FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Androgen" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Androgen

Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. This includes the activity of the accessory male sex organs and development of male secondary sex characteristics. Androgens, which were first discovered in 1936, are also called androgenic hormones or testoids. Androgens are also the original anabolic steroids. They are also the precursor of all estrogens, the female sex hormones. The primary androgen is testosterone. Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The androgen receptor is an intracellular steroid receptor that specifically binds testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. ... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A peacock displays his long, colored feathers, an example of his secondary sexual characteristics. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Chemical structure of the natural anabolic hormone testosterone, 17β-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one. ... Estriol. ... Look up Female in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ...

Contents

Types of androgens

A subset of androgens, adrenal androgens, includes any of the 19-carbon steroids synthesized by the adrenal cortex, the outer portion of the adrenal gland (zonula reticularis - innermost region of the adrenal cortex), that function as weak steroids or steroid precursors, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione. Layers of cortex. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ...


Besides testosterone, other androgens include:

  • Androsterone: a chemical by-product created during the breakdown of androgens, or derived from progesterone, that also exerts minor masculinising effects, but with one-seventh the intensity of testosterone. It is found in approximately equal amounts in the plasma and urine of both males and females.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... Layers of cortex. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Estriol. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... Androstenedione (also known as 4-androstenedione) is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Layers of cortex. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are a part of a female organism that produces eggs. ... Androstenedione (also known as 4-androstenedione) is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Estrone (also oestrone) is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary. ... Look up supplement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Androstenediol is a term used to refer to two different steroids with molecular weights of 290. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Gonadotropins are protein hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the pituitary gland of vertebrates. ... Androsterone(ADT) is a steroid hormone with weak androgenic activity. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see DHT (disambiguation). ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Layers of cortex. ...

Androgen functions

Development of the male

Testis formation

During mammalian development, the gonads are at first capable of becoming either ovaries or testes[1]. In humans, starting at about week 4 the gonadal rudiments are present within the intermediate mesoderm adjacent to the developing kidneys. At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes and incorporate the germ cells as they migrate into the gonads. In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the early bipotential gonad into testes. In males, the sex cords fully invade the developing gonads. For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... Intermediate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm that is located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate. ... In embryology, the sex cords (or primitive sex cords) are structures that develop from the gonadal ridge. ... A germ cell is part of the germline and is involved in the reproduction of organisms. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... SRY (Sex-determining Region Y) is a sex-determining gene on the Y chromosome in humans and other primates. ...


Androgen production

The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells which will function to support sperm cell formation. A minor population of non-epithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. Types of epithelium In biology and medicine, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ...


Androgen effects

The androgens function as paracrine hormones required by the Sertoli cells in order to support sperm production. They are also required for masculinization of the developing male fetus (including penis and scrotum formation). Under the influence of androgens, remnants of the mesonephron, the Wolffian ducts, develop into the epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles. This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, AMH, which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues in male embryos. AMH and androgens cooperate to allow for the normal movement of testes into the scrotum. Paracrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which the target cell is close to (para = alongside of or next to, but this strict prefix definition is not meticulously followed here) the signal releasing cell. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... The mesonephros (Latin for middle kidney) is one of three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates. ... The Wolffian duct (also known as archinephric duct, Leydigs duct, and the mesonephric duct) is an paired organ found in mammals including humans during embryogenesis. ... Male Anatomy The epididymis is part of the human male reproductive system and is present in all male mammals. ... The vas deferens, also called ductus deferens, (Latin: carrying-away vessel) is part of the male anatomy of some species, including humans. ... Categories: Stub | Andrology | Exocrine system | Reproductive system ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ...


Early regulation

Before the production of the pituitary hormone LH by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) promotes the differentiation of Leydig cells and their production of androgens. Androgen action in target tissues often involves conversion of testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... For other uses, see DHT (disambiguation). ...


Spermatogenesis

During puberty, androgen, LH and FSH production increase and the sex cords hollow out, forming the seminiferous tubules, and the germ cells start to differentiate into sperm. Throughout adulthood, androgens and FSH cooperatively act on Sertoli cells in the testes to support sperm production[2]. Exogenous androgen supplements can be used as a male contraceptive. Elevated androgen levels caused by use of androgen supplements can inhibit production of LH and block production of endogenous androgens by Leydig cells. Without the locally high levels of androgens in testes due to androgen production by Leydig cells, the seminiferous tubules can degenerate resulting in infertility. For this reason, many transdermal androgen patches are applied to the scrotum. Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone released by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Male Contraceptive Male contraception refers to the process of inhibiting fertilization of the egg with the sperm using methods that deal solely (or primarily) with procedures applied to the male partner. ...


Inhibition of fat deposition

Males typically have less adipose tissue than females. Recent results indicate that androgens inhibit the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction pathway that normally supports adipocyte function[3]. It has been suggested that Subcutaneous fat be merged into this article or section. ...


Muscle mass

Males typically have more skeletal muscle mass than females. Androgens promote the enlargement of skeletal muscle cells and probably act in a coordinated manner to enhance muscle function by acting on several cell types in skeletal muscle tissue[4]. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Brain

Circulating levels of androgens can influence human behavior because some neurons are sensitive to steroid hormones. Androgen levels have been implicated in the regulation of human aggression[5] and libido. Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ...


Insensitivity to androgen in humans

Reduced ability of a XY karyotype fetus to respond to androgens can result in one of several problems, including infertility and several forms of intersex conditions. See androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... Karyogram of human male using Giemsa staining. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, or Androgen resistance syndrome) is a set of disorders of sexual differentiation that results from mutations of the gene encoding the androgen receptor. ...


See Also

The steroid hormones are referred to by various abbreviations in the biological literature. ...

References

  1. ^ Online textbook: "Developmental Biology" 6th ed. By Scott F. Gilbert (2000) published by Sinauer Associates, Inc. of Sunderland (MA).
  2. ^ Online textbook: "Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach" by S. S. Nussey and S. A. Whitehead (2001) published by BIOS Scientific Publishers, Ltd; Oxford, UK.
  3. ^ Full text article available in PDF format: "Testosterone Inhibits Adipogenic Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells: Nuclear Translocation of Androgen Receptor Complex with {beta}-Catenin and TCF4 may Bypass Canonical Wnt Signaling to Downregulate Adipogenic Transcription Factors" by R. Singh, J. N. Artaza, W. E. Taylor, M. Braga, X. Yuan, N. F. Gonzalez-Cadavid and S Bhasin in Endocrinology (2005) Entrez PubMed 16210377
  4. ^ Androgen Receptor in Human Skeletal Muscle and Cultured Muscle Satellite Cells: Up-Regulation by Androgen Treatment by Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Wayne E. Taylor, Nestor F. Gonzalez-Cadavid, Wei Zheng and Shalender Bhasin in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (2004 ) volume 89 pages 5245-5255.
  5. ^ Full text article available in PDF format: "Testosterone and aggressiveness" by Marco Giammanco, Garden Tabacchi, Santo Giammanco, Danila Di Majo and Maurizio La Guardia in Endocrinology (2005) Entrez PubMed 16210377

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Androgen Fire Art (412 words)
Androgen is a hybridization project incorporating fire performance and art with elements of goth, punk and industrial styling.
As a performance group, we seek to achieve a state of expression through the use of fire and performance and ultimately break the stereotypical imagery associated with fire performance - to challenge the mold of mediocrity and the mundane that tends to plague society.
Rather than a loose group of performers coming together once in a while to put together a rough show, Androgen aims to be a tight knit and well trained performance group, catering for large scale events with a degree of professionalism not often found in fire performance.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Androgen (381 words)
Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androstenedione (Andro): an androgenic steroid, which is produced by the testes, adrenal cortex, and ovaries.
Androstenolone: an androgenic steroid secreted by the adrenal cortex and testes, which is a major precursor of testosterone, but is even weaker than androsterone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m