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Encyclopedia > Anger
The Anger of Achilles, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. In this scene from Homer's Iliad, the angry Achilles (a Greek hero in Iliad) is about to draw his sword to attack Agamemnon. The goddess Athena however suddenly appears to stop Achilles by gripping him by the hair and telling him to restrain his anger.
The Anger of Achilles, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. In this scene from Homer's Iliad, the angry Achilles (a Greek hero in Iliad) is about to draw his sword to attack Agamemnon. The goddess Athena however suddenly appears to stop Achilles by gripping him by the hair and telling him to restrain his anger.
Emotions
Basic

Anger
Fear
Sadness
Happiness
Disgust
Interest
Anger can mean several things: For the emotion, see Anger. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Wrath is the name of a DC Comics supervillain. ... For other uses, see Cardinal sin (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (814x1023, 163 KB)The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (814x1023, 163 KB)The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 - March 27, 1770) was a Venetian painter and printmaker, considered among the last Grand Manner fresco painters from the Venetian republic. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... A woman showing disgust. ...

Others

Acceptance
Affection
Aggression
Ambivalence
Annoyance
Apathy
Anxiety
Boredom
Compassion
Confusion
Contempt
Curiosity
Depression
Disappointment
Doubt
Ecstasy
Empathy
Envy
Embarrassment
Euphoria
Forgiveness
Frustration
Gratitude
Grief
Guilt
Hatred
Hope
Horror
Hostility
Homesickness
Hunger
Hate
Hysteria
Jealousy
Loneliness
Paranoia
Pity
Pleasure
Pride
Rage
Regret
Remorse
Revenge
Shame
Suffering
Surprise
Sympathy
Vanity
For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Annoyance is an unpleasant mental state that is characterized by such effects as irritation and distraction from ones conscious thinking. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... For other uses, see Contempt (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... Disappointment is the emotion felt when a strongly held expectation of something desired is not met. ... This article is about the mental state. ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... For other uses, see Forgiveness (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Gratitude (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Anger is a term for the emotional aspect of aggression, as a basic aspect of the stress response in animals whereby a perceived aggravating stimulus provokes a counterresponse which is likewise aggravating and threatening of violence. ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... Look up Pleasure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Regret is an intelligent (and/or emotional) dislike for personal past acts and behaviors. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... For other uses, see Revenge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... For other uses, see Surprise. ... ... For other uses, see Vanity (disambiguation). ...

v  d  e

Anger is an emotional state that may range from minor irritation to intense rage. Anger can raise the heart rate, increase blood pressure, and increase the levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline. Anger has physical effects including raising the heart rate and blood pressure and the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. [1] Some view Anger as part of the fight or flight brain response to the perceived threat of pain. [2] Anger becomes the predominant feeling behaviorally, cognitively and physiologically when a person makes the conscious choice to take action to immediately stop the threatening behavior of another outside force. [3] Norepinephrine, known as noradrenaline outside the USA, is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ...


The external expression of anger can be found in facial expressions, body language, physiological responses, and at times in public acts of aggression.[4] Animals and humans for example make loud sounds, attempt to look physically larger, bare their teeth, and stare.[5] Anger is a behavioral pattern designed to warn aggressors to stop their threatening behavior. Rarely does a physical altercation occur without the prior expression of anger by at least one of the participants.[5] While most of those who experience anger explain its arousal as a result of "what has happened to them," psychologists point out that an angry person can be very well mistaken because anger causes a loss in self-monitoring capacity and objective observability.[6] Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne. ... For other uses, see Body language (disambiguation). ...


In the world of humans, the unique use of codified symbols and sounds -written and spoken language, pain or the threat of pain can be perceived from written and verbal sources. Humans may not perceive an immediate physical threat, but pain can be felt psychologically. Due to humans' capacity to imagine the distant future, the threat of pain can also arise purely from the imagination, and not be based on anything happening in the immediate present. In humans, anger often arises when another human being is perceived to violate expected behavioral norms related to social survival. These violations break social or interpersonal boundaries, or may be ethical or legal violations. [7]


Modern psychologists view anger as a primary, natural, and mature emotion experienced by all humans at times, and as something that has functional value for survival. Anger can mobilize psychological resources for corrective action. Uncontrolled anger can however negatively affect personal or social well-being.[8][6] This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ...


While many philosophers and writers have warned against the spontaneous and uncontrolled fits of anger, there has been disagreement over the intrinsic value of anger.[9] Dealing with anger has been addressed in the writings of earliest philosophers up to modern times. Modern psychologists, in contrast to the earlier writers, have also pointed out the possible harmful effects of suppression of anger.[9]


It has been also shown that the displays of anger can be used as an effective manipulation strategy for social influence.[10][11] In psychology, affect display or affective display is a subjects externally displayed affect. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Etymology and Conception

The English term "anger" originally comes from the term angr of Old Norse language; a language that was spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300.[12] Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ...


According to the linguist Anna Wierzbicka, the exact conception of anger can vary from culture to culture. For example, the Ilongot language of Philippines does not have a term exactly corresponding to the English term "anger." In this language, the closest term expressing the concept of "anger" is liget (glossed as ‘energy, anger, passion’). This term plays a crucial role in the culture and life of Ilongots and has a competitive character related to envy and ambition.[13] Wierzbicka explains the distinction between the English anger and the Ilongot liget more explicitly as follows: Anna Wierzbicka (b. ... The Ilongots are a tribe who inhabit the southern Sierra Madre and Caraballo Mountains, on the east side of Luzon Island in the Philippines. ...

X feels anger
(a) X thinks: Y did something bad
(b) I don’t want such things to happen
(c) X feels something bad toward Y because of that
(d) X wants to do something bad to Y because of that
X feels liget
(a) X thinks: I don’t want people to think that they can do things that I cannot do
(b) I want to do something because of that
(c) I don’t want to think:

“Someone will feel something bad because of that”
“I don’t want to do it because of that”
(d) X feels something because of that
(e) X can do things because of that that other people can’t.[13]

Modern Psychology

Anger is viewed as a natural and healthy response that has evolved to enable us to deal with threats.[4] Three types of anger are recognized by psychologists: The first form of anger, named "hasty and sudden anger" by Joseph Butler, an 18th century Engish bishop, is connected to the impulse for self-preservation. It is shared between humans and animals and occurs when tormented or trapped. The second type of anger is named "settled and deliberate" anger is a reaction to perceived deliberate harm doing or unfair treatment by others. These two forms anger are episodic. The third type of anger is however dispositional and is related more to character traits than to instincts or cognitions. Irritability, sullenness and churlishness postures are examples of the last form of anger.[14] This article is about evolution in biology. ... Joseph Butler (May 18, 1692 O.S. – June 16, 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. ...


Anger can potentially mobilize psychological resources and boost determination toward correction of wrong behaviors, promotion of social justice, communication of negative sentiment and redress of grievances. It can also facilitate patience. On the other hand, anger can be destructive when it does not find its appropriate outlet in expression. Anger, in its strong form, impairs one's ability to process information and to exert cognitive control over his behavior. An angry person may lose his objectivity, empathy, prudence or thoughtfulness and may cause harm to others.[6] Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


There is a sharp distinction between anger and aggression (verbal or physical, direct or indirect) even though they mutually influence each other. While anger can activate aggression or increase its probability or intensity, it is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for anger.[6]


Expression of anger and its physiology

Two people arguing during a political protest. Both protesters became angry and aggressive, as evidenced by their body language and facial expressions. To hear the angry exchange, listen to the audio below.
Two people arguing during a political protest. Both protesters became angry and aggressive, as evidenced by their body language and facial expressions. To hear the angry exchange, listen to the audio below.
Audio file of an angry exchange at a protest.

The external expression of anger can be found in facial expressions, body language, physiological responses, and at times in public acts of aggression.[4] The facial expression and body language are as follows:[6] Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne. ... For other uses, see Body language (disambiguation). ...

The facial and skeletal musculature are strongly affected by anger. The face becomes flushed, and the brow muscles move inward and downward, fixing a hard stare on the target. The nostrils flare, and the jaw tends toward clenching. This is an innate pattern of facial expression that can be observed in toddlers. Tension in the skeletal musculature, including raising of the arms and adopting a squared-off stance, are preparatory actions for attack and defense. The muscle tension provides a sense of strength and self-assurance. An impulse to strike out accompanies this subjective feeling of potency.

The Fury of Athamas by John Flaxman (1755-1826).
The Fury of Athamas by John Flaxman (1755-1826).

Physiological responses to anger include an increase in the heart rate, preparing the person to move, and increase of the blood flow to the hands, preparing them to strike. Perspiration increases (particularly when the anger is intense).[15] A common metaphor for the physiological aspect of anger is that of a hot fluid in a container.[6] According to Novaco, "Autonomic arousal is primarily engaged through adrenomedullary and adrenocortical hormonal activity. The secretion by the andrenal medulla of the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, and by the andrenal cortex of glucocorticoids provides a sympathetic system effect that mobilizes the body for immediate action (e.g. the release of glucose, stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen). In anger, the catecholamine activation is more strongly norepinephrine than epinephrine (the reverse being the case for fear). The adrenocortical effects, which have longer duration than the adrenomedullary ones, are modiated by secretions of the pituitary gland, which also influences testosterone levels. The pituitary-adrenocortical and pituitary-gonadal systems are thought to affect readiness or potentiation for anger responding."[6] The king of Orchomenus in Greek mythology, Athamas (rich harvest) was married first to the goddess Nephele with whom he had the twins Phrixus and Helle. ... John Flaxman (July 6, 1755 - December 7, 1826), was an English sculptor and draughtsman. ... Blood flow is the flow of blood in the cardiovascular system. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ...


Neuroscience has shown that emotions are generated by multiple structures in the brain. The rapid, minimal, and evaluative processing of the emotional significance of the sensory data is done when the data passes through the amygdala in its travel from the sensory organs along certain neural pathways towards the limbic forebrain. Emotion caused by discrimination of stimulus features, thoughts, or memories however occurs when its information is relayed from the thalamus to the neocortex.[16] Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the senses of living organisms (vision, taste, etc. ... A neural pathway is a neural tract connecting one part of the nervous system with another, usually consisting of bundles of elongated, myelin insultated neurons, known collectively as white matter. ...


Based on some statistical analysis, some scholars have suggested that the tendency for anger may be genetic. Distinguishing between genetic and environmental factors however requires further research and actual measurement of specific genes and environments.[17][18] This article is about the field of statistics. ... In epidemiology, environmental factors are those determinants of disease that are not transmitted genetically. ...


Causes of anger

Most commonly, those who experience anger explain its arousal as a result of "what has happened to them" and in most cases the described provocations occur immediately before the anger experience. Such explanations confirm the illusion that anger has a discrete external cause. The angry person usually finds the cause of his anger in an intentional, personal, and controllable aspect of another person's behavior. This explanation is however based on the intuitions of the angry person who experiences a loss in self-monitoring capacity and objective observability as a result of his emotion. Anger can be of multicausal origin, some of which may be remote events, but people rarely find more than one cause for their anger.[6] According to Novaco, "anger experiences are embedded or nested within an environmental-temporal context. Disturbances that may not have involved anger at the outset leave residues that are not readily recognized but that operate as a lingering backdrop for focal provocations."[6] According to Britannica Encyclopedia, an internal infection can cause pain which in turn can activate anger.[16]


Philosophical perspectives on anger

Ancient times

"When I was still a young man..., I watched a man eagerly trying to open a door. When things did not work out as he would have them, I saw him bite the key, kick the door, blaspheme, glare wildly like a madman, and all but foam at the mouth like a wild boar. When I saw this, I conceived such a hatred for anger that I was never thereafter seen behaving in an unseemly manner because of it," remarked Galen.
"When I was still a young man..., I watched a man eagerly trying to open a door. When things did not work out as he would have them, I saw him bite the key, kick the door, blaspheme, glare wildly like a madman, and all but foam at the mouth like a wild boar. When I saw this, I conceived such a hatred for anger that I was never thereafter seen behaving in an unseemly manner because of it," remarked Galen.[19][9]

Ancient philosophers argued that anger can be only experienced by humans: animals cannot become angry because they lack reason.[9] Ancient Greek philosophers, describing and commenting on the uncontrolled anger, particularly toward slaves, in their society generally showed a hostile attitude towards anger. Galen and Seneca regarded anger as a kind of madness. They all rejected the spontaneous, uncontrolled fits of anger and agreed on both the possibility and value of controlling anger. There were however disagreements regarding the value of anger. For Seneca, anger was "worthless even for war."[9] Seneca believed that: Drawing of Galen. ... Drawing of Galen. ... Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (131-201 AD), better known as Galen, was an ancient Greek physician. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ...

The disciplined Roman army regularly defeats the fury of the Germans.... In sporting contests, it is a mistake to become angry ..., and in response to personal injury, the only relief for great misfortunes is to bear them and submit to their coercion... If the misfortune is unbearable, then suicide should be preferred to rage.[9] A personal injury occurs when a person has suffered some form of injury, either physical or psychological, as the result of an accident. ...

Aristotle on the other hand, ascribed some value to anger that has arisen from perceived injustice because it is useful for preventing injustice.[9][20] Furthermore, the opposite of anger is a kind of insensibility, Aristotle stated.[9] For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


The difference in people's temperaments was generally viewed as a result the different mix of qualities or humors people contained. Seneca held that "red-haired and red-faced people are hot-tempered because of excessive hot and dry humors."[9] Ancient philosophers rarely refer to women’s anger at all, according to Simon Kemp and K. T. Strongman perhaps because their works were not intended for women. Some of them that discuss it, such as Seneca, considered women to be more prone to anger than men.[9] Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ...


Medieval times

During the period of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages, philosophers elaborated on the existing conception of anger, many of whom did not make major contributions to the concept. For example, many medieval philosophers such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Roger Bacon and Thomas Aquinas agreed with ancient philosophers that animals cannot become angry.[9] On the other hand, al-Ghazali (also known as "Algazel" in Europe), who often disagreed with Aristotle and Ibn Sina (Avicenna) on many issues, argued that animals do possess anger as one of the three "powers" in their Qalb ("heart"), the other two being appetite and impulse. He also argued that animal will is "conditioned by anger and appetite" in contrast to human will which is "conditioned by the intellect."[21] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lataif-e-sitta. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ...


Related to Seneca's belief that "red-haired and red-faced people are hot-tempered because of excessive hot and dry humors," a common medieval belief was that those prone to anger had an excess of yellow bile or choler.[9] Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ...


Modern times

The modern understanding of anger is not much more advanced than that of Aristotle.[9] Immanuel Kant rejected vengeance as vicious because it goes beyond defense of one's dignity, and at the same time rejected insensitiveness to social injustice as a sign for lack "manhood." Regarding the latter, David Hume had argued that since "anger and hatred are passions inherent in our very frame and constitution, the lack of them is sometimes evidence of weakness and imbecility."[14] Kant redirects here. ... Social Injustice is a concept relating to the perceived unfairness or injustice of a society in its divisions of rewards and burdens. ... This article is about the philosopher. ...


Two main differences between the modern understanding and ancient understanding of anger can be detected, Kemp and Strongman state: One is that early philosophers were not concerned with possible harmful effects of the suppression of anger. The other is that recent studies of anger takes the issue of gender differences into account. This does not seem to have been of much concern for the earlier philosophers.[9] This article is about the emotion. ... This article is about gender differences in humans. ...


Religious perspectives on anger

  • Anger in Buddhism is defined here as: "being unable to bear the object, or the intention to cause harm to the object." Anger is seen as aversion with a stronger exaggeration, and is listed as one of the five hindrances. The Buddhist spiritual saints, such as Dalai Lama, the spiritual Guru of Tibetan monks, sometimes get angry.[22] However, there is a difference; most often a spiritual person is aware of the emotion and the way it can be handled. Thus, in response to the question: "Is any anger acceptable in Buddhism?' the Dalai Lama answered:

    "Buddhism in general teaches that anger is a destructive emotion and although anger might have some positive effects in terms of survival or moral outrage, I do not accept that anger of any kind as a virtuous emotion nor aggression as constructive behavior. The Gautama Buddha has taught that there are three basic kleshas at the root of samsara (bondage, illusion) and the vicious cycle of rebirth. These are greed, hatred, and delusion--also translatable as attachment, anger, and ignorance. They bring us confusion and misery rather than peace, happiness, and fulfillment. It is in our own self-interest to purify and transform them."[22] A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... In Buddhism, the five hindrances (or five nivarana) are negative mental states that impede success with meditation (Jhana) and lead away from enlightenment. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ...

The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things, by Hieronymus Bosch (1485). "Anger" is depicted at the bottom in a series of circular images. Below the image is the Latin inscription Cave Cave Deus Videt ("Beware, Beware, God is Watching")
The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things, by Hieronymus Bosch (1485). "Anger" is depicted at the bottom in a series of circular images. Below the image is the Latin inscription Cave Cave Deus Videt ("Beware, Beware, God is Watching")
  • Medieval Christianity vigorously rejected anger as one of the seven cardinal, or deadly sins although some Christian writers at times regarded the anger caused from injustice as having some value.[8][9] Saint Basil viewed anger as a "reprehensible temporary madness."[8] Joseph F. Delany in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1914) defines anger as "the desire of vengeance" and states that a reasonable vengeance and passion is ethical and praiseworthy. Vengeance is sinful when it exceeds its limits in which case it becomes opposed to justice and charity. For example, "vengeance upon one who has not deserved it, or to a greater extent than it has been deserved, or in conflict with the dispositions of law, or from an improper motive" are all sinful. An unduly vehement vengeance is considered a venial sin unless it seriously goes counter to the love of God or of one's neighbor.[23]
  • In Hinduism, anger is equated with sorrow as a form of unrequited desire. The objects of anger are perceived as a hindrance to the gratification of the desires of the angry person.[24] Alternatively if one thinks one is superior, the result is grief. Anger is considered to be packed with more evil power than desire.[25]
  • The Qur'an, the central religious text of Islam, attributes anger to Prophets and believers and Muhammad's enemies. It mentions the anger of Moses against his people for worshiping a golden calf; the anger of Jonah at God in a moment and his eventual realization of his error and his repentance; God's removal of anger from the hearts of believers and making them merciful after the fighting against Muhammad's enemies is over.[26][27] In general suppression of anger is deemed a praiseworthy quality and Muhammad is attributed to have said, "power resides not in being able to strike another, but in being able to keep the self under control when anger arises."[28][27][29]
  • In Judaism, anger at the sight of wrong done is holy. If the anger kindles into passion, it will become however conducive to strife. According to the Hebrew Bible: "He that is slow to wrath is of great understanding, but he that is hasty of temper[A. V. "spirit"] exalteth folly...A wrathful man stirrers up strife: he that is slow to anger appeases strife...He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty...Be not hasty in thy spirit to be angry; for anger rests in the bosom of fools." In the Book of Genesis, Jacob condemned the anger that had arisen in his sons Simon and Levi: "Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel"[30]

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (966x830, 218 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (966x830, 218 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things is a painting by Hieronymus Bosch, completed in 1485. ... Hieronymus Bosch, (latinized, actually Jheronimus Bosch; his real name Jeroen van Aken) (c. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Church... For other uses, see Cardinal sin (disambiguation). ... Basil (ca. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... According to Catholicism, a venial sin is a sin which meets at least one of the following critera: it does not concern a grave matter, it is not committed with full knowledge, or it is not committed with both deliberate and complete consent. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Scripture redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For other uses, see Golden calf (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ...

Anger of God or gods

The Great Day of His Wrath, by John Martin (1789-1854).
The Great Day of His Wrath, by John Martin (1789-1854).

In many religions, anger is frequently attributed to God or gods. Primitive people held that gods were subject to anger and revenge in naive anthropomorphic fashion. The Hebrew Bible says that opposition to God's Will results in God's anger.[31] The Hebrew Bible explains that: The Great Day of His Wrath is an 1851-1853 oil-on-canvas painting by English artist John Martin. ... The Great Day of His Wrath, c. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...

God is not an intellectual abstraction, nor is He conceived as a being indifferent to the doings of man; and His pure and lofty nature resents most energetically anything wrong and impure in the moral world: "O Lord, my God, mine Holy One... Thou art of eyes too pure to behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity."[30]

Christians also subscribe to the God's holiness and his anger in the sight of evil. This anger, they hold is not inconsistent with God's love. They also believe that the wrath of God comes to those who reject Jesus.[31] In Islam, God's mercy outweighs his wrath or takes precedence of it.[32] The characteristics of those upon whom God's wrath will fall is as follows: Those who reject God; deny his signs; doubt the resurrection and the reality of the day of judgment; call Muhammad a sorcerer, a madman or a poet; do mischief, are impudent, do not look after the poor (notably the orphans); live in luxury or heap up fortunes; persecute the believers or prevent them from praying;...[33]


Dealing with anger

The Inferno, Canto 7, lines 8-9: “Cursed wolf! thy fury inward on thyself/ Prey, and consume thee!”, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883).

According to Leland R. Beaumont, each instance of anger demands making a choice:[34] Jacob Wrestling with the Angel (1855) Paul Gustave Doré (January 6, 1832 - January 23, 1883), a French artist, was born in Strasbourg. ...

  • Respond with hostile action, including overt violence
  • Respond with hostile inaction, such as withdrawing or stonewalling
  • Initiate a dominance contest
  • Harbor resentment
  • Work to better understand and constructively resolve the issue

For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ...

Views of ancient philosophers

Seneca addresses the question of mastering anger in three parts: 1. how to avoid becoming angry in the first place 2. how to cease being angry and 3. how to deal with anger in others.[9] Seneca suggests: Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ...

  1. In order to avoid becoming angry in the first place, Seneca suggests that the many faults of anger should be repeatedly remembered. One should avoid being too busy or deal with anger-provoking people. Unnecessary hunger or thirst should be avoided and soothing music be listened to.[9]
  2. In order to cease being angry, Seneca suggests "one to check speech and impulses and be aware of particular sources of personal irritation. In dealing with other people, one should not be too inquisitive: It is not always soothing to hear and see everything. When someone appears to slight you, you should be at first reluctant to believe this, and should wait to hear the full story. You should also put yourself in the place of the other person, trying to understand his motives and any extenuating factors, such as age or illness."[9] Seneca further advises daily self-inquisition about one's bad habit.[9]
  3. In order to deal with anger in others, Seneca suggests that the best reaction is to simply do nothing quickly. Certain kind of deception, Seneca says, is necessary in dealing with angry people.[9]

Galen basically repeats Seneca's points but adds a new point to it: Finding a guide and teacher can help the person in controlling his passions. Galen also gives some hints for finding a good teacher.[9] Heroin bottle An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individuals health, mental state or social life. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ...


Both Seneca and Galen (and later philosophers) agree that process of controlling anger should start childhood when the children are more malleable. Seneca though warns that this education should not blunt the spirit of the Children nor should they be humiliated or treated severely. At the same time, they should not be pampered. The Children, Seneca says should learn not to beat their playmates nor to become angry at them. The request of Children should not be granted when they are angry, Seneca advices.[9]


Middle ages

Maimonides recognized being given to uncontrollable passions as a kind of illness. Like Galen, Maimonides suggested seeking out a philosopher for curing this illness just as one seeks out a physician for curing bodily illnesses. Roger Bacon elaborates Seneca's advices. Many medieval writers discuss at length the evils of anger and the virtues of temperance. John Mirk asks men to "consider how angels flee before them and fiends run toward him to burn him with hellfire."[9] Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ...


In The Canon of Medicine, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) modified the theory of temperaments and argued that anger heralded the transition of melancholia to mania, and explained that humidity inside the head can contribute to such mood disorders.[35] On the other hand, Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi classified anger (along with agression) as a type of neurosis,[36] while al-Ghazali (Algazel) argued that anger takes form in rage, indignation and revenge, and that "the powers of the soul become balanced if it keeps anger under control."[37] A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... For temperament in dog fancy, see conformation point. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... Abu Zaid Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi was a Persian mathematician who lived in the 10th century. ... In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Revenge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...


Modern times

According to R. Novaco, anger is an emotional response to provocation. R. Novaco recognized three modalities of anger: cognitive (appraisals), somatic-affective (tension and agitations) and behavioral ( withdrawal and antagonism). In order to manage anger the problems involved in the anger should be discussed Novaco suggests. The situations leading to anger should be explored by the person. The person is then tried to be imagery-based relieved of his or her recent angry experiences.[9][38]


Modern therapies for anger involve restructuring thoughts and beliefs in order to bring about a causal reduction in anger. This therapy often comes within the schools of CBT (or cognitive behavioral therapy) or other modern schools such as REBT (or rational emotional behavioral therapy). Research shows that people who suffer from excessive anger often harbor irrational thoughts and beliefs towards negativity. It has been shown that with therapy by a trained professional, individuals can bring their anger to manageable levels.[39] Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of psychological disorder. ...


The therapy is followed by the so-called "stress inoculation" in which the clients are taught "relaxation skills to control their arousal and various cognitive controls to exercise on their attention, thoughts, images, and feelings. They are taught to see the provocation and the anger itself as occurring in a series of stages, each of which can be dealt with."[9]


Suppression of anger

While the early philosophers were not concerned with possible harmful effects of the suppression of anger, modern psychologists point out that suppression of anger may have harmful effects. The suppressed anger may find another outlet, such as a physical symptom, or become more extreme.[9][40] John W. Fiero cites Los Angeles riots of 1992 as an example of sudden, explosive release of suppressed anger. The anger was then displaced as violence against those who had nothing to do with the matter. Another example of widespread deflection of anger from its actual cause toward a scapegoat, Fiero says, was the blaming of Jews for the economic ills of Germany by the Nazis.[8] For other uses, see Los Angeles riots (disambiguation). ...


Anger as a strategy

As with any emotion, the display of anger can be feigned or exaggerated. Studies by Hochschild and Sutton have shown that the show of anger is likely to be an effective manipulation strategy in order to change and design attitudes. Anger is a distinct strategy of social influence and its use (i.e. belligerent behaviors) as a goal achievement mechanism proves to be a successful strategy.[10][11] In psychology, affect display or affective display is a subjects externally displayed affect. ...


Anger and social position

Tiedens, known for her studies of anger, claimed that expression of feelings would cause a powerful influence not only on the perception of the expresser but also on his power position in the society. She studied the correlation between anger expression and social influence perception. Previous researchers, such as Keating, 1985 have found that people with angry face expression were perceived as powerful and as in a high social position.[41] Similarly, Tiedens et al. have revealed that people who compared scenarios involving an angry and a sad, attributed a higher social status to the angry character.[42] In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Power position is a concept from Feng Shui, the ancient Chinese practice of studying ones position within ones surroundings. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In sociology, social status also known as Social position social status means a position of an individual in a given society and culture. ... Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ...


Anger and status attribution

Tiedens examined in her study whether anger expression promotes status attribution. In other words, whether anger contributes to perceptions or legitimization of others’ behaviors. Her findings clearly indicated that participants who were exposed to either an angry or a sad person were inclined to express support for the angry person rather than for a sad one. In addition, it was found that a reason for that decision originates from the fact that the person expressing anger was perceived as an ability owner, and was attributed a certain social status accordingly.[41] Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ...


Anger and negotiation

Main article: Negotiation#Emotion in negotiation

The main question in this matter is whether show of anger during negotiation increases the ability of the anger expresser to succeed in negotiation. Few previous studies such as the one done by Tiedens et al. have found that the anger expressers were perceived as stubborn, dominant and powerful. In addition, it was found that people were inclined to easily give up to those who were perceived by them as a powerful and stubborn, rather than soft and submissive.[42] Based on these findings Sinaceur and Tiedens have found that people conceded more to the angry side rather than for the non-angry one.[43] A question raised by Van Kleef et al. based on these findings was whether expression of emotion influences others, since it is known that people use emotional information to conclude about others’ limits and match their demands in negotiation accordingly. Van Kleef et al. wanted to explore whether people give up more easily to an angry opponent or to a happy opponent. Findings revealed that participants tended to be more flexible toward an angry opponent compared with a happy opponent. These results strengthen the argument that participants analyze the opponent’s emotion in order to conclude about their limits and carry out their decisions accordingly.[44] For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ...


See also

Look up Anger in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Anger
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Anger

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is about the psychotherapy technique. ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Anger is a term for the emotional aspect of aggression, as a basic aspect of the stress response in animals whereby a perceived aggravating stimulus provokes a counterresponse which is likewise aggravating and threatening of violence. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Further reading

Academic Articles

References

  1. ^ "Anger definition". Medicine.net. Retrieved on 2008-04-05. 
  2. ^ Harris, W., Schoenfeld, C. D., Gwynne, P. W., Weissler, A. M.,Circulatory and humoral responses to fear and anger, The Physiologist, 1964, 7, 155.
  3. ^ Raymond DiGiuseppe, Raymond Chip Tafrate, Understanding Anger Disorders, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp.133-159.
  4. ^ a b c Michael Kent, Anger, The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192628453
  5. ^ a b Primate Ethology, 1967, Desmond Morris (Ed.). Weidenfeld & Nicolson Publishers: London, p.55
  6. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named EncPsy
  7. ^ Primate Ethology, 1967, Desmond Morris (Ed.). Weidenfeld & Nicolson Publishers: London, p.55
  8. ^ a b c d John W. Fiero, Anger, Ethics, Revised Edition, Vol 1
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Simon Kemp, K.T. Strongman, Anger theory and management: A historical analysis, The American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 108, No. 3. (Autumn, 1995), pp. 397-417
  10. ^ a b Sutton, R. I. Maintaining norms about expressed emotions: The case of bill collectors, Administrative Science Quarterly, 1991, 36:245-268
  11. ^ a b Hochschild, AR, The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling, University of California Press, 1983
  12. ^ Anger,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Houghton Mifflin Company.
  13. ^ a b Anna Wierzbicka, Emotions Across Culture: Similarities and Differences, American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 90, No. 4. (Dec., 1988), pp. 982-983
  14. ^ a b Paul M. Hughes, Anger, Encyclopedia of Ethics, Vol I, Second Edition, Rutledge Press
  15. ^ Paul Ekman, Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication, Holt Paperbacks, ISBN 080507516X, 2004, p.63
  16. ^ a b "emotion." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, p.11
  17. ^ Xiaoling Wang, Ranak Trivedi, Frank Treiber, and Harold Snieder, Genetic and Environmental Influences on Anger Expression, John Henryism, and Stressful Life Events: The Georgia Cardiovascular Twin Study, Psychosomatic Medicine 67:16–23 (2005)
  18. ^ Barry Starr, The Tech Museum of Innovation
  19. ^ Galen, 180’/1963, p. 38)
  20. ^ According to Aristotle: "The person who is angry at the right things and toward the right people, and also in the right way, at the right time and for the right length of time is morally praiseworthy." cf. Paul M. Hughes, Anger, Encyclopedia of Ethics, Vol I, Second Edition, Rutledge Press
  21. ^ Haque, Amber (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 [367]
  22. ^ a b The Urban Dharma Newsletter, March 9, 2004
  23. ^ "Anger" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  24. ^ Anger, (HinduDharma: Dharmas Common To All), Shri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham
  25. ^ Anger Management: How to Tame our Deadliest Emotion, by Satguru Bodhinatha Veylanswami
  26. ^ * Moses's anger: Quran 7:150, 154; 20:86
    • Jonah's anger: Quran 21:87-8
    • Believer's anger: Qur'an 9:15
  27. ^ a b Bashir, Shahzad. Anger, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Brill, 2007.
  28. ^ see for example Quran 3:134; 42:37; Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 8, bk. 73, no. 135.
  29. ^ Mohammed Abu-Nimer, Non-Violence, Peacebuilding, Conflict Resolution and Human Rights in Islam:A Framework for Nonviolence and Peacebuilding in Islam, Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 15, No. 1/2. (2000 - 2001), pp. 217-265.
  30. ^ a b Kaufmann Kohler, Anger, Jewish Encyclopedia
  31. ^ a b Shailer Mathews, Gerald Birney Smith, A Dictionary of Religion and Ethics, Kessinger Publishing, p.17
  32. ^ Gardet, L. Allāh., Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill, 2007.
  33. ^ Raven, Wim, Reward and Punishment, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Brill, 2007
  34. ^ Leland R. Beaumont, Emotional Competency, Anger, An Urgent Plea for Justice and Action, Entry describing paths of anger
  35. ^ Haque, Amber (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–377 [366]
  36. ^ Haque, Amber (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–377 [362]
  37. ^ Haque, Amber (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–377 [366-8]
  38. ^ Novaco, R. (1975). Anger control: The development and evaluation of an experimental treatment. Lexington, MA: Heath.
  39. ^ "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis" (in English) (pdf) (1998). Cognitive Therapy and Research 22 (1): 63-74. Retrieved on 2007-02-05. 
  40. ^ "Anger." Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2nd ed. Gale Group, 2001.
  41. ^ a b Tiedens LZ, Anger and advancement versus sadness and subjugation: the effect of negative emotion expressions on social status conferral, Link: [1], Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 2001 Jan; 80(1):86-94.
  42. ^ a b Tiedens, Ellsworth & Mesquita, Sentimental Stereotypes: Emotional Expectations for High-and Low-Status Group Members, 2000
  43. ^ M Sinaceur, LZ Tiedens, Get mad and get more than even: When and why anger expression is effective in negotiations, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2006
  44. ^ Van Kleef, De Dreu and Manstead, The Interpersonal Effects of Anger and Happiness in Negotiations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2004, Vol. 86, No. 1, 57–76

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... Paul Ekman (born 1934) is a psychologist and has been a pioneer in the study of emotions and facial expressions. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Tech Museum of Innovation, or simply The Tech, is a museum located in the heart of Silicon Valley, in downtown San Jose, California USA. Focusing on technology and its effects, The Tech serves as an important educational and cultural resource for tourists and local residents alike. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The Encyclopaedia of the Quran (EQ) is a scholarly work with essays on the most important themes and subjects, and an encyclopaedic dictionary of Quran terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Kaufmann Kohler (May 10, 1843, Fürth, Bavaria – January 28, 1926) was a German-born U.S. reform rabbi and theologian. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... The Encyclopaedia of the Quran (EQ) is a scholarly work with essays on the most important themes and subjects, and an encyclopaedic dictionary of Quran terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomson Gale is a part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, and is based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. ... The scope of social psychological research. ...

External links

The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915) is a public domain Biblical encyclopedia. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... A woman showing disgust. ... Alertness is the the process of paying close and continuous attention. ... For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... Annoyance is an unpleasant mental state that is characterized by such effects as irritation and distraction from ones conscious thinking. ... Anticipation is an emotion involving pleasure (and sometimes anxiety) in considering some expected or longed-for good event, or irritation at having to wait. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... For other uses, see Contempt (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Severe confusion of a degree considered pathological usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity), and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new materal). ... For other uses, see Depression. ... Disappointment is the emotion felt when a strongly held expectation of something desired is not met. ... This article is about the mental state. ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ... Enthusiasm (Greek: enthousiasmos) originally meant inspiration or possession by a divine afflatus or by the presence of a God. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... This article is about a feeling, for other meanings see epiphany (disambiguation). ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gratification is the positive emotional response (happiness) to a fulfillment of desire. ... For other uses, see Gratitude (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Etymology: Late Latin humiliatus, past participle of humiliare, from Latin humilis low. ... Inspiration in artistic composition refers to an irrational and unconscious burst of creativity. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... Patience, engraving by Hans Sebald Beham, 1540 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: patience Patience is the ability to endure waiting, delay, or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset, or to persevere calmly when faced with difficulties. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Regret is an intelligent (and/or emotional) dislike for personal past acts and behaviors. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Righteous indignation is an emotion one feels when one gets angry over perceived mistreatment, insult, or malice. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... In humans, shyness is the feeling of apprehension or lack of confidence experienced in regard to social association with others, e. ... ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... For other uses, see Surprise. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Angers (934 words)
Angers, the capital of the historic province of Anjou, is considered one of the most beautiful cities in France.
When Henry IV came to the throne the destruction came to a halt and Angers was the scene of the engagement of Cesar of Vendome with Francoise of Lorraine.
Angers is not a "pretty" castle, compared to structures such as Chenonceau.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Angers (583 words)
Angers in modern times were Cardinal de la Balue (1467) confined by Louis XI in an iron cage (1469-80) for his negotiations with Charles the Bold; the Jansenist, Henri
Angers again became the seat of a Catholic university.
Diocese of Angers comprised 514,658 inhabitants, 37 cures or parishes of the first-class, 377 parishes of the second-class and 129 vicariates with salaries formerly paid by the State.
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