at the north side or north end of the altar, candles on the altar were forbidden, as was the wearing of a chasuble or maniple. The Ritualism controversies of the late-19th Century solidified the ascendancy of the Catholic Revival in the United Kingdom and many other parts of the Communion, introducing a much greater diversity of practice. Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A fifteenth-century chasuble The chasuble is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition Christian Churches that use full vestments, primarily the Roman Catholic Church, high church congregations in the Anglican Church, and by some clergy in the United Methodist Church. ... No longer used as one of the vestments of the Roman Catholic church since the Second Vatican Council, the maniple was an embroidered band of silk, about 110cm long, 8cm wide and with ends about 12cm wide. ... In general, the term, Ritualism can be used to describe an outlook which places a great (or even exaggerated) emphasis on ritual. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ...


In many Low Church parishes, ceremonial is kept at a minimum. The priest may be attired simply in a cassock, surplice, and a black scarf (called a tippet). This is a priest's "choir habit," as opposed to Eucharistic vestments. Manual action may be kept to the minimum standards of the rubrics (often confined to placing one's hands on the elements during the Words of Institution). Candles may be absent, and the material on the altar limited to the chalice and paten. The celebration of Eucharist may be weekly, or even less frequent (such as monthly or quarterly). This infrequency is in keeping with the Anglican practice that predominated prior to the 20th Century. There is little or no attention given to the unconsumed bread and wine. It is usually consumed, and only rarely reserved. An Anglican priest wearing a single-breasted cassock. ... An Anglican priest wearing a surplice as part of his choir dress. ... Meriwether Lewis wearing a tipped presented to him by Sacagaweas brother, Cameahwait. ... Choir dress is the vestiture of the clerics, seminarians and religious of traditional churches worn for public prayer apart from the eucharist. ... Chalice For other uses, see Chalice A chalice (from Latin calix, cup) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ... A paten is a small plate, usually made of silver or gold, used to hold Eucharistic hosts. ...


In most Broad Church parishes, there is slightly more elaboration. Attending the Eucharist at a Broad Church parish nowadays is likely to remind one most directly of attending a contemporary Roman Catholic Mass. The priest will be vested in alb and stole, and - in some instances - a chasuble. He or she may make use of a lavabo in preparation for the celebration, and the chalice and paten may be initially concealed by a burse and ornamental veil. Candles will almost always be present on the altar. Broad Church Anglicans typically celebrate Communion every Sunday, or at least most Sundays. The Rite may also be celebrated once or twice at other times during the week. The reserved sacrament is usually kept in an aumbry or consumed. Broad Church Anglicans may not reverence the sacrament, as such, but will frequently bow when passing the altar A deacon wearing an alb and cincture wth a purple stole. ... The stole (a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations) is an embroidered band of cloth, formerly usually of silk, about two and one-half to three metres long and seven to ten centimetres wide, whose ends are usually broadened out. ... A lavabo is a device used to provide water. ... Burse is a surname, and may refer to: Charlie Burse Janell Burse Ray Burse Bourse Categories: | ...


High Church worship involves further elaboration. The priest will often be joined by a deacon and subdeacon, fully dressed in the historic Eucharistic vestments peculiar to their office (chasuble, dalmatic, and tunicle, respectively). They will often wear maniples and ornamented amices. In many churches, the altar will be fixed against the "east wall," and the sacred ministers will perform the Mass facing the tabernacle (often surmounted by a crucifix) above the altar, i.e., with their backs to the congregation, who are likewise facing the same direction. Apart from the tabernacle (containing the reserved sacrament), the altar is often adorned with six candles. Incense and sanctus bells are often used during the liturgy, and the Eucharist itself is supplemented by a number of so-called "secret prayers" uttered by the presiding celebrant. Needless to say, the lavabo and burse and veil are unfailingly used in Anglo-Catholic ceremonial. Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ... Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity. ... Rather similar to the chasuble, the dalmatic (one of the liturgical vestments of Catholic and Anglican churches) is the outermost vestment worn by a deacon at the Eucharist or Mass. ... Until the abolition of minor orders in the Roman Catholic church after the Second Vatican Council, the tunicle was the distinguishing vestment of the subdeacon. ... The amice is a liturgical vestment in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Tabernacle at St. ... A crucifix amidst the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria A handheld crucifix A crucifix in front of the Holy Spirit Church in Košice, Slovakia A crucifix is a cross with a representation of Jesuss body, or corpus. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic plant matter, often with the addition of essential oils extracted from plant or animal sources, intended to release fragrant smoke for religious, therapeutic, or aesthetic purposes as it smolders. ... It has been suggested that altar bell be merged into this article or section. ...


Anglo-Catholic Eucharistic theology places an emphasis on frequent Communion, ideally daily. The unconsumed elements are typically reserved in a tabernacle, either attached to a fixed altar, or placed behind or to one side of a free-standing altar. When the sacrament is present, Anglo-Catholics will genuflect when passing in front of it. When absent, they will bow to the altar. Often, the aumbry is dignified in the same way. Many, but not all, Anglo-Catholics practice Eucharistic adoration, either informally or through a corporate liturgical rite. Genuflection is an act of reverence consisting of falling onto (usually) one knee. ... In mediaeval times, an aumbry was a cupboard in the wall of a Christian church or in the sacristy which was used to store chalices and other vessels and which was used also for the reserved sacrament, the consecrated elements from the communion service. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ...


Administration

While the matter is unfailingly bread or wine, there is variation. The bread may be in the form of individual wafers or an actual loaf, from which pieces are torn off and distributed. Wine is typically red, but may be white (to avoid unsightly staining of the linen purificators which wipe the chalice rim after each administration). In some instances, fortified wine such as sherry or port wine is used. In still others, the option of juice is offered, usually in consideration of recipients who may be alcoholic (although it is perfectly acceptable and valid to receive the sacrament only in one kind, i.e., the bread). Sherry solera Sherry is a type of wine originally produced in and around the town of Jerez, Spain; and hence in Spanish Language it is called Vino de Jerez. The towns Persian name during the Rustamid period was Xerex (Shariz, in Persian شريش), from which both sherry and Jerez are... Different port wines with corresponding colour Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Porto, or simply Port) is a sweet, Fortified wine from the Portuguese Douro Valley in the northern part of Portugal. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


Modes of administration vary. Many Anglican parishes retain the use of an altar rail, separating the area around the altar from the rest of the church. This practice is meant to convey the sanctity associated with the altar. In such churches, those who wish to receive Communion will come forward and kneel at the altar rail, sometimes making the sign of the cross and cupping their hands (right over left) to receive the bread, then crossing themselves again to receive the chalice. Anglo-Catholic Anglicans are often careful not to chew the bread (hence the popularity of wafers in Anglo-Catholic parishes) or touch the chalice. Indeed, some prefer to have the bread placed directly on their tongue. In other parishes, recipients stand before the administrators to receive Communion, while in still others, participants may communicate one another, often standing in a circle around the altar. The practice of using individual cups (derisively called "shot glasses" or "Presbyterian shooters") and handing out individual wafers or pieces of bread to be consumed simultaneously by the whole congregation is extremely uncommon in Anglicanism, but not unheard of. The Sign of the Cross is performed mainly within Latin and Eastern Rite Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, and Lutheranism. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... A shooter can be: A person who takes part in the sport of shooting. ...


Anglican practice is that those who administer the sacrament (that is, distribute the bread and the wine) must be licensed by the diocesan bishop. Traditionally, priests and deacons were the only ones authorised to administer; however, many provinces now permit the licensing of so-called "lay administrators." In some localities, a lay-person is restricted to distributing the wine, while the clergy administer the bread. Two bishops assist at the Exhumation of Saint Hubert, who was a bishop too, at the église Saint-Pierre in Liège. ...


The question of who may receive communion likewise varies. In historic Anglican practice, the altar was "fenced" from those whose manner of living was considered to be unrepentently sinful. As parishes grew and the private lives of individuals became less accessible to public knowledge, this practice receded — although priests will, on occasion, refuse to admit to the altar those whom they know to be actively engaged in notoriously sinful behaviour, such as criminal activity. Most Anglican provinces keep an "open table," that is, all baptised Christians are welcome to receive Communion. In many others, access to the sacrament is reserved for those who have been both baptised and Confirmed, either in the Anglican or affiliated denomination. Those who are ineligible or do not wish to receive are frequently encouraged to come forward and cross their arms across their chest in order to indicate that they wish to receive a blessing. Baptism in early Christian art. ... Confirmation can refer to: Confirmation (sacrament) Confirmation (epistemology) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Reservation, consumption, disposal

In many Anglican dioceses, reservation of the sacrament other than for use with the sick is not authorised. In these cases, reverent consumption or disposal is often practiced. When disposed, the elements may be broken/poured over the earth or placed down a "piscina" in sacristy, a sink with a pipe that leads underground to a pit or into the earth. What is done with the remaining elements is often reflective of churchmanship.[1] In Anglican parlance, churchmanship is the general emphasis on doctrine, discipline, political outlook, and liturgical practice by adherents of the Church of England, particularly in certain historical periods. ...


In other Anglican jurisdictions, reservation is permissible. Some parishes will place the sacrament (along with holy oils) in an aumbry - a cupboard inserted in the wall of the chancel. As mentioned above, Anglo-Catholic parishes will often make use of a tabernacle, with which is associated various acts of reverence and adoration. This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ...


References

  • William R. Crockett, Eucharist: Symbol of Transformation. New York: Pueblo, 1989.
  • F. Paget, "Sacraments." In Lux Mundi: A Series of Studies in the Religion of the Incarnation, 12th edition, ed. by Charles Gore, pp. 296-318. London: John Murray, 1891.
  • Dom Gregory Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1945.

Dom Gregory Dix (1902-1952) was a monk of Nashdom Abbey, an Anglican Benedictine Foundation (1901-1952). ...

See also

The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... The Prayer of Humble Access was an integral part of the early Books of Common Prayer of the Church of England, and has continued to be used throughout the Anglican Communion. ... Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ... Transignification[1] is a doctrine, largely in progressive Roman Catholic circles, which attempts a rational explanation of the Real Presence of Christ at Mass. ... Black Rubric: The popular name for the declaration enjoining kneeling at the end of the order for the administration of the Lords Supper in the prayer-book of the Church of England, so called because it was printed in black letter in the prayer-book as revised by William...

External links

  • Anglican Eucharistic Theology

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m