FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Anemia" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Anemia
Anemia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 D50.-D64.
ICD-9 280-285
DiseasesDB 663
MedlinePlus 000560
eMedicine med/132  emerg/808 emerg/734
MeSH D000740

Anemia (AmE) or anæmia/anaemia (BrE), from the Greek (Ἀναιμία) (an-haîma) meaning "without blood," is defined as a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin, a molecule found inside red blood cells (RBCs). Since hemoglobin normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences. This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Species Anemia adiantifolia - pine fern Anemia mexicana - Mexican flowering fern Anemia wrightii - Wrights flowering fern The genus Anemia is sometimes called the flowering ferns, but this term is more commonly applied to ferns of the genus Osmunda. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


The three main classes of anemia include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood cell production (ineffective hematopoiesis). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... Haematopoiesis is the formation of blood cellular components. ...


Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood. There are several kinds of anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes. Anemia can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few.


There are two major approaches of classifying anemias, the "kinetic" approach which involves evaluating production, destruction and loss[1], and the "morphologic" approach which groups anemia by red blood cell size. The morphologic approach uses a quickly available and cheap lab test as its starting point (the MCV). On the other hand, focusing early on the question of production may allow the clinician more rapidly to expose cases where multiple causes of anemia coexist. The mean corpuscular volume, or MCV, is a measure of the average red blood cell volume (i. ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Anemia goes undetected in many people, and symptoms can be small and vague. Most commonly, people with anemia report a feeling of weakness or fatigue in general or during exercise, general malaise and sometimes poor concentration. People with more severe anemia often report dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion. Very severe anemia prompts the body to compensate by increasing cardiac output, leading to palpitations and sweatiness, and to heart failure. Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... Dyspnea (R06. ... Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a ventricle in a minute. ... A palpitation is an abnormal awareness of the beating of the heart, whether it is too slow, too fast, irregular, or at its normal frequency. ...


Pallor (pale skin, mucosal linings and nail beds) is often a useful diagnostic sign in moderate or severe anemia, but it is not always apparent. Other useful signs are cheilosis and koilonychia. Pallor is a reduced amount of oxyhemoglobin in skin or mucous membrane, a pale color which can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight, anaemia or genetics. ... Anatomy In anatomy, a nail is a horn-like piece at the end of a humans or an animals finger or toe. ... Angular cheilitis (also called perlèche, cheilosis or angular stomatitis) is an inflammatory lesion at the labial commissure, or corner of the mouth, and often occurs bilaterally. ... Nail disorder ...


Pica, the consumption of non-food such as dirt, paper, wax, grass and hair, may be a symptom of iron deficiency, although it occurs often in those who have normal levels of hemoglobin. This page is for the medical disorder. ...


Chronic anemia may result in behavioral disturbances in children as a direct result of impaired neurological development in infants, and reduced scholastic performance in children of school age.


Diagnosis

Generally, clinicians request complete blood counts in the first batch of blood tests in the diagnosis of an anemia. Apart from reporting the number of red blood cells and the hemoglobin level, the automatic counters also measure the size of the red blood cells by flow cytometry, which is an important tool in distinguishing between the causes of anemia. Examination of a stained blood smear using a microscope can also be helpful, and is sometimes a necessity in regions of the world where automated analysis is less accessible. Schematics of shorthand for complete blood count commonly used by physicians. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... An automated analyser is a laboratory machine designed to measure different chemicals in a number of biological samples quickly, with minimal human assistance. ... Analysis of a marine sample of photosynthetic picoplankton by flow cytometry showing three different populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes) Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. ... A microscopic view of an abnormal blood film. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ...


In modern counters, four parameters (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, MCV and RDW) are measured, allowing others (hematocrit, MCH and MCHC) to be calculated, and compared to values adjusted for age and sex. Some counters estimate hematocrit from direct measurements. For adult men, a hemoglobin level less than 13.0 g/dl (grams per deciliter) is diagnostic of anemia, and for adult women, the diagnostic threshold is below 12.0 g/dl. The mean corpuscular volume, or MCV, is a measure of the average red blood cell volume (i. ... The red blood cell distribution width, or RDW, is a measure of the variation of red blood cell volume that is reported as part of a standard complete blood count. ... The hematocrit (Ht or HCT) and packed cell volume (PCV) are measures of the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells. ... The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, or MCHC, is a measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a red blood cell. ... The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, or MCHC, is a measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a red blood cell. ...


Reticulocyte counts, and the "kinetic" approach to anemia, have become more common than in the past in the large medical centers of the United States and some other wealthy nations, in part because some automatic counters now have the capacity to include reticulocyte counts. A reticulocyte count is a quantitative measure of the bone marrow's production of new red blood cells. The reticulocyte production index is a calculation of the ratio between the level of anemia and the extent to which the reticulocyte count has risen in response. If the degree of anemia is significant, even a "normal" reticulocyte count actually may reflect an inadequate response. Reticulocyte Erythrocyte Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically comprising about 1% of the red cells in the human body. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... The Reticulocyte production index is a calculation used by physicians in the diagnosis of anemia. ...


If an automated count is not available, a reticulocyte count can be done manually following special staining of the blood film. In manual examination, activity of the bone marrow can also be gauged qualitatively by subtle changes in the numbers and the morphology of young RBCs by examination under a microscope. Newly formed RBCs are usually slightly larger than older RBCs and show polychromasia. Even where the source of blood loss is obvious, evaluation of erythropoiesis can help assess whether the bone marrow will be able to compensate for the loss, and at what rate. Erythropoiesis is the process by which red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced. ...


When the cause is not obvious, clinicians use other tests: ESR, ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, RBC folate level, serum vitamin B12, hemoglobin electrophoresis, renal function tests (e.g. serum creatinine). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), also called a sedimentation rate, sed rate or Biernacki Reaction, is a non-specific measure of inflammation that is commonly used as a medical screening test. ... Ferritin is a globular protein found mainly in the liver, which can store about 4500 iron (Fe3+)ions in a hollow protein shell made of 24 subunits. ... The medical laboratory test for serum iron measures the amount of circulating iron which is bound to transferrin. ... Transferrin is a plasma protein for iron ion delivery. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a test that measures the different types of hemoglobin in the blood. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). ...


When the diagnosis remains difficult, a bone marrow examination allows direct examination of the precursors to red cells. Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy) and bone marrow aspiration. ...


Classification

Production vs. destruction or loss

The "kinetic" approach to anemia yields what many argue is the most clinically relevant classification of anemia. This classification depends on evaluation of several hematological parameters, particularly the blood reticulocyte (precursor of mature RBCs) count. This then yields the classification of defects by decreased RBC production versus increased RBC destruction and/or loss. Clinical signs of loss or destruction include abnormal peripheral blood smear with signs of hemolysis; elevated LDH suggesting cell destruction; or clinical signs of bleeding, such as guiaic-positive stool, radiographic findings, or frank bleeding. Reticulocyte Erythrocyte Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically comprising about 1% of the red cells in the human body. ... A microscopic view of an abnormal blood film. ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme (EC 1. ...


Here is a simplified schematic of this approach:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anemia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reticulocyte production index shows inadequate production response to anemia.
 
 
 
Reticulocyte production index shows appropriate response to anemia = ongoing hemolysis or blood loss without RBC production problem.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
No clinical findings consistent with hemolysis or blood loss: pure disorder of production.
 
Clinical findings and abnormal MCV: hemolysis or loss and chronic disorder of production*.
 
Clinical findings and normal MCV= acute hemolysis or loss without adequate time for bone marrow production to compensate**.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Macrocytic anemia (MCV>100)
 
Normocytic anemia (80<MCV<100)
 
 
Microcytic anemia (MCV<80)
 
 
 
 

* For instance, sickle cell anemia with superimposed iron deficiency; chronic gastric bleeding with B12 and folate deficiency; and other instances of anemia with more than one cause. ** Confirm by repeating reticulocyte count: ongoing combination of low reticulocyte production index, normal MCV and hemolysis or loss may be seen in bone marrow failure or anemia of chronic disease, with superimposed or related hemolysis or blood loss. The Reticulocyte production index is a calculation used by physicians in the diagnosis of anemia. ... The Reticulocyte production index is a calculation used by physicians in the diagnosis of anemia. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... Microcytic anemia is characterised by small red blood cells. ...


Red blood cell size

In the morphological approach, anemia is classified by the size of red blood cells; this is either done automatically or on microscopic examination of a peripheral blood smear. The size is reflected in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV). If the cells are smaller than normal (under 80 fl), the anemia is said to be microcytic; if they are normal size (80-100 fl), normocytic; and if they are larger than normal (over 100 fl), the anemia is classified as macrocytic. This scheme quickly exposes some of the most common causes of anemia; for instance, a microcytic anemia is often the result of iron deficiency. In clinical workup, the MCV will be one of the first pieces of information available; so even among clinicians who consider the "kinetic" approach more useful philosophically, morphology will remain an important element of classification and diagnosis. The mean corpuscular volume, or MCV, is a measure of the average red blood cell volume (i. ... The femtolitre (US femtoliter) is the metric unit of volume equal to 10-15 litre, or one quindecillionth (European) or one quadrillionth (American) litre. ... For a more specific and detailed discussion of anemia caused by iron deficiency, see the Wikipedia article iron deficiency anemia. ...


Here is a schematic representation of how to consider anemia with MCV as the starting point:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anemia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Macrocytic anemia (MCV>100)
 
 
 
 
 
Normocytic anemia (80<MCV<100)
 
 
 
 
 
Microcytic anemia (MCV<80)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
High reticulocyte count
 
 
 
 
 
Low reticulocyte count
 
 
 
 

Other characteristics visible on the peripheral smear may provide valuable clues about a more specific diagnosis; for example, abnormal white blood cells may point to a cause in the bone marrow. Microcytic anemia is characterised by small red blood cells. ... Reticulocyte Erythrocyte Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically comprising about 1% of the red cells in the human body. ... Reticulocyte Erythrocyte Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically comprising about 1% of the red cells in the human body. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ...


Microcytic anemia

Microcytic anemia is primarily a result of hemoglobin synthesis failure/insufficiency, which could be caused by several etiologies:

  • Heme synthesis defect
  • Globin synthesis defect
    • alpha-, and beta-thalassemia
    • HbE syndrome
    • HbC syndrome
    • and various other unstable hemoglobin diseases
  • Sideroblastic defect
    • Hereditary sideroblastic anemia
    • Acquired sideroblastic anemia, including lead toxicity
    • Reversible sideroblastic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia overall and it has many causes. RBCs often appear hypochromic (paler than usual) and microcytic (smaller than usual) when viewed with a microscope. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia, and the most common cause of microcytic anemia. ... Anemia of Chronic Disease - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Thalassemia (British spelling, thalassaemia) is an inherited autosomal recessive blood disease. ... Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painters colic caused by increased blood lead levels. ...

  • Iron deficiency anemia is caused by insufficient dietary intake or absorption of iron to replace losses from menstruation or losses due to diseases.[2] Iron is an essential part of hemoglobin, and low iron levels result in decreased incorporation of hemoglobin into red blood cells. In the United States, 20% of all women of childbearing age have iron deficiency anemia, compared with only 2% of adult men. The principal cause of iron deficiency anemia in premenopausal women is blood lost during menses. Studies[who?] have shown that iron deficiency without anemia causes poor school performance and lower IQ in teenage girls. Iron deficiency is the most prevalent deficiency state on a worldwide basis. Iron deficiency is sometimes the cause of abnormal fissuring of the angular (corner) sections of the lips (angular stomatitis).
  • Iron deficiency anemia can also be due to bleeding lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Fecal occult blood testing, upper endoscopy and lower endoscopy should be performed to identify bleeding lesions. In men and post-menopausal women the chances are higher that bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract could be due to colon polyp or colorectal cancer.
  • Worldwide, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is parasitic infestation (hookworm, amebiasis, schistosomiasis and whipworm).[3]

Fe redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Mensuration. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... Gut redirects here. ... Fecal occult blood is a term for blood present in the feces that is not visibly apparent. ... Endoscopic still of esophageal ulcers seen after banding of esophageal varices, at time of esophagogastroduodenosocopy In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualises the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. ... Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large colon and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Species Species N. americanus and A. duodenale The hookworm is a parasitic nematode worm that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. ... Amoebiasis is infection by an protozoan, typically Entamoeba histolytica. ... Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a parasitic disease caused by several species of flatworm. ... Binomial name Trichuris trichiura The Whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) or Trichocephalus trichiuris, is a roundworm, which causes the disease of trichuriasis when it infects a human large intestine. ...

Normocytic anemia

Normocytic anaemia occurs when the overall hemoglobin levels are always decreased, but the red blood cell size (Mean corpuscular volume) remains normal. Causes include: The mean corpuscular volume, or MCV, is a measure of the average red blood cell volume (i. ...

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anemia of Chronic Disease - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Aplastic anemia is a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ...

Macrocytic anemia

  • Megaloblastic anemia, the most common cause of macrocytic anemia, is due to a deficiency of either vitamin B12, folic acid (or both). Deficiency in folate and/or vitamin B12 can be due either to inadequate intake or insufficient absorption. Folate deficiency normally does not produce neurological symptoms, while B12 deficiency does.
    • Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune condition thought to be due to a directed attack against intrinsic factor produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. Intrinsic factor is required to absorb vitamin B12 from food. Therefore, the destruction of intrinsic factor, leads to poor absorption of vitamin B12.
    • Macrocytic anemia can also be caused by removal of the functional portion of the stomach, such as during gastric bypass surgery, leading to reduced vit B12/folate absorption. Therefore one must always be aware of anemia following this procedure.
  • Alcoholism causes a macrocytosis, although not specifically anemia
  • Methotrexate, zidovudine, and other drugs that inhibit DNA replication.

Macrocytic anemia can be further divided into "megaloblastic anemia" or "non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemia". The cause of megaloblastic anemia is primarily a failure of DNA synthesis with preserved RNA synthesis, which result in restricted cell division of the progenitor cells. The megaloblastic anemias often present with neutrophil hypersegmentation (6-10 lobes). The non-megaloblastic macrocytic anemias have different etiologies (i.e. there is unimpaired DNA globin synthesis,) which occur, for example in alcoholism. Megaloblastic anemia is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) which results from a deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Malabsorption is the state of impaired absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. ... Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermers anaemia or Addisons anaemia or Addison-Biermer anaemia) is a form of megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency dependent on impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the setting of atrophic gastritis, and more specifically of loss of gastric parietal cells. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. ... Human parietal cells - stomach Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are the stomach epithelium cells which secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor. ... Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, or simply gastric bypass surgery, is a procedure almost exclusively used in surgical weight loss applications to correct morbid obesity. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Amethopterin redirects here. ... Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (AZT) (also called ZDV) is an antiretroviral drug, the first one approved for treatment of HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir® and Retrovis®, and as an ingredient in Combivir® and Trizivir®. It is an analog of thymidine. ... DNA replication. ...


In addition to the non-specific symptoms of anemia, specific features of vitamin B12 deficiency include peripheral neuropathy and subacute combined degeneration of the cord with resulting balance difficulties from posterior column spinal cord pathology.[4] Other features may include a smooth, red tongue and glossitis. Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness. ... Glossitis is inflammation or infection of the tongue. ...


The treatment for vitamin B12-deficient anemia was first devised by William Murphy who bled dogs to make them anemic and then fed them various substances to see what (if anything) would make them healthy again. He discovered that ingesting large amounts of liver seemed to cure the disease. George Minot and George Whipple then set about to chemically isolate the curative substance and ultimately were able to isolate the vitamin B12 from the liver. All three shared the 1934 Nobel Prize in Medicine.[5] This article is about the Nobel Prize Scientist. ... George Richards Minot (December 2, 1885 (Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.) - February 25, 1950) won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with William P. Murphy and George H. Whipple for their work in the study of anemia. ... George Hoyt Whipple (August 28, 1878 – February 1, 1976) was an American physician, biomedical researcher, and medical school educator and administrator. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ...


Dimorphic anemia

When two causes of anemia act simultaneously, e.g., macrocytic hypochromic, due to hookworm infestation leading to deficiency of both iron and vitamin B12 or folic acid [6] or following a blood transfusion more than one abnormality of red cell indices may be seen. Evidence for multiple causes appears with an elevated RBC distribution width (RDW), which suggests a wider-than-normal range of red cell sizes. pale --a loss in color ... Species Species N. americanus and A. duodenale The hookworm is a parasitic nematode worm that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. ... Fe redirects here. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ...


Heinz body anemia

Heinz bodies are an abnormality that form on the cells in this condition. This form of anemia may be brought on by taking certain medications; it is also triggered in cats by eating onions[7] or acetaminophen (Tylenol). It can be triggered in dogs by ingesting onions or zinc, and in horses by ingesting dry red maple leaves. Heinz bodies (also referred to as Heinz-Ehrlich bodies) are inclusions within red blood cells composed of denatured hemoglobin. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... This article is about the domestic dog. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Binomial name Acer rubrum L. Red Maple (Acer rubrum) is also known as Swamp Maple or Soft Maple. ...


Specific anemias

  • Anemia of prematurity occurs in premature infants at 2 to 6 weeks of age and results from diminished erythropoietin response to declining hematocrit levels
  • Fanconi anemia is an hereditary disorder or defect featuring aplastic anemia and various other abnormalities
  • Hemolytic anemia causes a separate constellation of symptoms (also featuring jaundice and elevated LDH levels) with numerous potential causes. It can be autoimmune, immune, hereditary or mechanical (e.g. heart surgery). It can result (because of cell fragmentation) in a microcytic anemia, a normochromic anemia, or (because of premature release of immature red blood cells from the bone marrow), a macrocytic anemia.
  • Hereditary spherocytosis is a hereditary defect that results in defects in the RBC cell membrane, causing the erythrocytes to be sequestered and destroyed by the spleen. This leads to a decrease in the number of circulating RBCs and, hence, anemia.
  • Sickle-cell anemia, a hereditary disorder, is due to homozygous hemoglobin S genes.
  • Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia is an anemia caused by autoimmune attack against red blood cells, primarily by IgG
  • Cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia is primarily mediated by IgM
  • Pernicious anemia is a form of megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency dependent on impaired absorption of vitamin B12.
  • Myelophthisic anemia or Myelophthisis is a severe type of anemia resulting from the replacement of bone marrow by other materials, such as malignant tumors or granulomas.

Anemia of prematurity is a normochromic, normocytic anemia commonly seen in premature infants cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease that affects children and adults from all ethnic backgrounds. ... Aplastic anemia is a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ... Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to correct congenital heart disease or the complications of ischaemic heart disease or valve problems caused by endocarditis. ... This article is about aspects of spherocytosis specific to the hereditary form of the disorder. ... sickle cell redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (warm AIHA) is the most common of the autoimmune hemolytic diseases. ... Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermers anaemia or Addisons anaemia or Addison-Biermer anaemia) is a form of megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency dependent on impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the setting of atrophic gastritis, and more specifically of loss of gastric parietal cells. ... Megaloblastic anemia is anemia resulting from a deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Myelophthisis refers to the displacement of hemopoietic bone-marrow tissue into the peripheral blood, either by fibrosis, tumors or granulomas. ...

Possible complications

Anemia diminishes the capability of individuals who are affected to perform physical activities. This is a result of one's muscles being forced to depend on anaerobic metabolism. The lack of iron associated with anemia can cause many complications, including hypoxemia, brittle or rigid fingernails, cold intolerance, and possible behavioral disturbances in children. Hypoxemia resulting from anemia can worsen the cardio-pulmonary status of patients with pre-existing chronic pulmonary disease. Cold intolerance occurs in one in five patients with iron deficiency anemia, and becomes visible through numbness and tingling.[citation needed] For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Brittle nails can be due to an infection or a nutritional disorder, but they can also be an indication of several other medical conditions, including Iron deficiency, anemia, and hypothyroidism. ...


Anemia during pregnancy

Anemia affects 20% of all females of childbearing age in the United States. Because of the subtlety of the symptoms, women are often unaware that they have this disorder, as they attribute the symptoms to the stresses of their daily lives. Possible problems for the fetus include increased risk of growth retardation, prematurity, intrauterine death, rupture of the amnion and infection. Prematurity is the condition of being born before a full gestation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the alien race in Stephen Donaldsons The Gap Cycle, see Amnion (Gap Cycle). ...


During pregnancy, women should be especially aware of the symptoms of anemia, as an adult female loses an average of two milligrams of iron daily. Therefore, she must intake a similar quantity of iron in order to make up for this loss. Additionally, a woman loses approximately 500 milligrams of iron with each pregnancy, compared to a loss of 4-100 milligrams of iron with each period. Possible consequences for the mother include cardiovascular symptoms, reduced physical and mental performance, reduced immune function, tiredness, reduced peripartal blood reserves and increased need for blood transfusion in the postpartum period. The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ...


Treatments for anemia

There are many different treatments for anemia and the treatment depends on severity and the cause.


Iron deficiency from nutritional causes is rare in non-menstruating adults (men and post-menopausal women). The diagnosis of iron deficiency mandates a search for potential sources of loss such as gastrointestinal bleeding from ulcers or colon cancer. Mild to moderate iron deficiency anemia is treated by iron supplementation with ferrous sulfate or ferrous gluconate. Vitamin C may aid in the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula (FeSO4). ... This article is about the nutrient. ...


Vitamin supplements given orally (folic acid) or subcutaneously (vitamin B-12) will replace specific deficiencies. Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ...


In anemia of chronic disease, anemia associated with chemotherapy, or anemia associated with renal disease, some clinicians prescribe recombinant erythropoietin, epoetin alfa, to stimulate red cell production. Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Darbepoetin alfa (rINN) (IPA: ) is a synthetic form of erythropoietin. ...


In severe cases of anemia, or with ongoing blood loss, a blood transfusion may be necessary.


Blood transfusions for anemia

Doctors attempt to avoid blood transfusion in general, since multiple lines of evidence point to increased adverse patient clinical outcomes with more intensive transfusion strategies. The physiological principle that reduction of oxygen delivery associated with anemia leads to adverse clinical outcomes is balanced by the finding that transfusion does not necessarily mitigate these adverse clinical outcomes. Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ...


In severe, acute bleeding, transfusions of donated blood are often lifesaving. Improvements in battlefield casualty survival is attributable, at least in part, to the recent improvements in blood banking and transfusion techniques.[citation needed] Look up Battlefield in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Transfusion of the stable but anemic hospitalized patient has been the subject of numerous clinical trials, and transfusion is emerging as a deleterious intervention. In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ...


Four randomized controlled clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate aggressive versus conservative transfusion strategies in critically ill patients. All four of these studies failed to find a benefit with more aggressive transfusion strategies. [8] [9] [10] [11]


In addition, at least two retrospective studies have shown increases in adverse clinical outcomes with more aggressive transfusion strategies. [12] [13]


Hyperbaric Oxygenation

Treatment of exceptional blood loss (anemia) is recognized as an indication for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.[14][15] The use of HBO is indicated when oxygen delivery to tissue is not sufficient in patients who cannot be transfused for medical or religious reasons. HBO may be used for medical reasons when threat of blood product incompatibility or concern for transmissible disease.[14] The beliefs of some religions (ex: Jehovah's Witnesses) may prohibit the receipt transfused blood products.[14] Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the medical use of oxygen at a higher than atmospheric pressure. ... The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) is the primary source of information for diving and hyperbaric medicine physiology worldwide. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... In medicine, transmission is the passing of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. ...


In 2002, Van Meter reviewed the publications surrounding the use of HBO in severe anemia and found that all publications report a positive result.[16] A medical journal is a scientific journal devoted to the field of medicine. ...


References

  1. ^ eMedicine - Anemia, Chronic : Article by Fredrick M Abrahamian, DO, FACEP
  2. ^ Recommendations to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency in the United States MMWR 1998;47 (No. RR-3) p. 5
  3. ^ Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention, and Control: A guide for programme managers
  4. ^ eMedicine - Vitamin B-12 Associated Neurological Diseases : Article by Niranjan N Singh, MD, DM, DNB July 18, 2006
  5. ^ Physiology or Medicine 1934 - Presentation Speech
  6. ^ Dorlands Medical Dictionary
  7. ^ Onions are Toxic to Cats
  8. ^ Hébert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA, et al (1999). "A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care. Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Investigators, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (6): 409–17. PMID 9971864. 
  9. ^ Bush RL, Pevec WC, Holcroft JW (1997). "A prospective, randomized trial limiting perioperative red blood cell transfusions in vascular patients". Am. J. Surg. 174 (2): 143–8. doi:10.1016/S0002-9610(97)00073-1. PMID 9293831. 
  10. ^ Bracey AW, Radovancevic R, Riggs SA, et al (1999). "Lowering the hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in coronary artery bypass procedures: effect on patient outcome". Transfusion 39 (10): 1070–7. doi:10.1046/j.1537-2995.1999.39101070.x. PMID 10532600. 
  11. ^ McIntyre LA, Fergusson DA, Hutchison JS, et al (2006). "Effect of a liberal versus restrictive transfusion strategy on mortality in patients with moderate to severe head injury". Neurocritical care 5 (1): 4–9. doi:10.1385/NCC:5:1:4. PMID 16960287. 
  12. ^ Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Pearl RG, et al (2004). "The CRIT Study: Anemia and blood transfusion in the critically ill--current clinical practice in the United States". Crit. Care Med. 32 (1): 39–52. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000104112.34142.79. PMID 14707558. 
  13. ^ Vincent JL, Baron JF, Reinhart K, et al (2002). "Anemia and blood transfusion in critically ill patients". JAMA 288 (12): 1499–507. doi:10.1001/jama.288.12.1499. PMID 12243637. 
  14. ^ a b c Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. Exceptional Blood Loss - Anemia. Retrieved on 2008-05-19.
  15. ^ Hart GB, Lennon PA, Strauss MB. (1987). "Hyperbaric oxygen in exceptional acute blood-loss anemia". J. Hyperbaric Med 2 (4): 205–210. 
  16. ^ Van Meter KW (2005). "A systematic review of the application of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of severe anemia: an evidence-based approach". Undersea Hyperb Med 32 (1): 61–83. PMID 15796315. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Books

is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote the science and art of family medicine. ...

See also

Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ... Human beings use 20 mg of iron each day for the production of new red blood cells, much of which is recycled from old red blood cells. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...

External links

Leukopenia or leukocytopenia refers to a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood. ... Eosinophil granulocyte Basophil granulocyte Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. ... Myeloid cells is a subsummating term for all hemopoietic cells except the lymphoid ones (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic cells). ... Leukocytosis is an elevation of the white blood cell count (the leukocyte count) above the normal range. ... In medicine, granulocytosis is the presence in peripheral blood of an increased number of granulocytes, a category of white blood cells. ... Neutrophilia (or neutrophil leukocytosis) is a condition where a person has a high number of neutrophil granulocytes in their blood. ... Eosinophilia is the state of having high eosinophil granulocytes in the blood. ... Leukopenia or leukocytopenia refers to a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood. ... Agranulocytosis (literally meaning an increase of agranulocytes or more commonly, a lack of granulocytes) is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (reduction in the number of white blood cells) in the body. ... Neutropenia (or neutropaenia, adjective neutrop(a)enic) is a hematological disorder characterized by an abnormally low number of neutrophil granulocytes (a type of white blood cell). ... Kostmann syndrome is a rare inherited form of neutropenia usually detected soon after birth. ... Myeloid cells is a subsummating term for all hemopoietic cells except the lymphoid ones (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic cells). ... Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a diverse group of hereditary diseases in which certain cells of the immune system have difficulty forming the reactive oxygen compounds (most importantly, the superoxide radical) used to kill certain ingested pathogens. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... Leukocytosis is an elevation of the white blood cell count (the leukocyte count) above the normal range. ... Lymphocytosis is an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood. ... Leukopenia or leukocytopenia refers to a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood. ... Lymphopenia is the condition in which there exists an abnormally low number of lymphocytes in the blood. ... Asplenia refers to the absence (a-) of normal spleen function and is associated with some risks. ... A picture of an enlarged spleen taken using medical ultrasonography. ... Pancytopenia is a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red and white blood cells, as well as platelets. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anemia (1980 words)
Thalassemia major, also called Cooley's anemia, is a severe form of anemia in which RBCs are rapidly destroyed and iron is deposited in the skin and vital organs.
It's the only way to diagnose aplastic anemia definitively and is also used if a disease affecting the bone marrow (such as leukemia) is a suspected cause of the anemia.
Anemia caused by an infection will usually improve when the infection passes or is treated.
Anemia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2264 words)
In older patients, iron deficiency anemia is often due to bleeding lesions of the gastrointestinal tract; fecal occult blood testing, upper endoscopy and lower endoscopy are often performed to identify bleeding lesions, which can be malignant.
Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune condition directed against the parietal cells of the stomach.
The cause of megaloblastic anemia is primarily a failure of DNA synthesis with preserved RNA synthesis, which result in restricted cell division of the progenitor cells.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m