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Encyclopedia > Angels
The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575)
The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575)

An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. They typically act as messengers, as believed in the main three monotheistic religions. Download high resolution version (803x1066, 200 KB)The Annunciation by El Greco 1570-1575 Museo del Prado, Madrid Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (803x1066, 200 KB)The Annunciation by El Greco 1570-1575 Museo del Prado, Madrid Source: http://www. ... A key piece of the Paleologan Mannerism - the Annunciation icon from Ochrid. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... Genera A bear is a large mammal of the order Carnivora, family Ursidae. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... The Dormition of the Virgin - An early work of El Greco painted in the late Byzantine style popular in Crete at the time. ... Events February 13 - Henry III of France is crowned at Reims February 14 - Henry III of France marries Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont June 28 - Oda Nobunaga defeats Takeda Katsuyori in the battle of Nagashino, which has been called Japans first modern battle. ... The aether (also spelled ether) is a substance concept, historically used in science and philosophy. ... A being, in the most general sense, is anything that is alive. ... Duty is a term loosely applied to any action (or course of action) which is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... See also: Assist (sports) ASSIST (the Assembler System for Student Instruction and Systems Teaching) is an IBM System/370-compatible assembler and interpreter developed in the 1970s at Penn State University by John Mashey. ... To serve could mean Doing a service for someone Making an effort for someone or something Working as a butler Giving food or drink to someone Treat someone in a special way Approve A serve in the sport Tennis Expedition in a tertiary employment sector, e. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, one of the manifestations of the ultimate reality or God in Hinduism This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Look up messenger in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ...

Contents


Etymology

Look up angel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The English word originated from Latin, angelus, which is itself derived from the Greek ἄγγελος, ángelos, meaning "messenger" (double gamma "γγ" is pronounced "ng" in Greek). The closest Hebrew word for angel is מלאך, mal'ach Hebrew word #4397 in Strong's, also meaning "messenger". "Angel" is also used in the English version of the Bible for the following three Hebrew words: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (hence: Wiktionary) (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up origin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... In Guy Debords words: ONE OF THE BASIC situationist practices is the dérive [literally: “drifting”], a technique of rapid passage through varied ambiances. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together. ... Strongs Concordance is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822-1894). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hÄ“ biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their...

Strongs Concordance is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822-1894). ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. ... The concept of power occurs in multiple areas. ... For other uses, see Elohim (disambiguation). ... Strongs Concordance is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822-1894). ... ... Strongs Concordance is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822-1894). ...

Angelology

Angelology is a branch of theology that deals with a hierarchical system of angels, messengers, celestial powers or emanations, and the study of these systems. It primarily relates to kaballistic Judaism and Christianity[1], where it is one of the ten major branches of theology, albeit a neglected one[2]. Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ... Look up system in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arishem towers in the distance and judges that a world shall die. ... Look up Power in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Emanationism is a component in the cosmology of certain religious or philosophical belief systems that claim that the supreme god did not create the physical universe, but instead emanated lower spiritual beings who consequently carried out the actual work. ... Look up Study on Wiktionary, the free dictionary To study means to acquire knowledge, often by memorization or reading. ... Look up Relation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In mathematics, a relation is a generalization of arithmetic relations, such as = and <, which occur in statements, such as 5 < 6 or 2 + 2 = 4. See relation (mathematics), binary relation (of set theory and logic) and relational algebra. ... This article is about the overall Jewish mysticisms tradition. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people with around 15 million followers as of 2006. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


Most scholars acknowledge that Judeo-Christianity owes a great debt to Zoroastrianism in regards to the introduction of angelology and demonology, as well as Satan (Ahriman) as the ultimate agent of evil. As the Iranian Avestan and Vedic traditions and also other branches of Indo-European mythologies show, the notion of demon had existed long before. Judeo-Christian tradition (also spelled Judaeo-Christian) is the body of concepts and values held in common by Christianity and Judaism. ... Zoroastrianism is the name of the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... For other uses, see Angel (disambiguation). ... Demonology is the systematic study of demons. ... Gustave Dores depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan (Standard Hebrew: , Satan Tiberian Hebrew ; Greek , Satanás; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: شيطان, Shaitan) is a Abrahamic term which is traditionally applied to an angel, demon, or minor god in many belief systems. ... Angra Mainyu or Ahriman was the evil spirit in the dualistic strain of Zoroastrianism. ... Yasna 28. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The existence of similarities among the gods and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples suggests that whatever population they actually formed had some form of polytheistic religion. ...


It is believed that Zoroastrianism had an influence on Jewish angelology[3], and therefore modern Christian angelology, due to the appearance of elements from Zoroastrianism in Judaism following Israel's extended contact with the Persian Empire while in exile in Babylon.[4] Borrowed notions may include, the introduction of Satan as a supreme head over the powers of evil (present mainly in Christian and Islamic theology), in contrast to God[5]: comparing Satan to Angra Mainyu (also known as Ahriman) of Zoroastrian faith[6], who was the arch-enemy of Ahura Mazda, the supreme Universal God of mankind.[7]Angels, some also believe, may have first been depicted as God's helpers in Zoroastrianism, and their hierarchy is comparable to modern Angelology's hierarchy[8]. Believe can refer to: Believe (Cher single), album by Cher. ... Zoroastrianism is the name of the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... Influence Science and Practice (ISBN 0321188950) is a Psychology book examining the key ways people can be influenced by Compliance Professionals. The books authors is Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. ... Modern can simply mean something that is up-to-date, trendy, new, or from the present time. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ, believing him to be the Son of God and the savior of human souls from sin and death. ... Contact may mean: the active component of an electric switch In address books, sales organizations, and electronic organizer devices, a contact is the name, address, phone number, and other pertinent information related to a client, vendor, friend, relative, or other associate. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... The word notion can refer to: Notion, the philosophical concept Notion, the mathematical concept Notion, the Winchester slang term Notion, accessories used in the sewing industry. ... Gustave Dores depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan (Standard Hebrew: , Satan Tiberian Hebrew ; Greek , Satanás; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: شيطان, Shaitan) is a Abrahamic term which is traditionally applied to an angel, demon, or minor god in many belief systems. ... Look up supreme in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Supreme may mean: Supreme (comics), a comic book superhero Supreme (rapper), a member of rap group Looptroop Supreme (single), a single by Robbie Williams Supreme (wrestler), a wrestler in Xtreme Pro Wrestling Any member of the singing group The Supremes This is... In religion and ethics, evil refers to the bad aspects of the behaviour and reasoning of human beings —those which are deliberately void of conscience, and show a wanton desire for destruction. ... Contrast has several meanings: // Visual perception Left side of the image has low contrast, the right has higher contrast. ... Angra Mainyu (Avestan) or Ahriman (Middle Persian اهريمن) is the Evil equivalent of the deity Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. ... Angra Mainyu or Ahriman was the evil spirit in the dualistic strain of Zoroastrianism. ... The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is similar to belief, trust or confidence, but unlike these terms, faith tends to imply a transpersonal rather than interpersonal relationship – with God or a higher power. ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ... Look up Mankind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Mankind may refer to: Human beings and their society The morality play Mankind An alias of professional wrestler Mick Foley An MMORTS (massively multiplayer online real-time strategy); see Mankind (MMORTS) A French Demoscene group : m4nkind (web) Spelt thus: ManKind, it can... A Helper is a term used to describe a type of assistant, either an actual person, device, or mixture. ...


This view is questioned though by those who point out that the Torah, the Book of Job, and other Jewish books depicting angels as messengers of God predate the time of Persian influence. Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The verb predate has two meanings:- To prey upon: see predator and predation and prey. ...


In contrast to the first view, some critics believe that it was Judaism and Christianity that had an influence on Zoroastrianism. They purport that similarities, such as those between Zoroaster and Jesus, and the incorporation of other motifs, were created by priests in an attempt to exalt Zoroaster, and deter those of Zoroastrian faith from converting to other faiths[9]. Zoroastrianism is the name of the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... Zoroaster, in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Incorporation is: In business, incorporation is the creation of a corporation. ... In literature, a motif is any recurring element that has symbolic significance. ... Roman Catholic priests in traditional clerical clothing. ... Exalt is a word which means to praise, glorify, honor, intensify, or heighten. ...


Angels in the Tanakh

Statue of an angel at a cemetery in Metairie, Louisiana.
Statue of an angel at a cemetery in Metairie, Louisiana.

The Biblical name for angel, מלאך ('malach"), obtained the further signification of "angel" only through the addition of God's name, as "angel of the Lord," or "angel of God" (Zechariah 12:8). Other appellations are "Sons of God", (Genesis 6:4; Job 1:6 [R. V. v. 1]) and "the Holy Ones" (Psalms 89:6-8). Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach, IPA: or ) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 93 KB) A statue of an angel at a cemetary in Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 93 KB) A statue of an angel at a cemetary in Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ... Metairie (local pronunciations , ) is an unincorporated, census-designated place (CDP) located in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq. ...


According to Jewish interpretation, 'Elohim is almost entirely reserved for the one true God; but at times 'Elohim (powers), bnēi 'Elohim, bnēi Elim (sons of gods) (i.e. members of the class of divine beings) were general terms for beings with great power (i.e. judges or alternately, some kind of super powerful human beings). Hence they came to be used collectively of super-human beings, distinct from God and, therefore, inferior and ultimately subordinate (e.g. Genesis 6:2; Job 1:6; Psalms 8:5). See also: Names of God in Judaism Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people with around 15 million followers as of 2006. ... For other uses, see Elohim (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, one of the manifestations of the ultimate reality or God in Hinduism This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ...


Angels are referred to as "holy ones" Zechariah 14:5 and "watchers" Daniel 4:13. They are spoken of as the "host of heaven" Deuteronomy 17:3 or of "Adonai" Joshua 5:14. The "hosts," צבאות Tzevaot in the title Adonai Tzevaot (alternatively, Adonai Tzivo'ot), Lord of Hosts, were probably at one time identified with the angels. The identification of the "hosts" with the stars comes to the same thing; the stars were thought of as being closely connected with angels. However, God is very jealous of the distinction between Himself and angels, and consequently, the Hebrews were forbidden by Moses to worship the "host of heaven". It is probable that the "hosts" were also identified with the armies of Israel, whether this army is human, or angelic. The New Testament often speaks of "spirits," πνεύματα (Revelation 1:4. Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ... For alternate meanings see star (disambiguation) Hundreds of stars are visible in this image taken by the Hubble Space Telescope of the Sagittarius Star Cloud in the Milky Way Galaxy. ...


Prior to the emergence of monotheism in Israel the idea of an angel was the Malach Adonai, Angel of the Lord, or Malach Elohim, Angel of God. The Malach Adonai is an appearance or manifestation of God in the form of a man, and the term Malach Adonai is used interchangeably with Adonai (God). (cf. Exodus 3:2, with 3:4; Exodus 13:21 with Exodus 14:19). Those who see the Malach Adonai say they have seen God (Genesis 32:30; Judges 13:22). The Malach Adonai (or Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud (Exodus 3:2). The phrase Malach Adonai may have been originally a courtly circumlocution for the Divine King; but it readily became a means of avoiding anthropomorphism, and later on, when angels were classified, the Malach Adonai meant an angel of distinguished rank. The identification of the Malach Adonai with the Logos, or Second Person of the Trinity, is not indicated by the references in the Hebrew scriptures; but the idea of a Being partly identified with God, and yet in some sense distinct from him, illustrates a tendency of Jewish religious thought to distinguish persons within the unity of the deity. Christians think that this foreshadows the doctrine of the Trinity, whereas Kabbalist Jews would show how it developed into kabbalistic theological thought and imagery. Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one God, or in the oneness of God. ... Look up Cf. ... Tomb of Abraham Abraham (ca. ... Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew Hāḡār) is an Egyptian-born servant of Sarah, wife of Abraham in the Book of Genesis and in the Torah. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Mūsa, Geez ሙሴ Musse) is a legendary Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian. ... Gideon (גִּדְעוֹן, Standard Hebrew Gidʻon, Tiberian Hebrew Giḏʻôn), also known as Jerubbaal, is a character that appears in the Book of Judges, in the Bible. ... ASIMO is an anthropomorphic robot created in 2000 by Honda. ... The Greek word λόγος or logos is a word with various meanings. ... Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines Jesus, the Christ. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... This article is about the overall Jewish mysticisms tradition. ...


In earlier literature the Malach Adonai or Elohim is almost the only angel mentioned. However, there are a few passages which speak of subordinate superhuman beings other than the Malach Adonai or Elohim. There are the cherubim who guard the Garden of Eden. In Genesis 18, Genesis 19. (J) the appearance of God to Abraham and Lot is connected with three, afterwards two, men or messengers; but possibly in the original form of the story God appeared alone (Cf. 18:1 with 18:2, and note change of number in 19:17). At Bethel, Jacob sees the angels of God on the ladder Genesis 28:12, and later on they appear to him at Mahanaim Genesis 32:1. In all these cases the angels, like the Malach Adonai, are connected with or represent a theophany. Similarly the "man" who wrestles with Jacob at Peniel is identified with God (Genesis 32:24, 30). In Isaiah 6 the seraphim, superhuman beings with six wings, appear as the attendants of God. Thus, the pre-exilic literature rarely mentions angels, or other superhuman beings other than God and manifestations of God; the pre-exilic prophets hardly mention angels. An angel of 1 Kings 13:18 might be the Malach Adonai, as in 19:5, cf. 7, or the passage, at any rate in its present form, may be exilic or post-exilic. Nevertheless we may well suppose that polytheists in ancient Israel believed in superhuman beings other than God, but that the inspired writers have mostly suppressed references to them as unedifying. The Recruit book cover CHERUB is a series of childrens books by Robert Muchamore about a group of kids who attend the CHERUB campus to be trained as secret agents. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew Gan Ä’den, גַּן עֵדֶן) is described by the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man - Adam - and woman - Eve - lived after they were created by God. ... Lot and his Daughters, Hendrik Goltzius, 1616. ... Bethel (Hebrew בֵּית־אֵל, Standard Hebrew Bet El, Beyt El, Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ-ʼĒl) is a Biblical city in ancient Israel, about 10 miles north of Jerusalem in Samaria (Northern West Bank). ... It has been suggested that Yaqub be merged into this article or section. ... Jacobs Ladder refers to a ladder to heaven described in the Book of Genesis (28:11-19) which the biblical patriarch Jacob envisioned during his flight from his brother Esau: Jacob left Beersheba, and went toward Haran. ... Mahanaim - two camps, a place near Jabbok, beyond Jordan River, where Jacob was met by the angels of God, and where he divided his retinue into two hosts on his return from Padan-aram (Gen. ... John the Baptist baptizes Jesus Christ as Angels look on in wonder in an Eastern Orthodox icon of the Theophany A theophany is a visible appearing or other local manifestation of Gods presence to humans. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... A seraph (Hebrew שרף, SRF; in the plural seraphim, שרפים, SRFYM) is one of a class of celestial beings mentioned once in the Old Testament (Tanakh), in Isaiah. ... A prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation formed around 1021BC from the descendants of Jacob, son of Isaac, who was given the name Israel, meaning Struggles With God. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ...


Once the doctrine of monotheism was formally expressed, in the period immediately before and during the Exile (Deuteronomy 6:4-5 and Isaiah 43:10), we find angels prominent in the Book of Ezekiel. Ezekiel, as a prophet of the Exile, may have been influenced by the hierarchy of supernatural beings in the Babylonian religion, and perhaps even by the angelology of Zoroastrianism (it is not, however, certain that these doctrines of Zoroastrianism were developed at so early a date). Ezekiel 9 gives elaborate descriptions of cherubim (a class, or type of angels); and in one of his visions, he sees seven angels execute the judgment of God upon Jerusalem. As in Genesis, they are styled "men"; malach, for "angel", does not occur in Ezekiel. Somewhat later, in the visions of Zechariah, angels play a great part; they are sometimes spoken of as "men", sometimes as malach, and the Malach Adonai seems to hold a certain primacy among them Zechariah 1:11. The Satan also appears to prosecute (so to speak) the High Priest before the divine tribunal Zechariah 3:1. Similarly in the Job the bnei Elohim, sons of God, appear as attendants of God, and amongst them, Satan (Hebrew ha-satan), again in the role of public prosecutor, the defendant being Job (Job 1, 2. Cf. 1 Chronicles 21:1). Occasional references to "angels" occur in the Psalter (Pss. 91:11, 103:20 &c.); they appear as ministers of God. This article is about the Book of Ezekiel. ... Ezekiel the Prophet of the Hebrew Scriptures is depicted on a 1510 Sistine Chapel fresco by Michelangelo. ... This diorite head is believed to represent king Hammurabi Babylonian and Assyrian religion was a series of belief systems in places in the early civilisations of the Euphrates valley. ... For other uses, see Angel (disambiguation). ... Zoroastrianism is the name of the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... For the priest Zechariah of Luke 1:5 see the article Zacharias. ... Gustave Dores depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan (Standard Hebrew: , Satan Tiberian Hebrew ; Greek , Satanás; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: شيطان, Shaitan) is a Abrahamic term which is traditionally applied to an angel, demon, or minor god in many belief systems. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In Psalms 78:49 the "evil angels" of the Authorized Version conveys a false impression; it should be "angels of evil", i.e. angels who inflict chastisement as ministers of God. This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...


The seven angels of Ezekiel may be compared with the seven eyes of God in Zechariah 3:9, 4:10. The latter have been connected by Ewald and others with the later doctrine of seven chief angels (Tobit 12:15; Revelations 8:2), parallel to and influenced by the Ameshaspentas (Amesha Spenta), or seven great spirits of the Persian mythology. In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ...


In the Priestly Code, c. 400BCE, there is no reference to angels, apart from the possible suggestion in the plural in Genesis 1:26. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC 401 BC - 400 BC - 399 BC 398 BC...


During the Persian and Greek periods, the doctrine of angels underwent a great development, partly, at any rate, under foreign influences. In Daniel, c. 160BCE, 71 angels, usually spoken of as "men" or "Angel-princes", appear as guardians or champions of the individual nations, defending them as God sits in council with them over the world; grades are implied, there are "princes" and "chief" or "great princes"; and the names of some angels are known, Gabriel, Michael; the latter is pre-eminent (Daniel 8:16; Daniel 10:13, 20-21), he is the guardian of Israel's leading Kingdom of Judah. Again in Tobit a leading part is played by Raphael, "one of the seven holy angels". (Tob. 12:15.) The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC 162 BC 161 BC - 160 BC - 159 BC 158 BC 157... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546). ... The Archangel Raphael Raphael (Heb. ...


In Tobit, too, we find the idea of the demon or evil angel. In the canonical Hebrew/Aramaic scriptures, angels may inflict suffering as ministers of God, and Satan may act as accuser or tempter; but they appear as subordinates to God, fulfilling His will, and not as independent, morally evil agents. The statement (Job 4:18) that God "charged his angels with folly" applies to all angels. In Daniel, the princes, or guardian angels, of the heathen nations oppose Michael, the guardian angel of Judah. But in Tobit, we find Asmodeus the evil demon, τὸ πονηρὸν δαιμόνιον, who strangles Sarah's husbands, and also a general reference to "a devil or evil spirit", πνεῦμα (Tobit 3:8, 17; 6:7). St. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... A guardian angel is a spirit who is believed to protect and to guide a particular person. ... A guardian angel is a spirit who is believed to protect and to guide a particular person. ... Although Asmodai is mostly known thanks to the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit, he is also mentioned in some Talmudic legends and in demonology. ... The Devil is the name given to a supernatural entity, who, in most Western religions, is the central embodiment of evil. ...


The Fall of the Angels is not properly a scriptural doctrine, though it is based on Gen. 6:2, as interpreted by the Book of Enoch. It is true that the bnē Elohim of that chapter are subordinate superhuman beings (cf. above), but they belong to a different order of thought from the angels of Judaism and of Christian doctrine; and the passage in no way suggests that the bne Elohim suffered any loss of status through their act. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The guardian angels of the nations in Daniel probably represent the gods of the heathen, and we have there the first step of the process by which these gods became evil angels, an idea expanded by Milton in Paradise Lost. The development of the doctrine of an organized hierarchy of angels belongs to the Jewish literature of the period 200 BC to A.D. 100. In Jewish apocalypses especially, the imagination ran riot on the rank, classes and names of angels; and such works as the various books of Enoch and the Ascension of Isaiah supply much information on this subject. John Milton, English poet John Milton (December 9, 1608 – November 8, 1674) was an English poet, best-known for his epic poem Paradise Lost. ... Title page of the first edition Paradise Lost (1667) is a poopy epic poem by the 17th century English poet John Milton. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC - 200 BC - 199 BC 198 BC... -1... Enoch (חֲנוֹךְ Initiated; dedicated; disciplined, Standard Hebrew Ḥanoḫ, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥănôḵ) can refer to Two names in the Generations of Adam Enoch, one of the names in the Generations of Adam, described as an ancestor of Noah, who walked with God, and was... The Ascension of Isaiah is an apocryphal pseudepigraphal book dating from some time in the 2nd century and compiled by an unknown Christian. ...


Appearance of angels

In the Hebrew Bible, angels often appear to people in the shape of humans of extraordinary beauty, and often are not immediately recognized as angels (Genesis 18:2, Genesis 19:5; Judges 6:17, Judges 8:6; 2 Samuel 29:9); some fly through the air; some become invisible; sacrifices touched by them are consumed by fire; and they may disappear in sacrificial fire, like Elijah, who rode to heaven in a fiery chariot. Angels, or the Angel, appeared in the flames of the thorn bush (Genesis 16:13; Judges 6. 21, 22; 2 Kings 2:11; Exodus 3:2). They are described as pure and bright as Heaven; consequently, they are said to be formed of fire, and encompassed by light Job 15:15, as the Psalmist said (Psalm 104:4): "He makes winds His messengers, burning fire His ministers." Some verses in the Apocrypha/Deuterocanon depict angels wearing blue or red robes but no such reference occurs in the Protestant books. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Hλίας), also Ilia (NT Bulgarian Илия), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ... Burning bush at St. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Though superhuman, angels can assume human form; this is the earliest conception. Gradually, and especially in post-Biblical times, angels came to be bodied forth in a form corresponding to the nature of the mission to be fulfilled—generally, however, the human form. Angels bear drawn swords or other destroying weapons in their hands—one carries an ink-horn by his side—and ride on horses (Numbers 22:23, Joshua 5:13, Ezekiel 9;2, Zecheriah 1:8 et seq.). It is worth noting that these angels carry items that are contempory to the time in which they visit (perhaps angels are bound by the technology which humans have achieved, or perhaps the items they carry have symbolic significance). A terrible angel is the one mentioned in 1 Chronicles 21:16,30, as standing "between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand". In the Book of Daniel, reference is made to an angel "clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz: his body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in color to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude" (Daniel 10:5-6). This imagery is very similar to the description of Jesus in the book of Revelation. Angels are thought to possess wings (Daniel 9:21), as they are described in the Bible, and depicted in Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian art. They are commonly depicted with halos. Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Sword (from Old English sweord, cognate to Old High German Schwert, literally wounding tool from a Proto-Indo-European root *swer- to wound, to hurt) is a term for a long edged weapon, fundamentally consisting of a blade, usually with two edges for striking... The Book of Daniel, written in Hebrew and Aramaic, is a book in both the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament. ... Beryl var. ... Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jesus is usually depicted with a round halo bearing a cross, as in this dome mosaic from the Church of Daphni in Athens. ...

Angel holding the sun at the Bordeaux cathedral
Angel holding the sun at the Bordeaux cathedral

In Christian iconography, the use of wings is a convention used to denote the figure as a spirit. Depictions of angels in Christian art as winged human forms, unlike classical pagan depictions of the major deities, follow the iconic conventions of lesser winged gods, such as Eos, Eros, Thanatos and Nike. Image File history File links Ange. ... Image File history File links Ange. ... Iconography usually refers to the design, creation, and interpretation of the symbolism within religious art. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath. ... Eos, by Evelyn de Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek mythology, the Titan Goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... Eros 1st c. ... In Greek mythology, Thanatos (θάνατος, death) was the personification of death (Roman equivalent: Mors), and a minor figure in Greek mythology. ... This article discusses the Greek Goddess. ...


Angels are portrayed as powerful and dreadful, endowed with wisdom and with knowledge of all earthly events, correct in their judgment, holy, but not infallible: they strive against each other, and God has to make peace between them. When their duties are not punitive, angels are beneficent to man (Psalms 103:20, Psalms 78:25; 2 Samuel 14:17,20, 2 Samuel 19:28; Zecheriah 14:5; Job 4:18, Job 25:2).


The number of angels is enormous. Jacob meets a host of angels; Joshua sees the "captain of the host of the Lord"; God sits on His throne, "all the host of heaven standing by Him on His right hand and on his left"; the sons of God come "to present themselves before the Lord" (Gen. xxxii. 2; Josh. v. 14, 15; I Kings, xxii. 19; Job, i. 6, ii. 1; Ps. lxxxix. 6; Job, xxxiii. 23). The general conception is the one of Job (xxv. 3): "Is there any number of his armies?" In the book of Revelation, the number is "a thousand thousands, and many tens of thousands". It has been suggested that Yaqub be merged into this article or section. ... Joshua or Yehoshúa (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yeho/YHVH is help/saves/delivers, Standard Hebrew Yəhošúaʿ, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhôšuªʿ) is a Biblical character, much of whose life is described in the Book of Joshua. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Though the older writings usually mention one angel of the Lord, embassies to men as a rule comprised several messengers. The inference, however, is not to be drawn that God Himself or one particular angel was designated: the expression was given simply to God's power to accomplish through but one angel any deed, however wonderful.


Angels are referred to in connection with their special missions as, for instance, the "angel which hath redeemed," "an interpreter," "the angel that destroyed," "messenger of the covenant," "angel of his presence," and "a band of angels of evil" (Gen. xlviii. 16; Job, xxxiii. 23; II Sam. xxiv. 16; Mal. iii. 1; Isa. lxiii. 9; Ps. lxxviii. 49, R. V.). When, however, the heavenly host is regarded in its most comprehensive aspect, a distinction may be made between cherubim, seraphim, chayot ("living creatures"), Ofanim ("wheels"), and Arelim (another name for Thrones). God is described as riding on the cherubim and as "the Lord of hosts, who dwelleth between the cherubim"; while the latter guard the way of the Tree of Life (I Sam. iv. 4, Ps. lxxx. 2, Gen. iii. 24). The seraphim are described by Isaiah (vi. 2) as having six wings; and Ezekiel describes the ḥayyot (Ezek. i. 5 et seq.) and ofanim as heavenly beings who carry God's throne. The Recruit book cover CHERUB is a series of childrens books by Robert Muchamore about a group of kids who attend the CHERUB campus to be trained as secret agents. ... A seraph (Hebrew שרף, SRF; in the plural seraphim, שרפים, SRFYM) is one of a class of celestial beings mentioned once in the Old Testament (Tanakh), in Isaiah. ... The Chayot or Hayyoth (Hebrew חַיּוֹת living beings) are a class of Merkabah, or Jewish Mystical Angels, on the same level as the Christian cherubim, and residing in the seventh heaven. ... ... Thrones (also known as Ophanim) are a classification of angels under many Christian angelic hierarchies. ... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Ezekiel the Prophet of the Hebrew Scriptures is depicted on a 1510 Sistine Chapel fresco by Michelangelo. ...


In post-Biblical times, the heavenly hosts became more highly organized (possibly as early as Zechariah [iii. 9, iv. 10]; certainly in Daniel), and there came to be various kinds of angels; some even being provided with names, as will be shown below.


Purpose

In the Bible, angels are a medium of God's power; they exist to execute God's will. Angels reveal themselves to individuals as well as to the whole nation, in order to announce events, either good or bad, affecting humans. Angels foretold to Abraham the birth of Isaac, to Manoah the birth of Samson, and to Abraham the destruction of Sodom. Guardian angels were mentioned, but not, as was later the case, as guardian spirits of individuals and nations. God sent an angel to protect the Hebrew people after their exodus from Egypt, to lead them to the promised land, and to destroy the hostile tribes in their way (Ex. 23.20, Num. 20.16). Tomb of Abraham Abraham (ca. ... It has been suggested that Ishaq be merged into this article or section. ... Manoah and his barren wife sacrifice a ram to the angel of the Lord (above); the wife wears a wimple in this miniature painted in Paris, ca 1250 (the Maciejowski Bible). ... Samson or Shimshon (שִׁמְשׁוֹן Of the sun (perhaps proclaiming he was radiant and mighty) or [One who] Serves [God], Standard Hebrew Šimšon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimšôn) is the third to last of the Judges of the ancient Children of Israel mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Sodom can refer to: Sodom, a Biblical city that was said to be destroyed by God for the sins of its inhabitants. ... Hebrews (syns. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the Pentateuch) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), and the Christian Old Testament. ... According to the Bible, the Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) was promised to the descendants of Hebrew patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob by God, making it the Promised land. ...


In Judges (ii. 1) an angel of the Lord—unless here and in the preceding instances (compare Isa. xlii. 19, Ḥag. i. 13, Mal. iii. 1), a human messenger of God is meant—addressed the whole people, swearing to bring them to the promised land. An angel brought Elijah meat and drink (I Kings, xix. 5); and as God watched over Jacob, so is every pious person protected by an angel, who cares for him in all his ways (Ps. xxxiv. 7, xci. 11). There are angels militant, one of whom smites in one night the whole Assyrian army of 185,000 men (II Kings, xix. 35); messengers go forth from God "in ships to make the careless Ethiopians afraid" (Ezek. xxx. 9); the enemy is scattered before the angel like chaff (Ps. xxxv. 5, 6). Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Hλίας), also Ilia (NT Bulgarian Илия), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that Yaqub be merged into this article or section. ... Piety; To show honour and respect. ... Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th c. ...


Avenging angels are mentioned, such as the one in II Sam. xxiv. 15, who annihilates thousands. It would seem that the pestilence was personified, and that the "evil angels" mentioned in Ps. lxxviii. 49 are to be regarded as personifications of this kind. "Evil" is here to be taken in the causative sense, as "producing evil"; for, as stated above, angels are generally considered to be by nature beneficent to man. They glorify God, whence the term "glorifying angels" comes (Ps. xxix. 1, ciii. 20, cxlviii. 2; compare Isa. vi. 2 et seq.).


They constitute God's court, sitting in council with Him (I Kings, xxii. 19; Job, i. 6, ii. 1); hence they are called His "council of the holy ones" (Ps. lxxxix. 7, R. V.; A. V. "assembly of the saints"). They accompany God as His attendants, when He appears to man (Deut. xxxiii. 2; Job, xxxviii. 7). This conception was developed after the Exile; and in the Zechariah, angels of various shapes are delegated "to walk to and fro through the earth" in order to find out and report what happens (Zech. vi. 7). Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Zəḫarya, Tiberian Hebrew Zəḵaryāh) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ...


In the prophetic books, angels appear as representatives of the prophetic spirit, and bring to the prophets God's word. Thus the prophet Haggai was called God's messenger (angel); and it is known that "Malachi" is not a real name, but means "messenger" or "angel". In I Kings, xiii. 18, an angel brought the divine word to the prophet. Haggai (חַגַּי, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew Ḥaggay) was one of the twelve minor prophets and the author of the Book of Haggai. ...


In some places, it is implied that angels existed before the Creation (Gen. i. 26; Job, xxxviii. 7). The earlier Biblical writings did not speculate about them; simply regarding them, in their relations to man, as God's agents. Consequently, they did not individualize or denominate them; and in Judges, xiii. 18, and Gen. xxxii. 30, the angels, when questioned, refuse to give their names. In Daniel, however, there occur the names Michael and Gabriel. Michael is Israel's representative in Heaven, where other nations—the Persians, for instance—were also represented by angelic princes. More than three hundred years before the Book of Daniel was written, Zechariah graded the angels according to their rank, but did not name them. The notion of the seven eyes (Zech. iii. 9, iv. 10) may have been affected by the representation of the seven archangels and also possibly by the seven amesha spentas of Zoroastrianism (compare Ezek. ix. 2). Motto: Persian: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« (English: Independence, freedom, (the) Islamic Republic) Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Capital Tehran Largest city Tehran Official language(s) Persian Government Islamic Republic  - Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei  - President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Revolution Overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi   - Declared...


Jewish views

Angels appear in several Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) stories, in addition to the ones previously mentioned above. These include the warning to Lot of the imminent destruction of Sodom. Many Bible chapters mention an "angry God" who sends His angel to smite the enemies of the Israelites. Traditional Jewish biblical commentators have a variety of ways of explaining what an angel is. The earliest Biblical books present angels as heavenly beings created by God, some of whom apparently are endowed with free will. Later biblical books in the Tanakh present a stunningly different view of angels, as the Jewish beliefs about such things developed over the many years covered in the Bible. Such a differing perspective on angels is discovered in the Book of Ezekiel, where these angels bear no relation whatsoever to the former understanding of what an angel was. Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach, IPA: or ) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Lot and his Daughters, Hendrik Goltzius, 1616. ... Sodom can refer to: Sodom, a Biblical city that was said to be destroyed by God for the sins of its inhabitants. ... This article is about the Book of Ezekiel. ...


The archangels named in post-exile Judaism are Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel, Raguel, Sariel, and Jerahmeel. Gabriel and Michael are mentioned in the book of Daniel, Raphael in the book of Tobit (from the Protestant Apocrypha or Catholic and Orthodox Deuterocanon) and the remaining four in the book of Enoch from the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox). Tyrael, an archangel from the video game Diablo II. An Archangel is a supernatural being of Zoroastrian Persian, Judaic, Christian, and Islamic theology, counted among the angels. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... The Archangel Raphael Raphael (Heb. ... Uriel (אוּרִיאֵל My light/torch is/of God, Standard Hebrew Uriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÛrîʾēl) is one of the archangels of Judaic tradition, and also of certain Christian traditions. ... Raguel (Raguil, Rasuil, Rufael, Suryan, Akrasiel) is one of the 7 archangels mainly of the Judaic and Islamic traditions. ... Sariel was the 20th Watcher of the 20 leaders of the 200 fallen angels that are mentioned in an ancient work called the Book of Enoch. ... Jerahmeel is one of the archangels of the Judaic and Islamic traditions. ... Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל; transliterated as Daniyyel in Standard Hebrew and Dāniyyêl in Tiberian Hebrew) is the name of at least three people from the Hebrew Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel and the most well-known of the three Daniels. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the... Protestantism is one of three primary branches of Christianity. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... ... The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Ethiopian Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... Pseudepigrapha (from the Greek words pseudos = lie and epigrapho = write) is a text or a number of texts whose claimed authorship or authenticity is incorrect. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ...


Maimonides and rationalism

In the Middle Ages, some Jews developed a rationalist view of angels that is still accepted by many Jews today. The rationalist view of angels, as held by Maimonides, Gersonides, Samuel Ibn Tibbon, etc., states that God's actions are never mediated by a violation of the laws of nature. Rather, all such interactions are by way of angels. Even this can be highly misleading: Maimonides harshly states that the average person's understanding of the term "angel" is ignorant in the extreme. Instead, he says, the wise man sees that what the Bible and Talmud refer to as "angels" are actually metaphors for the various laws of nature, or the principles by which the physical universe operates, or kinds of platonic eternal forms. This is explained in his Guide of the Perplexed II:4 and II:6. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth can best be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions of Jewish law, ethics, customs, and stories, which are authoritative in Jewish tradition. ...

II:4
"...This leads Aristotle in turn to the demonstrated fact that God, glory and majesty to Him, does not do things by direct contact. God burns things by means of fire; fire is moved by the motion of the sphere; the sphere is moved by means of a disembodied intellect, these intellects being the 'angels which are near to Him', through whose mediation the spheres [planets] move....thus totally disembodied minds exist which emanate from God and are the intermediaries between God and all the bodies [objects] here in this world."
II:6
"...Aristotle's doctrine that these disembodied spheres serve as the nexus between God and existence, by whose mediation the sphere are brought into motion, which is the cause of all becoming, is the express import of all the Scriptures. For you will never in Scripture find any activity done by God except through an angel. And "angel", as you know, means messenger. Thus anything which executes a command is an angel. So the motions of living beings, even those that are inarticulate, are said explicitly by Scripture to be due to angels.
...Our argument here is concerned solely with those "angels" which are disembodied intellects. For our Bible is not unaware that God governs this existence through the mediation of angels...(Maimonides then quotes discussions of angels from Genesis, Plato, and Midrash Bereshit Rabbah)...the import in all these texts is not—as a primitive mentality would suppose—to suggest any discussion or planning or seeking of advice on God's part. How could the Creator receive aid from the object of his creation? The real import of all is to proclaim that existence—including particular individuals and even the formation of the parts of animals such as they are—is brought about entirely through the mediation of angels.
For all forces are angels! How blind, how perniciously blind are the naïve?! If you told someone who purports to be a sage of Israel that the Deity sends an angel who enters a woman's womb and there forms an embryo, he would think this a miracle and accept it as a mark of the majesty and power of the Deity—despite the fact that he believes an angel to be a body of fire one third the size of the entire world. All this, he thinks, is possible for God. But if you tell him that God placed in the sperm the power of forming and demarcating these organs, and that this is the angel, or that all forms are produced by the Active Intellect—that here is the angel, the "vice-regent of the world" constantly mentioned by the sages—then he will recoil. For he [the naïve person] does not understand that the true majesty and power are in the bringing into being of forces which are active in a thing although they cannot be perceived by the senses.
The sages of blessed memory state clearly—to those who are wise themselves—that every bodily power (not to mention forces at large in the world) is an angel and that a given power has one effect and no more. It says in Midrash Bereshit Rabbah "We are given to understand that no angel performs two missions, nor do two angels perform one mission."—which is just the case with all forces. To confirm the conclusion that individual physical and psychological forces are called "angels", there is the dictum of the sages, in a number of places, ultimately derived from Bereshit Rabbah, "Each day the Holy One creates a band of angels who sing their song before him and go their way." Midrash Bereshit Rabbah, LXXVIII. When this midrash was countered with another which suggests that angels are permanent...the answer given was that some are permanent and other perish. And this is in fact the case. Particular forces come to be and pass away in constant succession; the species of such forces, however, are stable and enduring....[Giving a few more examples of the mention of angels in rabbinic writings, Maimonides says] Thus the Sages reveal to the aware that the imaginative faculty is also called an angel; and the mind is called a cherub. How beautiful this will appear to the sophisticated mind—and how disturbing to the primitive."

One can perhaps say that Maimonides thus presents a virtual rejection of the "classical" Jewish view of miracles; he and others substitute a rationalism that seems more appropriate for 20th and 21st century religious rationalists. Media:Example. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin), also called The First Book of Moses, is the first book of Torah (five books of Moses), and is the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of... Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the operations of the ordinary course of Nature are overruled, suspended, or modified. ...


Others might perhaps view Maimonides's statements as being perfectly in keeping with the continued evolvement of Jewish thought over a period of several millennia. Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... A millennium is a period of time, equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). ...


Christian views

In the New Testament angels appear frequently as the ministers of God and the agents of revelation (e.g. Matthew 1:20 (to Joseph), 4:11. (to Jesus), Luke 1:26 (to Mary), Acts 12:7 (to Peter)); and Jesus speaks of angels as fulfilling such functions (E.g. Mark 8:38, 13:27), implying in one saying that they neither marry nor are given in marriage (Mark 12:25). Angels are most prominent in the Apocalypse. The New Testament takes little interest in the idea of the angelic hierarchy, but there are traces of the doctrine. The distinction of good and bad angels is recognized, with the good angels Gabriel (Luke 1:19), Metatron (Rev. 10:1 - no name is mentioned there so it could merely be a writer's suggestion rather than a fact - ), and Michael (Daniel 12:1), and the evil angels Beelzebub, (Mark 3:22) Satan (Mark 1:13), and Apollyon (Rev. 9:11); ranks are implied, archangels (Michael, Jude 9), principalities and powers (Rom. 8:38; Col. 2:10), thrones and dominions (Col 1:16). Angels occur in groups of four or seven (Rev 7:1). The Angels of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor are described in Rev. 1-3. These are probably guardian angels, standing to the churches in the same relation that the angel-princes in Daniel stand to the nations; practically the angels are personifications of the churches. Download high resolution version (795x1000, 157 KB)Jacob Wrestling with the Angel By Gustave Doré, 1855 Granger Collection, New York Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (795x1000, 157 KB)Jacob Wrestling with the Angel By Gustave Doré, 1855 Granger Collection, New York Source: http://www. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel - Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob Wrestling with the Angel is the name given to at least three different major paintings inspired by Genesis 32:25. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark is traditionally the second of the New Testament Gospels. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... Metatron (from Greek Meta+Tron meaning Beyond+Matrix. ... It has been suggested that Maicol be merged into this article or section. ... Beelzebub , also known as Belzebud, Belzaboul, Beelzeboul, Baalsebul, Baalzebubg, Beelzebuth, Beelzebus; more accurately Ba‘al Zebûb or Ba‘al ZÉ™vûv (Hebrew בעל זבוב), appears as the name of a deity worshipped in the Philistine city of Ekron. ... Gustave Dores depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan (Standard Hebrew: , Satan Tiberian Hebrew ; Greek , Satanás; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: شيطان, Shaitan) is a Abrahamic term which is traditionally applied to an angel, demon, or minor god in many belief systems. ... Apollyon appears in the New Testament (Book of Revelation 9:7 – 11) leading the locust-like swarm of demons that will be released in the End Times: 7. ...


The archangel Gabriel appeared to Mary in the traditional role of messenger to inform her that her child would be the Messiah, and other angels were present to herald his birth. In Matt. 28:2, an angel appeared at Jesus' tomb, frightened the Roman guards, rolled away the stone from the tomb, and later told the myrrh-bearing women of Jesus's resurrection. Alternately, in Mark 16:5, the angel is not seen until the women enter the already-opened tomb, and he is described simply as "a young man." In Luke's version of the resurrection tale (Luke 24:4), two angels suddenly appear next to the women within the tomb; they are described as being clothed in "shining apparel." This is most similar to the version in John 20:12, where Mary alone speaks to "two angels in white" within the tomb of Jesus. Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... This article concerns itself with Jewish, Christian , Islamic and other religious interpretations of the concept of the resurrection of the dead. ...


Two angels witnessed Jesus's ascent into Heaven and prophesied his return. When Peter was imprisoned, an angel put his guards to sleep, released him from his chains, and led him out of the prison. Angels fill a number of different roles in the Book of Revelation. Among other things, they are seen gathered around the Throne of God singing the thrice-holy hymn. Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ... Saint Peter, also known as Peter, Simon ben Jonah/BarJonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Kepha — original name Simon or Simeon (Acts 15:14) — was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose from among his original disciples. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ...


Angels are frequently depicted as human in appearance, though many theologians have argued that they have no physical existence, but can incarnate. Seraphim are often depicted as having six wings radiating from a center concealing a body, as depicted in the Bible. Starting with the end of the 4th century, angels were depicted with wings, presumably to give an easy explanation for them travelling to and from heaven. This is also heavily implied by the Scriptures. Scholastic theologians teach that angels are able to reason instantly, and to move instantly. They also teach that angels are intermediaries to some forces that would otherwise be natural forces of the universe, such as the rotation of planets and the motion of stars. Angels possess the beatific vision, or the unencumbered understanding of God (the essence of the pleasure of heaven). Furthermore, there are more angels than there are anything else in the universe (although when first written this would have probably not included atoms since atomic structure was not known). Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... 六翼天使 Seraphim(六翼天使) is a Taiwanese symphonic metal band similar to Nightwish and Therion. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...

Main article: Hierarchy of Angels
The Assumption of the Virgin by Francesco Botticini at the National Gallery London, shows three hierarchies and nine orders of angels, each with different characteristics
The Assumption of the Virgin by Francesco Botticini at the National Gallery London, shows three hierarchies and nine orders of angels, each with different characteristics

Religious thought about the angels during the middle ages was much influenced by the theory of the angelic hierarchy set forth in The Celestial Hierarchy, a work of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, an unknown 5th century author or authors writing in the style of Dionysius the Areopagite. The creeds and confessions do not formulate any authoritative doctrine of angels; and agnostics have tended to deny the existence of such beings, or to regard the subject as one on which we can have no certain knowledge. The principle of continuity, however, seems to require the existence of beings intermediate between man and God. According to medieval Christian theologians, the Angels are organized into several orders, or Angelic Choirs. ... Image File history File links AngelHierarchySmall. ... According to medieval Christian theologians, the Angels are organized into several orders, or Angelic Choirs. ... Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, also known as pseudo-Denys, is the name scholars have given to an anonymous theologian and philosopher of the 5th century, who wrote a collection of books, the Corpus Areopagiticum, falsely ascribed to the Dionysius mentioned in Acts 17:34. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... An author is the person who creates a written work, such as a book, story, article or the like. ... Dionysius the Areopagite was the judge of the Areopagus who, as related in Acts, xvii, 34, was converted to Christianity by the preaching of Saint Paul. ...


Some Christian traditions hold that angels are organized into three major hierarchies which are subdivided into orders called Choirs, and list as many as ten orders of angels. The Celestial Hierarchy is the source of the names that have become part of tradition: Angels, Archangels, Principalities, Powers, Virtues, Dominions, Thrones, Cherubim, and Seraphim. In this hierarchy, the Cherubim and Seraphim are typically closest to God, while the Angels and Archangels are most active in human affairs; however, in some traditions Archangels are considered the highest-ranking order, and it is notable that there are fewer Archangels than any other category. Many of these names come from verses in the Bible which would appear at first to be referencing a literal thing, although retroactively suggesting that they really mention angels can also make sense in the context. For example the verse in Paul "our struggle is not with earthly things but with principalities and powers" (meaning according to most theologians the fallen angels of those choirs, used as an example of all the fallen angels). Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... According to medieval Christian theologians, the Angels are organized into several orders, or Angelic Choirs. ... Statue of the Fallen Angel, Retiro Park (Madrid, Spain) A fallen angel in Abrahamic traditions is an angel that has been exiled or banished from Heaven. ...


Some Christian traditions also hold that angels play a variety of specific roles in the lives of believers. For instance, in Catholic teaching each person is assigned a guardian angel at their birth (although never defined by the Anglican or Orthodox churches, nevertheless it is personally held by many church members and most theologians that in these denominatios the Angel is assigned at Baptism). Each consecrated altar has at least one angel always present offering up prayers, and a number of angels join the congregation when they meet to pray (in Catholicism the teaching is that thousands of Angels descent around the altar to adore the Host as it is consecrated, as they did at the stable to herald the physical birth of Jesus). In the story of the 40 martyrs of Sebaste, in which 40 Christian Roman soldiers were made to stand naked on a frozen lake in the snow until they renounced their faith, angels were seen descending from Heaven placing the crowns of martyrs on their heads.


Certain Christian traditions, especially the Reformed tradition within Protestantism, the Anglican Church, and the Catholic Church, hold that references to the "Angel of the Lord" are references to pre-Incarnation appearances of Jesus. The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Protestantism is one of three primary branches of Christianity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Some medieval Christian philosophers were influenced by the views of Maimonides, and accepted his view of angels. Today, these views of angels are still technically acceptable within many mainstream Christian denominations.


Satan, Beelzebul, and the rest of the demons are thought by Christians to be angels who rebelled against God and were expelled from Heaven. Christianity generally does not recognize the existence of other religions' gods, but some schools of thought consider such beings to be rebellious celestial spirits who oppose the Trinity and fraudulently present themselves as gods.


In many informal folk beliefs among Christians concerning the afterlife, the souls of the virtuous dead ascend into Heaven to be converted into angel-like beings. The Bible does state that at the resurrection, people will be like the angels with regard to marriage and immortality (Luke 20:35-36), and teaches such a transformation, for instance, at 1Cor 15:51, it states that the saints will judge angels (1 Cor 6:3). Flavius Josephus in Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades, VI, teaches of resurrected men and woman. Zechariah 5:9 could be interpreted that there are also female angels. The statement of 1Cor 11:10 could be interpreted as if male angels could be vulnerable to female attractiveness by raping woman--which would produce a giant (Gen. 6) or bring about the end of the world by conceiving the Antichrist. Official doctrines of most Christian churches teach that the virtuous are resurrected at the end of time, having a physical body again, unlike angels (see Swedenborgianism for a church that does officially and systematically teach that people enter heaven immediately after death). Folklore is the body of verbal expressive culture, including tales, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs current among a particular population, comprising the oral tradition of that culture, subculture, or group. ... The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their... The end times are, in one version of Judeo-Christian eschatology and in Islam, a time of tribulation that will precede the Second Coming of the Messiah. ... Symbol of the Swedenborgian Church Swedenborgianism is the ecclesiastical organization of beliefs developed from the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, and as such, considered a religious movement by many. ...


It is also commonly held belief in many modern christian traditions that the immortal soul of a human that has died and risen to Heaven can eventually become an Angel themselves. Some views consist of and automatic incarnation based on the purity of ones soul, others believe in a form of trial for less pure souls to seem if deemed worthy to join.


Islamic views

Main article: Angels in Islam

The belief in angels is central to the religion of Islam, beginning with the belief that the Qur'an was dictated to the Prophet Muhammad by the chief of all angels, the archangel Jibril (Gabriel). Angels are thus the ministers of God, as well as the agents of revelation in Islam. Angels in Islam are light-based creatures, created by Allah to serve and worship him. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Alcoran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation. ...


In Islam, angels are benevolent beings created from light and do not possess free will. They are completely devoted to the worship of God (Allah) and carry out certain functions on His command, such as recording every human being's actions, placing a soul in a newborn child, maintaining certain environmental conditions of the planet (such as nurturing vegetation and distributing the rain) and taking the soul at the time of death. Angels are described as being excessively beautiful and have different numbers of wings (for example, Gabriel is attributed as having six-hundred wings in his natural form). They can take on human form, but only in appearance. As such, angels do not eat, procreate or commit sin as humans do. For other uses, see Allah (disambiguation). ...


According to the majority of Islamic scholars, angels are incapable of committing sin, and therefore cannot fall from grace, excluding Iblis who chose to do evil because he had free-will and is not considered as a fallen angel, but a separate entity made of fire called jinn. Scholars cite the following Quranic ayat (verse), "And when We said to the Angels; "Prostrate yourselves unto Adam." So they prostrated themselves except Iblis. He was one of the jinn..." (Surat Al-Kahf, 18:50). Angels, unlike the fiery nature of jinn, are beings of goodness and cannot choose to disobey God, nor do they possess the ability to do evil. Ulema is a common romanisation for the plural of Arabic ˤĀlim Scholar, namely ˤUlamā (علماء). The same word appears in Turkish as Ulema and in Persian as Olæma. ... Iblīs (Arabic إبليس), is the primary devil in Islam. ... Genie is the anglicized word for the Arabic jinni. In Semitic mythology and Islamic religion, a jinni (also djinni or djini) is a member of the jinn (or djinn), a race of spirits. ... Ayah is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... Surah ( ) is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. ... Surat al-Kahf (Arabic: سورة الكهف ) (The Cave) is the 18th sura of the Quran. ...


The archangel Jibril is attributed with sending the message of Allah to all the Prophets (including the Psalms, Torah, Bible and Qur'an. Other angels include Michael (Mikaeel) who discharges control of vegetation and rain, Sarafiel (Israfil) who will blow the trumpet on Yaum al Qiyamah (the day of resurrection), and Azrael (Izra'il), the angel of death (as opposed to the Christian view that Gabriel is the angel of death). The angels Nakir and Munkar are assigned to interrogate the dead before judgement day; and there are nineteen angels over-seeing the punishments of hell unflinchingly (Surat Al-Muddaththir, 74:30). There are eight massive angels that support the Throne of God (Surat Al-Haaqqa, 69:17). Every human being is assigned two angels to scribe a record of all actions done by the individual throughout their life, which will be used in evidence for or against the person by Allah on the day of judgement. The Quran identifies a number of men as Prophets of Islam (Arabic: nabee نبي ; pl. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hÄ“ biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their... The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Alcoran, Turkish Kuran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Arabic name for the Last Judgement. ... Munkar and Nakeer, in Islamic eschatology, are two black, blue-eyed malaikah (angels) who test the faith of the dead in their graves. ... Surat Al-Muddaththir (The Cloaked One, The Man Wearing A Cloak) is the 74th sura of the Quran with 56 ayat. ... Surat Al-Haaqqa (The Reality) is the 69th sura of the Quran with 52 ayat. ...


Humans do not turn into angels upon death, rather they are physically resurrected in body and soul and judged by God on judgement day (and that should they end up in Jannah (heaven), they are given perfect bodies). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Latter-Day Saint views

Bern Switzerland Temple Statue of Angel Moroni
Bern Switzerland Temple Statue of Angel Moroni

Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism), and several of his associates, claimed that they were visited by angels on multiple occasions and for a variety of purposes in conjunction with the restoration of the gospel of Jesus. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (301x609, 17 KB) Beschreibung Description: Die Engel-Moroni-Statue kurz vor der Montage auf den Bern-Tempel Source: Fotografiert von Philipp Spinnler Date: 7. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (301x609, 17 KB) Beschreibung Description: Die Engel-Moroni-Statue kurz vor der Montage auf den Bern-Tempel Source: Fotografiert von Philipp Spinnler Date: 7. ... Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Latter Day Saint movement is a religious movement which began in the early 19th century and is generally considered to be founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. ... See also: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Mormonism is a religion, movement, ideology, and subculture that originated in the early 1800s as a product of the Latter Day Saint movement led principally by Joseph Smith, Jr. ...


According to the official doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, (Bible Dictionary entry on "Angels"): The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ...

"These are the messengers of the Lord, and are spoken of in the epistle to the Hebrews as 'ministering spirits'. We learn from latter-day revelation that there are two classes of heavenly beings who minister for the Lord: those who are spirits and those who have bodies of flesh and bone. Spirits are those beings who either have not yet obtained a body of flesh and bone (unembodied), or who have once had a mortal body and have died, and are awaiting the resurrection (disembodied). Ordinarily the word 'angel' means those ministering persons who have a body of flesh and bone, being either resurrected from the dead (reembodied), or else translated, as were Enoch, Elijah, etc. (D&C 129)."

Joseph Smith, Jr. described his first angelic encounter thus (Joseph Smith History 1:31-33): Joseph Smith, Jr. ...

"While I was thus in the act of calling upon God, I discovered a light appearing in my room, which continued to increase until the room was lighter than at noonday, when immediately a personage appeared at my bedside, standing in the air, for his feet did not touch the floor.
"He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. It was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and brilliant. His hands were naked, and his arms also, a little above the wrist; so, also, were his feet naked, as were his legs, a little above the ankles. His head and neck were also bare. I could discover that he had no other clothing on but this robe, as it was open, so that I could see into his bosom.
"Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his whole person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very bright as immediately around his person. When I first looked upon him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me."

People who claimed to have received a visit by an angel include Joseph Smith, Jr., Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, Martin Harris. Although Cowdery, Whitmer, and Harris all eventually became disaffected with Smith and left the church, none of them retracted their statement that they had seen and conversed with an angel of the Lord, and indeed, even defended their claim of angelic visitation to their deaths. Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Photograph of Oliver Cowdery, taken c. ... David Whitmer (1805–1888) is remembered in the Latter Day Saint movement as the most interviewed of the Three Witnesses of the Book of Mormons Golden Plates. ... Martin Harris (1783–1875) was the first financier of The Book of Mormon. ...


Names of some known angels who appeared are Moroni, Nephi, Peter, James, John, John the Baptist. Moroni [mɔrounai], according to the Book of Mormon, was the last Nephite prophet and military commander who lived in North America in the late fourth and early fifth centuries. ... Nephi, the son of Lehi, is a prophet in the Book of Mormon. ... Saint James can refer to the following: Several men mentioned in the New Testament, whose various epithets and euphemisms cause some uncertainties: James, son of Zebedee, an apostle, brother of John the Apostle; also called Saint James the Great. ... John the Apostle (יוחנן The LORD is merciful, Standard Hebrew Yoḥanan, Tiberian Hebrew Yôḥānān) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Failure of John the Baptist. ...


Michael the archangel was Adam (the first man) when he was mortal, and Gabriel lived on the earth as Noah (the one who built the ark). It has been suggested that portions of this article be split into a new article entitled Adam. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ...


Other religions

In Zoroastrianism, the Amesha Spentas have often been regarded as angels, but this is not strictly correct since they don´t convey messages, but are rather emanations of Ahura Mazda ("Wise Lord", God); they appear in an abstract fashion in the religious thought of Zarathustra and then later (during the Achaemenid period of Zoroastrianism) became personalized, associated with an aspect of the divine creation (fire, plants, water...). Zoroastrianism is the name of the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ... Zarathustra can refer to one of two people: Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, was an ancient Iranian prophet, founder of the Zoroastrian religion. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...


Also, angel-like beings called Tennin and Tenshi appear in Japanese mythology, as well as in many New Age religions. Tennin (天人) including the female tennyo (天女) (Sanskrit: apsara) are spirits found in Japanese Buddhism that are similar to Western angels or fairies. ... Tennin (天人) including the female tennyo (天女) (Sanskrit: apsara) are spirits found in Japanese Buddhism that are similar to Western angels or fairies. ... Japanese mythology is an extremely complex system of beliefs. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ...


Hinduism

In English, the Sanskrit word Deva is usually translated as "god" (though sometimes left as "Deva"), which certainly gives a polytheistic appearance to Hinduism. Many Hindus now say that this is a poor practice, because the best word for God in Sanskrit is Ishvara (the Supreme Lord). The Devas may be better translated as angels or demigods. They are celestial beings with supernatural powers, but also weaknesses. They grant material benefits to humans upon praying and sacrificing to them, though they don't carry the message of Ishvara to the humans as in Abrahamic religions (a category of such beings also exist, called "devaduta" or "duta"). Examples of such devas are Indra, Mitra, Ashvins, Varuna, etc. Note that if a particular deva has a widespread cult, like Vishnu or Shiva, he is believed not to be an ordinary deva but equated to Ishvara by his followers. Buddhism and Jainism also use the word "deva", but in different senses. Deva (देव in Devanagari script, pronounced as dévə) is the Sanskrit word for god, deity. It can be variously interpreted as a spirit, demi-god, celestial being, angel, deity or any supernatural being of high excellence. ... Ishvara (ईश्वर in devanagari script, pronunciation ī:shvərə), also variously transliterated (romanized) as Īshvara, Īshwara, Īshwar, Īśvara, etc. ... Indra is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... This article is about the Vedic deity Mitra. ... The Ashvins ( possessor of horses, horse tamer, cavalier, dual ) are divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda, sons of Saranya, a goddess of the dawn and wife of either Surya or Vivasvat. ... This article is about the god. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hindu God Shiva. ... Deva can refer to: Deva (Hinduism), a Hindu deity. ...


Thelema

Aleister Crowley tried to teach people to attain what he called "the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel". Within the system of Thelema, the Holy Guardian Angel is representative of one’s truest divine nature. Citing Crowley, people have linked the term with the Genius of the Golden Dawn, the Augoeides of Iamblichus, the Atman of Hinduism, and the Daemon of the gnostics. Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947) was an occultist, prolific writer, mystic, hedonist, and sexual revolutionary. ... Within the system of Thelema founded by Aleister Crowley in 1904, the Holy Guardian Angel is the Silent Self, representative of ones truest divine nature. ... The Unicursal Hexagram, designed by Aleister Crowley, is one of the common symbols of Thelema Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun θέλημα: will, from the verb ἐθέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ... Within the system of Thelema founded by Aleister Crowley in 1904, the Holy Guardian Angel is the Silent Self, representative of ones truest divine nature. ... Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, in Egyptian costume, performs a ritual of Isis (not a Rite of the Golden Dawn). ... Augoeides can be translated as luminous body. ... Iamblichus (ca. ... According to Advaita Vedanta, a philosophical branch of Hinduism, ātman is the all-pervading soul of the universe. ... Hinduism {Sanskrit - HindÅ« Dharma, also known as Sanātana (eternal) Dharma and Vaidika (of the Vedas) Dharma} is the religion based on the Vedas as well as other traditional scriptures and beliefs. ... The words daemon and daimon, sometimes dæmon, are distinctively Hellenizing or Latinate spellings of δαιμων, used purposefully today to distinguish the daemons of Greek mythology, good or malevolent supernatural beings between mortals and gods, such as inferior divinities and ghosts of dead heroes, from the Judeo-Christian usage demon, a... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ...


According to most Thelemites, the single most important goal is to consciously connect with one’s HGA, a process termed "Knowledge and Conversation." By doing so, the magician becomes fully aware of his own True Will. For Crowley, this event was the single most important goal of any adept: The phrase True Will does not appear in the Book of the Law, the central sacred text of Thelema. ...

It should never be forgotten for a single moment that the central and essential work of the Magician is the attainment of the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel. Once he has achieved this he must of course be left entirely in the hands of that Angel, who can be invariably and inevitably [be] relied upon to lead him to the further great step—crossing of the Abyss and the attainment of the grade of Master of the Temple. (Magick Without Tears, Ch.83)

Crowley felt that attaining Knowledge and Conversation was so important, that he staked the claim that any other magical operation was, in a sense, evil.


Angels as a development step of the soul

Some mystics believe, that a soul is growing in steps from minerals, plants and animals to men. When the human body dies, a soul could become an angel. The Persian Sufi mystic poet Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi wrote in his poem Masnavi: Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. ... Phyla Animals are a major group of organisms, classified as the kingdom Animalia or Meta­zoa. ... Sufism (Persian: صوفی‌گری Sufi gari, Arabic: تصوف, taṣawwuf) is a mystic sect of Islam. ... Mawlana Rumi Mawlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī[1] (Arabic:مولانا جلال الدين محمد رومي) ‎ (1207 – 1273 CE), also known as Muhammad Balkhī (Persian: محمد بلخى) or Celâladin Mehmet Rumi (Turkish), was a Persian poet, jurist, theologian and teacher of Sufism. ... Bold textItalic text Headline text The Masnavi or Masnavi-I Manavi ((Persian:مثنوی معنوی), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of both Sufism and Persian literature. ...

I died as inanimate matter and arose a plant,
I died as a plant and rose again an animal.
I died as an animal and arose a man.
Why then should I fear to become less by dying?
I shall die once again as a man
To rise an angel perfect from head to foot!
Again when I suffer dissolution as an angel,
I shall become what passes the conception of man!
Let me then become non-existent, for non-existence
Sings to me in organ tones, 'To him shall we return.'
(Translation from Wikisource, Masnavi I Ma'navi, Book III, Story XVII)’’

The Christian mystic Emanuel Swedenborg has a similar imagination. In his late work Conjugal Love he describes, that a soul of a man and a soul of a woman are united by the marriage in Heaven to become an angel. Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ...


See also

According to medieval Christian theologians, the Angels are organized into several orders, or Angelic Choirs. ... Angels have appeared in works of art for millennia. ... The Angelici were a heretical sect of the 3rd century. ... Death, as a skeleton carrying a scythe, visiting a dying man. ... A guardian angel is a spirit who is believed to protect and to guide a particular person. ... Metatron (from Greek Meta+Tron meaning Beyond+Matrix. ... Spiritism is a philosophical doctrine established in France in the mid 19th Century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the pseudonym Allan Kardec. ... Neon Genesis Evangelion ) is a Japanese animated television series, begun in 1995, directed and written by Hideaki Anno, and produced by Gainax. ...

References

Bibliography

  • Cheyne, James Kelly (ed.) (1899). Angel. Encyclopædia biblica. New York, Macmillan.
  • Driver, Samuel Rolles (Ed.) (1901) The book of Daniel. Cambridge UP.
  • Hastings, James (ed.) (1898). Angel. A dictionary of the Bible. New York: C. Scribner's sons.
  • Oosterzee, Johannes Jacobus van. Christian dogmatics: a text-book for academical instruction and private study. Trans. John Watson Watson and Maurice J. Evans. (1874) New York, Scribner, Armstrong.
  • Smith, George Adam (1898) The book of the twelve prophets, commonly called the minor. London, Hodder and Stoughton.
  • Bamberger, Bernard Jacob, (March 15, 2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0827607970
  • Bennett, William Henry. Angel. 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Briggs, Constance Victoria, 1997. The Encyclopedia of Angels : An A-to-Z Guide with Nearly 4,000 Entries. Plume. ISBN 0452279216.
  • Bunson, Matthew, (1996). Angels A to Z : A Who's Who of the Heavenly Host. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0517885379.
  • Cruz, Joan C. 1999. Angels and Devils. Tan Books & Publishers. ISBN 0895556383.
  • Davidson, Gustav. A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels. Free Press. ISBN 002907052X
  • Graham, Billy, 1994. Angels: God's Secret Agents. W Pub Group; Minibook edition. ISBN 0849950740
  • Guiley, Rosemary, 1996. Encyclopedia of Angels. ISBN 0816029881
  • Kreeft, Peter J. 1995. Angels and Demons: What Do We Really Know About Them? Ignatius Press. ISBN 0898705509
  • Lewis, James R. (1995). Angels A to Z. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 0787606529
  • Melville, Francis, 2001. The Book of Angels: Turn to Your Angels for Guidance, Comfort, and Inspiration. Barron's Educational Series; 1st edition. ISBN 0764154036
  • Ronner, John, 1993. Know Your Angels: The Angel Almanac With Biographies of 100 Prominent Angels in Legend & Folklore-And Much More! Mamre Press. ISBN 0932945406.
  • Swedenborg, Emanuel (1979). Conjugal Love. Swedenborg Foundation. ISBN 0877850542
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Encyclopedic Theosophical Glossary. Theosophical University Press. Retrieved on 2006-03-17.
  2. ^ J. Hampton Keathley, III, Th. M.. Angelology The Doctrine of Angels. Retrieved on 2006-03-17.
  3. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia. "Zoroastrianism", section "Summary". Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
  4. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia. "The Babylonian Captivity". Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
  5. ^ International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. "Zoroastrianism", section 3 "Possible Theological Influence" and section 4, "Angelology and Demonology". Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
  6. ^ Lewis Loflin. "Judaism Meets Zoroastrianism". Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
  7. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia. "Zoroastrianism", section "The Kingdoms of Good and Evil". Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
  8. ^ New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. XII: Trench - Zwingli, pages 530-531. Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
  9. ^ James Patrick Holding. "Did Zoroastrianism Influence Christianity?". Retrieved on 2006-03-15.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915) is a public domain Biblical encyclopedia. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Angels (6002 words)
Such appearances of angels generally last only so long as the delivery of their message requires, but frequently their mission is prolonged, and they are represented as the constituted guardians of the nations at some particular crisis, e.g.
Though the angels who appear in the earlier works of the Old Testament are strangely impersonal and are overshadowed by the importance of the message they bring or the work they do, there are not wanting hints regarding the existence of certain ranks in the heavenly army.
We have already seen how (Daniel 10:12-21) various districts are allotted to various angels who are termed their princes, and the same feature reappears still more markedly in the Apocalyptic "angels of the seven churches", though it is impossible to decide what is the precise signification of the term.
Angel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6778 words)
Angels are referred to in connection with their special missions as, for instance, the "angel which hath redeemed," "an interpreter," "the angel that destroyed," "messenger of the covenant," "angel of his presence," and "a band of angels of evil" (Gen. xlviii.
Angels foretold to Abraham the birth of Isaac, to Manoah the birth of Samson, and to Abraham the destruction of Sodom.
The belief in angels is central to the religion of Islam, beginning with the belief that the Qur'an was dictated to the Prophet Muhammad by the chief of all angels, the archangel Jibril (Gabriel).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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