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Encyclopedia > Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson

In office
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
Vice President(s) none
Preceded by Abraham Lincoln
Succeeded by Ulysses S. Grant

In office
March 4, 1865 – April 15, 1865
President Abraham Lincoln
Preceded by Hannibal Hamlin
Succeeded by Schuyler Colfax

In office
October 8, 1857 – March 4, 1862
Preceded by James C. Jones
Succeeded by Vacant
David T. Patterson (1866)

In office
October 17, 1853 – November 3, 1857
Preceded by William B. Campbell
Succeeded by Isham G. Harris

19th Governor of Tennessee
Military Governor
In office
March 12, 1862 – November 3, 1865
Preceded by Isham G. Harris
Succeeded by E. H. East

Born December 29, 1808(1808-12-29)
Raleigh, North Carolina
Died July 31, 1875 (aged 66)
Greeneville, Tennessee
Nationality American
Political party Democratic until 1864 and after 1869; elected Vice President in 1864 on a National Union ticket; no party affiliation 1865–1869
Spouse Eliza McCardle Johnson
Occupation Tailor
Religion Christian (no denomination)
Signature

Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Andrew Johnson can refer to: Andrew Johnson (1808–1875), 17th President of the United States Andrew Johnson (soldier), Civil War Congressional Medal of Honor recipient Andy Johnson (Welsh footballer) (born 1974) Andrew Johnson (actor), actor in EastEnders Andrew P. Johnson, Texas state representative, 1927-1935 This human name article is... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3019x3677, 1136 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Andrew Johnson Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS)[1] is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... James Chamberlain Jones (April 20, 1809–October 29, 1859) was governor of Tennessee from 1841 to 1845, and a United States Senator from that state from 1851 to 1857. ... David Trotter Patterson (February 28, 1818 – November 3, 1891) was a United States Senator from Tennessee at the beginning of the Reconstruction Period. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Notes 1East was Secretary of State for Tennessee from 1862-1865, appointed by Andrew Johnson, the military governor of the state under Union occupation during the American Civil War. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... William Bowen Campbell (February 1, 1807 - August 19, 1867) was governor of Tennessee from 1851 to 1853. ... Isham Green Harris (February 10, 1818 – July 8, 1897) was an American politician. ... Notes 1East was Secretary of State for Tennessee from 1862-1865, appointed by Andrew Johnson, the military governor of the state under Union occupation during the American Civil War. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Isham Green Harris (February 10, 1818 – July 8, 1897) was an American politician. ... Edward Hazzard East, commonly known as E. H. East (October 1, 1830 – November 12, 1904) served as Secretary of State for the U.S. state of Tennessee from 1862-1865, having been appointed by Andrew Johnson, the military governor of the state under Union occupation during the American Civil... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of this name, see Raleigh. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Greeneville is a town in Greene County, Tennessee, United States. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. Vice President-elect Andrew Johnson U.S. Postmaster General, Montgomery Blair. ... Elizabeth McCardle Johnson, wife of President Andrew Johnson. ... A tailor attending to a customer in Hong Kong. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


Johnson was a U.S. Senator from Greeneville, Tennessee at the time of the secession of the southern states. He was the only Southern Senator not to quit his post upon secession, and became the most prominent War Democrat from the South. In 1862 Lincoln appointed Johnson military governor of Tennessee, where he proved energetic and effective in fighting the rebellion. Johnson was nominated for the Vice President slot in 1864 on the National Union Party ticket. He was elected along with Abraham Lincoln in November 1864, and he became president upon Lincoln's assassination on April 15, 1865. As president he took charge of Presidential Reconstruction — the first phase of Reconstruction — which lasted until the Radical Republicans gained control of Congress in the 1866 elections. His conciliatory policies towards the South, his hurry to reincorporate the former Confederates back into the union, and his vetoes of civil rights bills embroiled him in a bitter dispute with the Radical Republicans. The Radicals in the House of Representatives impeached him in 1868, and he was acquitted by a single vote in the Senate, that of Edmund G. Ross. He was the first U.S. President to be impeached. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Greeneville is a town in Greene County, Tennessee, United States. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS)[1] is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. Vice President-elect Andrew Johnson U.S. Postmaster General, Montgomery Blair. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... The Radical Republicans were an influential faction of American politicians in the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, 1860-1876. ... George W. Bush delivered his annual State of the Union address to a joint session of Congress on January 28, 2003, in the House chamber. ... Debate over Compromise of 1850 in the Old Senate Chamber. ... Edmund Gibson Ross (December 7, 1826 - May 8, 1907) was a politician who represented the state of Kansas and the (then) U.S. Territory of New Mexico. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...

Contents

Early life

Andrew Johnson's boyhood home in Raleigh, North Carolina.

Johnson was born on December 29, 1808, in Raleigh, North Carolina, to Jacob Johnson and Mary McDonough. Andrew Johnson grew up in poverty. When Johnson was three, his father died. At the age of 10 he was apprenticed to a tailor, but at age 16 he and his brother ran away to Greeneville, Tennessee, where he found work as a tailor. [1] Johnson married Eliza McCardle Johnson at the age of 19. He never attended any type of school; he credited his wife, Eliza McCardle Johnson with teaching him to read and write. Image File history File linksMetadata DSCF0857. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DSCF0857. ... For other uses of this name, see Raleigh. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of this name, see Raleigh. ... Jacob Johnson (1778–January 4, 1812) was the father of Andrew Johnson, the seventeenth President of the United States. ... Greeneville is a town in Greene County, Tennessee, United States. ... Elizabeth McCardle Johnson, wife of President Andrew Johnson. ... Elizabeth McCardle Johnson, wife of President Andrew Johnson. ...


Early political career

Johnson served as an alderman in Greeneville from 1828 to 1830 and mayor of Greeneville from 1830 to 1833. As a Democrat he was elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives. An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ... Greeneville is a town in Greene County, Tennessee, United States. ... The Tennessee House of Representatives, in American politics, is the lower house of the state legislature of Tennessee, formally called the Tennessee General Assembly. ...


Political ascendancy

Johnson was elected governor of Tennessee, serving from 1853 to 1857, and was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from October 8, 1857 to March 4, 1862. He was chairman of the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expense (Thirty-sixth Congress). Before Tennessee voted on secession, Johnson toured the state speaking in opposition to the act, which he said was unconstitutional. Johnson was an aggressive stump speaker and often responded to hecklers, even if those hecklers were in the senate. At the time of secession of the Confederacy, Johnson was the only Senator from the seceded states to continue participation in Congress. is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...


In 1862 Lincoln appointed Johnson military governor of Tennessee, where he proved energetic and effective in fighting the rebellion. According to tradition and local lore, on Aug. 8, 1863, Johnson freed his personal slaves.[2] He vigorously suppressed the Confederates and later spoke out for black suffrage, arguing, "The better class of them will go to work and sustain themselves, and that class ought to be allowed to vote, on the ground that a loyal negro is more worthy than a disloyal white man." [3]


Vice Presidency

Pre-Civil War photo of Andrew Johnson.
Pre-Civil War photo of Andrew Johnson.

As a leading War Democrat and pro-Union southerner, Johnson was an ideal candidate for the Republicans in 1864 as they enlarged their base to include War Democrats and changed the party name to the National Union Party. He was elected Vice President of the United States and was inaugurated March 4, 1865. At the ceremony, Johnson, who had been drinking (he explained later) to offset the pain of typhoid fever, gave a rambling speech and appeared intoxicated to many. In early 1865, Johnson talked harshly of hanging traitors like Jefferson Davis, which endeared him to the Radicals. [4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. Vice President-elect Andrew Johnson U.S. Postmaster General, Montgomery Blair. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS)[1] is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ...


Lincoln assassination

On the night of April 14, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated at Ford's Theater in Washington, DC by John Wilkes Booth. Booth's original plan included targeting Vice President Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward, in an attempt to topple the United States government. Johnson was unguarded and alone in his room at the Kirkwood Hotel in Washington, but his would-be assassin, George Atzerodt never acted. [5] Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Fords Theatre in the 19th century Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. was the site of the assassination of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) assassinated Abraham Lincoln the 16th President of the United States at Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... George Atzerodt George Andreas Atzerodt (June 12, 1835 – July 7, 1865)[1][2] was a U.S. conspirator with John Wilkes Booth. ...


Presidency 1865–1869

Johnson was sworn in as President of the United States on April 15, 1865, upon the death of Lincoln that morning. He was the second Vice President to succeed to the U.S. Presidency upon the assassination of a President and the sixth Vice president to become a President. is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ...


Johnson had an ambiguous party status. He attempted to build up a party of loyalists under the National Union label, but he did not identify with either of the two main parties while President—though he did try for the Democratic nomination in 1868. Asked in 1868 why he did not become a Democrat, he said "It is true I am asked why don't I join the Democratic party. Why don't they join me...if I have administered the office of president so well?"[6] 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. Vice President-elect Andrew Johnson U.S. Postmaster General, Montgomery Blair. ...


Foreign policy

Johnson forced the French out of Mexico by sending a combat army to the border and issuing an ultimatum. The French withdrew in 1867, and their puppet government quickly collapsed. Secretary of State Seward negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia on April 9, 1867 for $7.2 Million. Critics sneered at "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox" and "Icebergia." Seward also negotiated to purchase the Danish West Indies, but the Senate refused to approve the purchase in 1867 (it eventually took place in 1917). The Senate likewise rejected Seward's arrangement with the United Kingdom to arbitrate the Alabama Claims. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x611, 80 KB) http://lcweb2. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x611, 80 KB) http://lcweb2. ... Elizabeth McCardle Johnson, wife of President Andrew Johnson. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... Check used to pay for Alaska The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Alaska Purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... The Danish West Indies or Danish Antilles, (DWI, Dansk Vest Indien) are a former colony of Denmark in the Caribbean, now known as the U.S. Virgin Islands. ... During the American Civil War, Confederate States of America raiders (the most famous being the CSS Alabama) were built in Britain and did significant damage to Union naval forces. ...


The U.S. experienced tense relations with the United Kingdom and its colonial government in Canada in the aftermath of the war. Lingering resentment over a perception of British sympathy towards the Confederacy resulted in Johnson initially turning a blind eye towards a series of armed incursions by Irish-American civil war veterans into British territory in Canada, named the Fenian Raids. Eventually Johnson ordered the Fenians disarmed and barred from crossing the border, but his initially hesitant reaction to the crisis helped motivate the movement toward Canadian Confederation. Fenian Monument - Queens Park, Toronto Canada ca. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...


Reconstruction

At first Johnson talked harshly, telling an Indiana delegation in late April, 1865, "Treason must be made odious... traitors must be punished and impoverished... their social power must be destroyed." But then he struck another note: "I say, as to the leaders, punishment. I also say leniency, reconciliation and amnesty to the thousands whom they have misled and deceived." [7]. His class-based resentment of the rich appeared in a May, 1865 statement to W.H. Holden, the man he appointed governor of North Carolina, "I intend to confiscate the lands of these rich men whom I have excluded from pardon by my proclamation, and divide the proceeds thereof among the families of the wool hat boys, the Confederate soldiers, whom these men forced into battle to protect their property in slaves."[8]Johnson in practice was not at all harsh toward the Confederate leaders. He allowed the Southern states to hold elections in 1865 in which prominent ex-Confederates were elected to the U.S. Congress; however, Congress did not seat them. Congress and Johnson argued in an increasingly public way about Reconstruction and the manner in which the Southern secessionist states would be readmitted to the Union. Johnson favored a very quick restoration, similar to the plan of leniency that Lincoln advocated before his death. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


Break with the Republicans: 1866

Johnson-appointed governments all passed Black Codes that gave the Freedmen second class status. In response to the Black Codes and worrisome signs of Southern recalcitrance, the Radical Republicans blocked the re-admission of the ex-rebellious states to the Congress in fall 1865. Congress also renewed the Freedman's Bureau, but Johnson vetoed it. Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois, leader of the moderate Republicans, took affront at the Black Codes. Trumbull proposed the first Civil Rights bill. The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... A Bureau agent stands between an armed group of Southern whites and a group of freed slaves in this 1868 picture from Harpers Weekly The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmens Bureau, was a federal agency that was formed during Reconstruction to aid... Lyman Trumbull was the United States Senator from Illinois during the American Civil War Categories: American politician stubs ...

The Johnson home in Greeneville, Tennessee today known as the Andrew Johnson National Historic Site.
The Johnson home in Greeneville, Tennessee today known as the Andrew Johnson National Historic Site.

Although strongly urged by moderates in Congress to sign the Civil Rights bill, Johnson broke decisively with them by vetoing it on March 27. His veto message objected to the measure because it conferred citizenship on the Freedmen at a time when eleven out of thirty-six States were unrepresented and attempted to fix by Federal law "a perfect equality of the white and black races in every State of the Union." Johnson said it was an invasion by Federal authority of the rights of the States; it had no warrant in the Constitution and was contrary to all precedents. It was a "stride toward centralization and the concentration of all legislative power in the national government." [9] Johnson, in a letter to Governor Thomas C. Fletcher of Missouri, wrote, "This is a country for white men,and by God, as long as I am President, it shall be a government for white men." [10] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixel Image in higher resolution (949 × 674 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixel Image in higher resolution (949 × 674 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Greeneville is a town in Greene County, Tennessee, United States. ... Andrew Johnson National Historic Site is a National Historic Site in Greeneville, Tennessee maintained by the National Park Service. ...


The Democratic party, proclaiming itself the party of white men, north and south, aligned with Johnson. [11] However the Republicans in Congress overrode his veto (the Senate by the vote of 33:15, the House by 182:41) and the Civil Rights bill became law.


The last moderate proposal was the Fourteenth Amendment, also authored by moderate Trumbull. It was designed to put the key provisions of the Civil Rights Act into the Constitution, but it went much further. It extended citizenship to everyone born in the United States (except Indians on reservations), penalized states that did not give the vote to Freedmen, and most importantly, created new federal civil rights that could be protected by federal courts. It guaranteed the Federal war debt (and promised the Confederate debt would never be paid). Johnson used his influence to block the amendment in the states, as three-fourths of the states were required for ratification. (The Amendment was later ratified.) The moderate effort to compromise with Johnson had failed and an all-out political war broke out between the Republicans (both Radical and moderate) on one side, and on the other Johnson and his allies in the Democratic party in the North, and the conservative groupings in the South. The decisive battle was the election of 1866. Johnson campaigned vigorously but was widely ridiculed.[12] The Republicans won by a landslide (the Southern states were not allowed to vote), and took full control of Reconstruction. Johnson was almost powerless. Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The U.S. House election, 1866 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1866 which occurred during President Andrew Johnsons term. ...


Historian James Ford Rhodes has explained Johnson's inability to engage in serious negotiations:[13]

As Senator Charles Sumner shrewdly said, "the President himself is his own worst counselor, as he is his own worst defender." Johnson acted in accordance with his nature. He had intellectual force but it worked in a groove. Obstinate rather than firm it undoubtedly seemed to him that following counsel and making concessions were a display of weakness. At all events from his December message to the veto of the Civil Rights Bill he yielded not a jot to Congress. The moderate senators and representatives (who constituted a majority of the Union party) asked him for only a slight compromise; their action was really an entreaty that he would unite with them to preserve Congress and the country from the policy of the radicals. The two projects which Johnson had most at heart were the speedy admission of the Southern senators and representatives to Congress and the relegation of the question of Negro suffrage to the States themselves. Himself shrinking from the imposition on these communities of the franchise for the colored people, his unyielding position in regard to matters involving no vital principle did much to bring it about. His quarrel with Congress prevented the readmission into the Union on generous terms of the members of the late Confederacy; and for the quarrel and its unhappy results Johnson's lack of imagination and his inordinate sensitiveness to political gadflies were largely responsible: it was not a contest in which fundamentals were involved. He sacrificed two important objects to petty considerations. His pride of opinion, his desire to beat, blinded him to the real welfare of the South and of the whole country. Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and statesman from Massachusetts. ...

Impeachment

First attempt

Theodore R. Davis' illustration of Johnson's impeachment trial in the United States Senate, published in Harper's Weekly.

There were two attempts to remove President Andrew Johnson from office. The first occurred in the fall of 1867. On November 21st of that year, the House Judiciary committee produced a bill of impeachment that was basically a vast collection of complaints against him. After a furious debate, there was a formal vote in the House of Representatives on December 5th, which failed 108-57. [14] Download high resolution version (1208x801, 243 KB)The Senate as a Court of Impeachment for the Trial of Andrew Johnson Theodore R. Davis, artist, illustration in Harpers Weekly, April 11, 1868. ... Download high resolution version (1208x801, 243 KB)The Senate as a Court of Impeachment for the Trial of Andrew Johnson Theodore R. Davis, artist, illustration in Harpers Weekly, April 11, 1868. ... Davis drawing of the Battle of Champion Hill. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


Second attempt

Johnson notified Congress that he had removed Edwin Stanton as Secretary of War and was replacing him in the interim with Adjutant-General Lorenzo Thomas. Johnson had wanted to replace Stanton with former General Ulysses S. Grant, who refused to accept the position. This violated the Tenure of Office Act, a law enacted by Congress in March, 1867 over Johnson's veto, specifically designed to protect Stanton. Johnson had vetoed the act, claiming it was unconstitutional. The act said, "...every person holding any civil office, to which he has been appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate ... shall be entitled to hold such office until a successor shall have been in like manner appointed and duly qualified," thus removing the President's previous unlimited power to remove any of his Cabinet members at will. Years later in the case Myers v. United States in 1926, the Supreme Court ruled that such laws were indeed unconstitutional. The Impeachent of President Andrew Johnson was the biggest affair in the United States during Reconstruction. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 - December 24, 1869), born in Steubenville, Ohio, was an American political figure, prominent in the American Civil War and in the Reconstruction era. ... lpijjihihhjkhhhhyhuhuighuighughbuhhhughughugiguguigiugggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggguiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiggggggggggggggggggggguiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggggggiuuuuuuuuuuuuugggggggggggggggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggiuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuugggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... The Tenure of Office Act, passed in 1867 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson, denied the President of the United States the power to remove from office anyone who had been appointed or approved by Congress, unless the removal was also approved by Congress. ... Myers v. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...

The 1868 Impeachment Resolution

The Senate and House entered into debate. Thomas attempted to move into the war office, for which Stanton had Thomas arrested. Three days after Stanton's removal, the House impeached Johnson for intentionally violating the Tenure of Office Act. Download high resolution version (902x1170, 523 KB)http://teachpol. ... Download high resolution version (902x1170, 523 KB)http://teachpol. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...

The Situation
A Harper's Weekly cartoon gives a humorous breakdown of "the situation". Secretary of War Edwin Stanton aims a cannon labeled "Congress" on the side at President Johnson and Lorenzo Thomas to show how Stanton was using congress to defeat the president and his unsuccessful replacement. He also holds a rammer marked "Tenure of Office Bill" and cannon balls on the floor are marked "Justice". Ulysses S. Grant and an unidentified man stand to Stanton's left.

On March 5, 1868, a court of impeachment was constituted in the Senate to hear charges against the President. William M. Evarts served as his counsel. Eleven articles were set out in the resolution, and the trial before the Senate lasted almost three months. Johnson's defense was based on a clause in the Tenure of Office Act stating that the then-current secretaries would hold their posts throughout the term of the President who appointed them. Since Lincoln had appointed Stanton, it was claimed, the applicability of the act had already run its course. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (899x594, 125 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (899x594, 125 KB) http://hdl. ... Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 - December 24, 1869), born in Steubenville, Ohio, was an American political figure, prominent in the American Civil War and in the Reconstruction era. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... lpijjihihhjkhhhhyhuhuighuighughbuhhhughughugiguguigiugggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggguiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiggggggggggggggggggggguiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggggggiuuuuuuuuuuuuugggggggggggggggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiigggggggggggggggggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggiuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuugggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ...


There were three votes in the Senate: one on May 16 for the 11th article of impeachment, which included many of the charges contained in the other articles, and two on May 26 for the second and third articles, after which the trial adjourned. On all three occasions, thirty-five Senators voted "Guilty" and nineteen "Not Guilty". As the Constitution requires a two-thirds majority for conviction in impeachment trials, Johnson was acquitted. A single changed vote would have sufficed to return a "Guilty" verdict. Seven Republican senators were disturbed by how the proceedings had been manipulated in order to give a one-sided presentation of the evidence. Senators William Pitt Fessenden, Joseph S. Fowler, James W. Grimes, John B. Henderson, Lyman Trumbull, Peter G. Van Winkle [15], and Edmund G. Ross of Kansas, who provided the decisive vote [16], defied their party and public opinion and voted against impeachment. William Pitt Fessenden (October 16, 1806—September 8, 1869) was an American politician from the U.S. state of New Hampshire. ... Joseph Smith Fowler (August 31, 1820 – April 1, 1902) was a United States Senator from Tennessee from 1866 to 1871. ... James Wilson Grimes (October 20, 1816 – February 7, 1872), born in Deering, New Hampshire, was an American politician, serving as the Whig governor of and senator from Iowa. ... John B. Henderson John Brooks Henderson (November 16, 1826 – April 12, 1913) was a United States Senator from Missouri and a co-author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... Lyman Trumbull was the United States Senator from Illinois during the American Civil War Categories: American politician stubs ... Peter G. Van Winkle Peter Godwin Van Winkle (September 7, 1808 – April 15, 1872) was a United States Senator from West Virginia. ... Edmund Gibson Ross (December 7, 1826 - May 8, 1907) was a politician who represented the state of Kansas and the (then) U.S. Territory of New Mexico. ...


Before 1960 most historians held the impeachment of Andrew Johnson as a violation of American values regarding division of powers and fair play. Had Johnson been successfully removed from office, he would have been replaced with Radical Republican Benjamin Wade, making the presidency and Congress somewhat uniform in ideology, although in many ways Wade was more "radical" than the Republicans in Congress. This would have established a precedent that a President could be removed not for "high crimes and misdemeanors," but for purely political differences. The Radical Republicans were an influential faction of American politicians in the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, 1860-1876. ... Benjamin Franklin Wade (October 27, 1800–March 2, 1878) was a U.S. lawyer. ...


Christmas Day amnesty for Confederates

One of Johnson's last significant acts was granting unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on Christmas Day, December 25, 1868. This was after the election of U.S. Grant to succeed him, but before Grant took office in March, 1869. Earlier amnesties requiring signed oaths and excluding certain classes of people were issued both by Lincoln and by Johnson. Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Administration and Cabinet

The Johnson Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Andrew Johnson 1865 – 1869
Vice President None 1865 – 1869
Secretary of State William H. Seward 1865 – 1869
Secretary of Treasury Hugh McCulloch 1865 – 1869
Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton 1865 – 1868
John M. Schofield 1868 – 1869
Attorney General James Speed 1865 – 1866
Henry Stanberry 1866 – 1868
William M. Evarts 1868 – 1869
Postmaster General William Dennison 1865 – 1866
Alexander W. Randall 1866 – 1869
Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles 1865 – 1869
Secretary of the Interior John P. Usher 1865
James Harlan 1865 – 1866
Orville H. Browning 1866 – 1869


Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS)[1] is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Hugh McCulloch Hugh McCulloch (December 7, 1808 – May 24, 1895) was an American statesman who served two non-consecutive terms as U.S. Treasury Secretary, serving under three presidents. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... Portrait of John Schofield during the Civil War John McAllister Schofield (September 29, 1831 – March 4, 1906) was an American soldier who held major commands during the Civil War. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... James Speed (March 11, 1812–June 25, 1887) was a American lawyer, politician and professor. ... Henry Stanberry (February 20, 1803–June 26, 1881) was an American lawyer and Presidential Cabinet member. ... Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... William Dennison, Jr. ... Alexander Williams Randall (1819-1872) was a lawyer, judge and politician from Wisconsin. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... John Palmer Usher (1816 - 1889) was a U.S. administrator. ... James Harlan (August 26, 1820 - October 5, 1899) was a member of the United States Senate and a U.S. Cabinet Secretary. ... Orville Hickman Browning (1806-1881) was a Republican Senator from Illinois. ...

States admitted to the Union

Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ...

Post-Presidency

Andrew Johnson National Cemetery, the final resting place of Andrew and Eliza Johnson as well as their children in Greeneville, Tennessee.

Johnson was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate from Tennessee in 1868 and to the House of Representatives in 1872. However, in 1874 the Tennessee legislature did elect him to the U.S. Senate. Johnson served from March 4, 1875, until his death from a stroke near Elizabethton, Tennessee, on July 31 that same year. In his first speech since returning to the Senate, which was also his last, Johnson denounced the corruptions of the Grant Administration and his passions aroused a standing ovation from many of his fellow senators who had once voted to remove him from the presidency. He is the only President to serve in the Senate after his presidency. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Elizabeth McCardle Johnson, wife of President Andrew Johnson. ... Greeneville is a town in Greene County, Tennessee, United States. ... Elizabethton is the county seat of Carter County, Tennessee. ...


Interment was in the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery, Greeneville, Tennessee, where he was buried with a copy of the Constitution. Andrew Johnson National Cemetery is now part of the Andrew Johnson National Historic Site. Greeneville is a town in Greene County, Tennessee, United States. ... Andrew Johnson National Historic Site is a National Historic Site in Greeneville, Tennessee maintained by the National Park Service. ...


Historians' changing view of Andrew Johnson

Engraving of Andrew Johnson

Historians have gone through cycles on Johnson. The Dunning School of the early 20th century saw him as a heroic bulwark against the corruption of the Radical Republicans who tried to remove the entire leadership class of the white South. Johnson seemed to be the legitimate heir of the sainted Abraham Lincoln. By the 1930s a series of favorable biographies enhanced his prestige.[17] Johnson's Republican critics of the 1860s appeared as disreputable to liberal historians as did the Republican critics of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Furthermore, a Beardian School (named after Charles Beard and typified by Howard K. Beale) argued that the Republican Party in the 1860s was a tool of corrupt business interests, and that Johnson stood for the people. Historian Eric Foner says that by 1948, historians regarded Reconstruction, "as a time of corruption and misgovernment caused by granting black men the right to vote." They rated Johnson "near great." By 1960, however, historians such as Erik McKitrick demonstrated that Johnson was a poor politician who could not build coalitions and was doomed to failure. The Civil Rights movement of the 1960s brought a new perspective, akin to that of the abolitionists of the 1860s. This neo-abolitionist school gave muted praise for Republican efforts to help the blacks, and excoriated Johnson for siding explicitly with the white South. Today, Foner argues, scholars consider Reconstruction "a flawed but noble attempt to build an interracial democracy from the ashes of slavery — and Johnson a flat failure." [18] PD image from http://www. ... PD image from http://www. ... The Dunning School was from 1900 to 1960 the dominant school of historiography regarding the Reconstruction period in American history, 1865-1877. ... Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 _ September 1, 1948) was an American historian, author with James Harvey Robinson of The Development of Modern Europe (1907). ... Historically, various popular movements struggling for social justice and democratic rights since the Second World War were known as civil rights movement, most famously the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which struggled for equal rights for African-Americans. ... Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist or new abolitionism) is a term used by historians to refer to the rebirth of the civil rights movement in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and to the late 20th century historiographic tradition by historians who re-evaluated periods of slavery, the American Civil War...


Johnson's most important foreign policy action was the purchase of Alaska from Russia (the future Soviet Union), which would prove vital to national security later during the Cold War. The idea and implementation is credited to Seward as Secretary of State, but Johnson approved the plan. It should be remembered that gold was not discovered in Alaska until 1880, thirteen years after the purchase and five years after Johnson's death, and that oil was not discovered until 1968. The Alaska Purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


See also

The United States presidential election of 1864 saw Abraham Lincoln, the Republican running on a coalition ticket, win by a landslide over the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. ... // Era Overview At the end of the Civil War, the United States was still bitterly divided. ... Tennessee Johnson was a 1942 American film about Andrew Johnson, the 17th president of the United States. ...

Bibliography

  • Howard K. Beale, The Critical Year. A Study of Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (1930). ISBN 0-8044-1085-2
  • Michael Les Benedict, The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1999). ISBN 0-393-31982-2 online edition
  • Albert E. Castel, The Presidency of Andrew Johnson (1979). ISBN 0-7006-0190-2
  • D. M. DeWitt, The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1903).
  • W. A. Dunning, Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction (New York, 1898) online edition
  • W. A. Dunning, Reconstruction, Political and Economic (New York, 1907) online edition
  • Foster, G. Allen, Impeached: The President who almost lost his job (New York, 1964).
  • Eric L. McKitrick, Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (1961). ISBN 0-19-505707-4
  • Martin E. Mantell; Johnson, Grant, and the Politics of Reconstruction (1973) online edition
  • Hatfield, Mark O, with the Senate Historical Office, Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789-1993.(Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997), p.219
  • Howard Means, The Avenger Takes His Place: Andrew Johnson and the 45 Days That Changed the Nation (New York, 2006)
  • Milton; George Fort. The Age of Hate: Andrew Johnson and the Radicals (1930) online edition
  • Patton; James Welch. Unionism and Reconstruction in Tennessee, 1860–1869 (1934) online edition
  • Rhodes; James Ford History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume: 6. 1920. Pulitzer prize. online edition
  • Schouler, James. History of the United States of America: Under the Constitution vol. 7. 1865–1877. The Reconstruction Period (1917) online edition
  • Lloyd P. Stryker, Andrew Johnson: A Study in Courage (1929). ISBN 0-403-01231-7 online edition
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Andrew Johnson: A Biography (1989). ISBN 0-393-31742-0 online edition
  • Winston; Robert W. Andrew Johnson: Plebeian and Patriot (1928) online edition

William Archibald Dunning (1857-1922) was an American historian who founded the Dunning School of Reconstruction historiography at Columbia University. ...

Primary sources

Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Karin L Zipf. Labor Of Innocents: Forced Apprenticeship in North Carolina, 1715–1919 (2005) pp 8–9
  2. ^ Tennessee Recalls Emancipation, Segregation
  3. ^ Patton p 126
  4. ^ Trefousse p. 198
  5. ^ Atzerodt was hung along with fellow conspirators. Swanson, J: "Manhunt.", p. 154. HarperCollins, 2006
  6. ^ Trefousse, Hans Louis. Andrew Johnson: A Biography (1997), p. 338-339.
  7. ^ Milton 183
  8. ^ "Memoirs of W.W. Holden: Electronic Edition".
  9. ^ Rhodes, History 6:68
  10. ^ Trefousse pg. 236. Online reference to the quote available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/grant/peopleevents/e_impeach.html
  11. ^ Trefousse 1999
  12. ^ Andrew Johnson Cleveland Speech (September 3, 1866)
  13. ^ Rhodes, History 6:74
  14. ^ Trefousse, 1989 pages 302–3
  15. ^ "Andrew Johnson Trial: The Consciences of Seven Republicans Save Johnson".
  16. ^ "The Trial of Andrew Johnson, 1868".
  17. ^ Highly favorable were Winston (1928), Stryker (1929), Milton (1930), and Claude Bowers, The Tragic Era (1929).
  18. ^ Washington Post Dec. 1, 2006

External links

Wikisource
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Andrew Johnson
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Political offices
Preceded by
William B. Campbell
Governor of Tennessee
1853 – 1857
Succeeded by
Isham G. Harris
Preceded by
Isham G. Harris
as Governor of Tennessee
Military Governor of Tennessee
1862 – 1865
Succeeded by
Edward H. East
as Acting Governor of Tennessee
Preceded by
Hannibal Hamlin
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1865 – April 15, 1865
Succeeded by
Schuyler Colfax
Preceded by
Abraham Lincoln
President of the United States
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
Succeeded by
Ulysses S. Grant
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Thomas D. Arnold
Member from Tennessee's 1st congressional district
March 4, 1843 – March 3, 1853
Succeeded by
Brookins Campbell
United States Senate
Preceded by
James C. Jones
Senator from Tennessee (Class 1)
October 8, 1857 – March 4, 1862
Served alongside: John Bell, Alfred O. P. Nicholson
Vacant
Title next held by
David T. Patterson
Preceded by
William G. Brownlow
Senator from Tennessee (Class 1)
March 4, 1875 – July 31, 1875
Served alongside: Henry Cooper
Succeeded by
David M. Key
Party political offices
Preceded by
Hannibal Hamlin
Republican Party¹ vice presidential candidate
1864
Succeeded by
Schuyler Colfax
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Millard Fillmore
Oldest U.S. President still living
March 8, 1874 – July 31, 1875
Succeeded by
Ulysses S. Grant
Notes & References
1. Lincoln and Johnson ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
Persondata
NAME Johnson, Andrew
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION seventeenth President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH December 29, 1808(1808-12-29)
PLACE OF BIRTH Raleigh, North Carolina
DATE OF DEATH July 31, 1875
PLACE OF DEATH Greeneville, Tennessee

  Results from FactBites:
 
Andrew Johnson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1531 words)
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the sixteenth Vice President (1865) and the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
Johnson served as an alderman in Greeneville from 1828 to 1830 and mayor of Greeneville from 1830 to 1833.
Johnson was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate in 1868 and to the House of Representatives in 1872.
Andrew Johnson - MSN Encarta (788 words)
Johnson’s impeachment was the result of a struggle to preserve the powers of the presidency in the face of attacks by a determined Congress of the United States.
Andrew, the younger of their two sons, was born in a small log house in Raleigh on December 29, 1808.
Johnson then served in the Tennessee house of representatives from 1835 to 1837 and from 1839 to 1843, when he was elected to the state senate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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