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Encyclopedia > Andronovo culture
Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. The formative Sintashta-Petrovka culture is shown in darker red. The location of the earliest spoke-wheeled chariot finds is indicated in purple. Adjacent and overlapping cultures (Afanasevo culture, Srubna culture, BMAC) are shown in green.

The Andronovo culture is a cover term for a group of Bronze Age cultures of southern Siberia and Central Asia, ca. 2300 BC1000 BC. It is probably better termed an archaeological complex or archaeological horizon. The name derives from the village of Andronovo (55°53′ N 55°42′ E), where in 1914, several graves were discovered, with skeletons in crouched positions, buried with richly decorated pottery. Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Chariot User talk:Wiglaf Andronovo culture Indo-Iranians ... Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Chariot User talk:Wiglaf Andronovo culture Indo-Iranians ... A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ... Chariot was the name of a WW2 naval weapon, the British manned torpedo. ... Shaded area represents Minusa River basin of the upper Yenisei River catchment, and approximate center of the Afanasevo culture. ... Srubna or Timber-grave culture, 16th-12th centuries BC. This is a bronze age successor to the Yamna culture, the Catacomb culture and the Abashevo culture. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is a modern archaeologists designation for a Bronze Age Turkmenistan. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (Redirected from 2300 BC) (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


At least four sub-cultures have been since distinguished, during which the culture expands towards the south and the east:

The geographical extent of the culture is vast, and difficult to delineate exactly. On its western fringes, it overlaps with the approximately contemporaneous (but distinct) Srubna culture in the Volga-Ural interfluvial; to the east it reaches into the Minusinsk depression, overlapping with the area of the earlier Afanasevo culture; additional sites are scattered as far south as the Koppet Dag (Turkmenistan), the Pamir (Tajikistan) and the Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The northern boundary vaguely corresponds to the beginning the Taiga. In the Volga basin, interaction with the Srubna culture was most intensed and prolongued, and Federovo style pottery is found as far west as Volgograd. The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Sintashta fortified settlement in the southern Urals is dated to ca. ... Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia ... Arkaim is an archaeological site situated in the Southern Urals steppe, 8. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... The Kyzyl Kum (Uzbek: red sand; also called Qyzylqum) is a desert in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. ... Srubna or Timber-grave culture, 16th-12th centuries BC. This is a bronze age successor to the Yamna culture, the Catacomb culture and the Abashevo culture. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Length 2428 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge - m³/s Area watershed - km² Origin Russia Mouth Caspian Sea Basin countries Russia, Kazakhstan The Ural River (Russian: Урал, Urál [formerly: Яик, Yaik River], Kazakh: Жайық, Zhayyq) flows through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... Minusinsk (Минуси́нск) is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, on the Yenisei River. ... Shaded area represents Minusa River basin of the upper Yenisei River catchment, and approximate center of the Afanasevo culture. ... The Kopet Dag is a mountain range on the frontier between Turkmenistan and Iran, extending about 650 km (404 mi) along the border, east of the Caspian Sea. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Taiga (pronounced , from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... Volgograd (Волгогра́д) (population: 1,012,000), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Цари́цын) (1598 - 1925) and Stalingrad (Сталингра́д) (1925 - 1961) is a city on the west bank of Volga river in southwestern Volgograd Oblast (province), Northern Caucasus district, Russia. ...


Towards the middle of the 2nd millennium, the Andronovo cultures begin to move intensively eastwards.


They mined deposits of copper ore in the Altai Mountains and lived in villages of as many as ten sunken log cabin houses measuring up to 30m by 60m in size. Burials were made in stone cists or stone enclosures with buried timber chambers. General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance copper, metallic Atomic mass 63. ... For the republic in Russia, see Altai Republic. ... A cist (pronounced kissed) is a small stone-built coffin-like box used to hold the bodies of the dead (notably during the Bronze Age in Britain). ...


In other regards, the economy was both pastoral, based on horses and cattle, but also sheep and goats, and agricultural.

Arkaim in Russia is believed to have been constructed by Sintashta-Petrovka tribes some 4000 years ago.
Arkaim in Russia is believed to have been constructed by Sintashta-Petrovka tribes some 4000 years ago.

The Andronovo culture has been strongly associated with early Turkic culture. In particular, it is credited with the invention of the spoke-wheeled chariot around 2000 BC; Di Cosmo (p. 903) referring to finds related to the Andronovo culture from "as early as 2026 B.C." ImageMetadata File history File links Arkaim in Russia. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Arkaim in Russia. ... Arkaim is an archaeological site situated in the Southern Urals steppe, 8. ... The Andronovo culture in the context of late 3rd millennium Indo-European expansion The Andronovo culture, is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Bronze Age communities who lived in western Siberia, Russia and parts of Kazakhstan during the second and first millennium BC. The culture is named... Chariot was the name of a WW2 naval weapon, the British manned torpedo. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ...


Sintashta is a site on the upper Ural River. It is famed for its grave-offerings, particularly chariot burials. These inhumations were in kurgans and included all or parts of animals (horse and dog) deposited into the barrow. Sintashta is often pointed to as the premier proto-turkic site, and that the language spoken was still in the turkic stage. There are similar sites "in the Volga-Ural steppe" (Mallory). The Sintashta fortified settlement in the southern Urals is dated to ca. ... Length 2428 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge - m³/s Area watershed - km² Origin Russia Mouth Caspian Sea Basin countries Russia, Kazakhstan The Ural River (Russian: Урал, Urál [formerly: Яик, Yaik River], Kazakh: Жайық, Zhayyq) flows through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... Chariot was the name of a WW2 naval weapon, the British manned torpedo. ... By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ... Barrow may refer to: A tumulus A castrated pig (the OED reports this as obsolete except in dialect usage in the UK: the term is still used in some parts of the southern US) Clyde Barrow, an American gangster Barrow, Alaska, United States Barrow, Gloucestershire, England Barrow, Lancashire, England Barrow...

Contents


Successors

The Sintashta-Petrovka culture is succeeded by the Fedorovo (1400-1200 BC) and Alekseyevka (1200-1000 BC) cultures, still considered as part of the Andronovo horizon.


In southern Siberia and Kazakhstan, the Andronovo culture was succeeded by the Karasuk culture (1500-800 BC). On its western border, it is succeeded by the Srubna culture, which partly derives from the Abashevo culture. The earliest historical peoples associated with the area are the Cimmerians and Saka/Scythians, appearing in Assyrian records after the decline of the Alekseyevka culture, migrating into the Ukraine from ca. the 9th century BC (see also Ukrainian stone stela), and across the Caucasus into Anatolia and Assyria in the late 8th century BC, and possibly also west into Europe as the Thracians (see Thraco-Cimmerian), and the Sigynnae, located by Herodotus beyond the Danube, north of the Thracians, and by Strabo near the Caspian. Both Herodotus and Strabo identify them as Turkic. The Karasuk culture is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Bronze Age societies who lived in southern Siberia and Kazakhstan during the later second millennium BC. They succeeded the Andronovo culture in this region and were farmers who primarily raised sheep and may have been the first... Srubna or Timber-grave culture, 16th-12th centuries BC. This is a bronze age successor to the Yamna culture, the Catacomb culture and the Abashevo culture. ... Abashevo culture, ca. ... The Cimmerians (Greek Kimmerioi) were an ancient horse people who originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. // Origins Their origins are obscure, but they are believed to have been Indo-European. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... This article concerns the Assyrian people. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... The anthropomorphic stone stelae found in the Ukrainian steppe, with some finds extending the area to Moldavia, the northern Caucasus (Southern Federal District) and and the area north of the Caspian (western Kazakhstan), date from the Copper Age (ca. ... The Caucasus , a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολή anatolē or anatolí; see also List of traditional Greek place names), rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish falsely associated with Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of... (9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC - other centuries) (800s BC - 790s BC - 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Assyria conquers Damascus and Samaria... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, Republic of Moldova, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... distribution of Thraco-Cimmerian finds Thraco-Cimmerian is a historiographical and archaeological term, composed of the names of the Thracians and the Cimmerians. ... Sigynnae (EcyGvvat, Eiyevvoc), an obscure people of antiquity. ... Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ, Herodotos) was an ancient historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... Strabo (squinty) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe (European Russia). ...


References

  • "The Northern Frontier in Pre-Imperial China", Cambridge History of Ancient China (pp. 885-966) ch. 13, Nicolo Di Cosmo.
  • James P. Mallory, "Andronovo Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.

JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ...

See also

The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is a modern archaeologists designation for a Bronze Age Turkmenistan. ... Chariot was the name of a WW2 naval weapon, the British manned torpedo. ... Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his horses and other possessions. ... In 1956 Marija Gimbutas introduced her Kurgan hypothesis combining kurgan archaeology with linguistics to locate the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples. ... Aryan is an English word derived from the Indian Vedic Sanskrit and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Old Persian (Iranian) ariya- is a cognate as well. ... Soma (Sanskrit), or Haoma (Avestan) (from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Sauma) was a ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the later Vedic and Iranian cultures. ...

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cultures and Ethnic Groups West of China (5602 words)
Secondly, the name Andronovo Culture ought to be used with great caution in the future, inasmuch as it suggests a uniform ethnic substratum of Indo-Iranians or Iranians, which cannot possibly he maintained (Itina 1977).
The Soviet archaeologists have observed cultures of superlocal importance that are arranged in two zones north and south of the steppes belt, that is, in the forest zone and its marginal areas, as well as in the oasis regions of the south and southeast marginal of Middle Asia.
IN the northern zone, the progressive cultures with incipient metallurgy are Krotovo and Samus' (between the Rivers Ob and Irtys) as well as Okunev in the Minusinsk Basin, an island of steppe on the Upper Yenisei surrounded by forested mountains (Molodin 1977).
Andronovo culture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (218 words)
The Andronovo culture, is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Bronze Age communities who lived in western Siberia, Russia and parts of Kazakhstan during the second and first millennium BC.
The culture is named after the village of Andronovo in the Yenisei river valley, southern Siberia.
In southern Siberia and Kazakhstan, the Andronovo culture was succeeded by the Karasuk culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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