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Encyclopedia > Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson


In office
March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837
Vice President(s) John C. Calhoun (1829-1832),
None (1832-1833),
Martin Van Buren (1833-1837)
Preceded by John Quincy Adams
Succeeded by Martin Van Buren

1st Territorial Governor of Florida
Military Governor
In office
March 10, 1821 – November 12, 1821
President James Monroe
Preceded by None (Spanish territory)
Succeeded by William P. Duval

In office
September 26, 1797 – April, 1798
Preceded by William Cocke
Succeeded by Daniel Smith
In office
March 4, 1823 – October 14, 1825
Preceded by John Williams
Succeeded by Hugh Lawson White

In office
December 4, 1796 – September 26, 1797
Preceded by None - first TN Congressman (statehood)
Succeeded by William C. C. Claiborne

Born March 15, 1767(1767-03-15)
Lancaster County, South Carolina
Died June 08, 1845 (aged 78)
Nashville, Tennessee;
Nationality American
Political party Democratic-Republican and Democratic
Spouse Widowed. Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson. (Niece Emily Donelson Jackson and daughter-in-law Sarah Yorke Jackson were first ladies)
Occupation Prosecutor, Judge, Farmer (Planter), Soldier (General)
Religion Presbyterian
Signature Andrew Jackson's signature

Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767June 8, 1845) was the 7th President of the United States (1829–1837). He was also military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. He was a polarizing figure who dominated American politics in the 1820s and 1830s. His political ambition combined with the masses of people shaped the modern Democratic Party.[1] Nicknamed "Old Hickory" because he was renowned for his toughness, Jackson was the first President primarily associated with the frontier as he based his career in Tennessee. Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States (1829-1837) Andrew Jackson can also refer to: Andrew Jackson (actor), Canadian film and television actor. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Andrew_Jackson. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, at the center of the foreign policy and financial disputes of his age and best known as a spokesman for... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... List of Governors of Florida: Florida Governors Military Government Territorial Government Statehood Categories: Lists of United States governors | Governors of Florida | Government of Florida ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ... Motto (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem  1(Spanish) Royal March Spain() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Madrid Official languages Spanish2 Demonym Spanish, Spaniard Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Head of State King Juan Carlos I  -  President of the Government Formation 15th century   -  Dynastic union 1516   -  Unification... William Pope DuVal (September 4, 1784–March 19, 1854) was the first governor of Florida Territory, serving from April 17, 1822 until April 24, 1834. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... William Cocke William Cocke (September 6, 1747–August 22, 1828) was an American lawyer, pioneer, and statesman. ... Daniel Smith (October 29, 1748–June 16, 1818) was a surveyor, an American Revolutionary War patriot, and twice a United States Senator from Tennessee. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Williams (1778–1837) was an American lawyer, soldier, and statesman from Knoxville, Tennessee. ... This is about the 19th century Tennessee politician; for the 20th century Mississippi politician, see Hugh L. White. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Tennessee to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... William Charles Cole Claiborne (1775 - 23 November 1817) was a United States politican, best known as the first U.S. governor of Louisiana. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lancaster County is a county located in the U.S. state of South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other cities named Nashville, see Nashville (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson, wife of President Andrew Jackson. ... Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), one of the founders of the Democratic Party, was the seventh President of the United States, serving from 1829 to 1837. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies (from left to right) Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... This article is about crop plantations. ... This article is about a military rank. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Florida became as United States territory by the terms of the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1821 and joined the Union as the twenty-seventh state on March 3, 1845. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Sir Alexander Cochrane Sir Edward M. Pakenham† John Keane John Lambert Andrew Jackson William Carroll John Coffee Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... Jacksonian democracy refers to the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his followers in the new Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...

Contents

Early life and career

Jackson refusing to clean a British officer's boots (1876 lithography)
Jackson refusing to clean a British officer's boots (1876 lithography)

Andrew Jackson was born to Presbyterian Scots-Irish immigrants Andrew and Elizabeth Jackson in Lancaster County, South Carolina, on March 15, 1767.[2] He was the youngest of three brothers and was born just weeks after his father's death. Both North Carolina and South Carolina have claimed Jackson as a "native son," because the community straddled the state line, and there was conflicting lore in the neighborhood about his exact birth site. Controversies about Jackson's birthplace went far beyond the dispute between North and South Carolina. Because his origins were humble and obscure compared to those of his predecessors, wild rumors abounded about Jackson's past. Joseph Nathan Kane, in his almanac-style book Facts About the Presidents, lists no fewer than eight localities, including two foreign countries, that were mentioned in the popular press as Jackson's "real" birthplace including Ireland where both of Jackson's parents were born. Jackson himself always stated definitively that he was born in a cabin just inside South Carolina. Having received a sporadic education, Jackson, at age thirteen and during the American Revolutionary War, joined a local regiment as a courier.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Scots-Irish Americans are descendants of the Scots-Irish immigrants who came to North America in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... Andrew Jackson, Sr. ... Marker in Charleston, South Carolina. ... Lancaster County is a county located in the U.S. state of South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about military actions only. ...


Jackson trained to be a saddler in 1781.[4] An R-16 Missile The R-16 was the first successful intercontinental ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union. ...


Andrew and his brother Robert Jackson were taken as prisoners, and they nearly starved to death. When Andrew refused to clean the boots of a British officer, the irate redcoat slashed at him, giving him scars on his left hand and head, as well as an intense hatred for the British. Both boys contracted smallpox while imprisoned, and Robert died days after his mother secured their release. Jackson's entire immediate family died from war-time related hardships that Jackson blamed upon the British and left him orphaned by age 15. Jackson was the last U.S. President to have been a veteran of the American Revolution, and the second President to have been a prisoner of war (Washington had been captured by the French in the French and Indian War). Jackson went to Tennessee in 1787. Though he could barely read law, he found he knew enough to become a young lawyer on the frontier. Since he was not from a distinguished family, he had to make his career by his own merits; and soon he began to prosper in the rough-and-tumble world of frontier law. Most of the actions grew out of disputed land-claims, or from assaults and battery. He was elected as Tennessee's first Congressman, upon its statehood in the late 1790s, and quickly became a U.S. Senator in 1797 but resigned within a year. In 1798, he was appointed judge on the Tennessee Supreme Court. [5] Scarlet is a color with a hue between red and orange. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The Tennessee Supreme Court is the highest appellate court of the State of Tennessee. ...


Military career

War of 1812

Main articles: Creek War and Battle of New Orleans

Jackson became a colonel in the Tennessee militia, which he had led since the beginning of his military career in 1801. During the War of 1812, in 1813, Northern Creek Band chieftain Peter McQueen killed 400 men, women, and children in what became known as the Fort Mims Massacre (in what is now Alabama). Jackson commanded in the campaign against the Northern Creek Indians of Alabama and Georgia, also known as the "Red Sticks." Creek leaders such as William Weatherford (Red Eagle), Peter McQueen, and Menawa, who had been allies of the British during the War of 1812, violently clashed with other chiefs of the Creek Nation over white encroachment on Creek lands and the "civilizing" programs administered by U.S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins. Combatants United States Lower Creeks Cherokees Red Sticks (Creek Indians) Commanders Andrew Jackson John Coffee William McIntosh William Weatherford Menawa Peter McQueen Strength 7,000 4,000 Casualties 500 Settlers 125 Soldiers 1,900 The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Sir Alexander Cochrane Sir Edward M. Pakenham† John Keane John Lambert Andrew Jackson William Carroll John Coffee Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... Peter McQueen ca. ... Fort Mims Massacre External Links A Drawing of Fort Mims Description of Massacre at Rootsweb Categories: Battles of the Creek War | 1813 ... Red Sticks is the English term for a faction of Creek Indians (known as mvskoke in the language). ... William Red Eagle Weatherford, (1780 – March 24, 1824), was a Creek (Muscogee) Indian who led the Creek War offensive against the United States. ... Menawas portrait was painted by Charles Bird King when Menawa visited Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the Treaty of Indian Springs. ... Sen. ...


In the Creek War, a theatre of the War of 1812, Jackson defeated the Red Stick Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson was aided by members of the Southern Creek Indian Band, who had requested Jackson's aid in putting down the "rebellious" Red Sticks, and some Cherokee Indians, who also sided with the Americans. 800 Northern Creek Band "Red Sticks" Indians were killed. Jackson spared Weatherford's life from any acts of vengeance. Sam Houston and David Crockett, later to become famous themselves in Texas, served under Jackson at this time. Following the victory, Jackson imposed the Treaty of Fort Jackson upon both his Northern Creek enemy and Southern Creek allies, wresting 20 million acres (81,000 km²) from all Creeks for white settlement. Combatants United States Lower Creeks Cherokees Red Sticks (Creek Indians) Commanders Andrew Jackson John Coffee William McIntosh William Weatherford Menawa Peter McQueen Strength 7,000 4,000 Casualties 500 Settlers 125 Soldiers 1,900 The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil... Combatants Creek Indians Red Sticks United States Cherokee Creek allies Commanders Menawa Andrew Jackson Strength 1,000 Red Stick Creek about 2,000 infantry 700 mounted infantry 600 Cherokee and Lower Creeks Casualties 800 49 killed 154 wounded // Although having nothing to do with the British or Canadians, the battle... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Samuel Houston (March 2, 1793–July 26, 1863) was a 19th century American statesman, politician and soldier. ... Davy Crockett David Crockett (August 17, 1786–March 6, 1836) was an American folk-hero usually referred to now as Davy Crockett. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Fort Jackson, also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814 was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick ( Upper Creek) resistance by United States forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the banks of...


Jackson's service in the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom was conspicuous for its bravery and success. He was a strict officer, but was popular with his troops. It was said he was "tough as old hickory" wood on the battlefield, which gave him his nickname. The war, and particularly his command at the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815, made his national reputation. He advanced in rank to Major General. In the battle, Jackson's 4,000 militiamen and 16 heavy cannons behind barricades of cotton bales opposed 10,000 British regulars marching across an open field, led by General Edward Pakenham. The battle was a total American victory. The British had over 2,000 casualties to Jackson's 13 killed and 58 wounded or missing. Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Sir Alexander Cochrane Sir Edward M. Pakenham† John Keane John Lambert Andrew Jackson William Carroll John Coffee Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Sir Edward Michael Pakenham (pro. ...


First Seminole War

Main article: Seminole Wars

Jackson served in the military again during the First Seminole War when he was ordered by President James Monroe in December 1817 to lead a campaign in Georgia against the Seminole and Creek Indians. Jackson was also charged with preventing Spanish Florida from becoming a refuge for runaway slaves. Critics later alleged that Jackson exceeded orders in his Florida actions. His directions were to "terminate the conflict."[6] Jackson believed the best way to do this would be to seize Florida. Before going, Jackson wrote to Monroe, "Let it be signified to me through any channel... that the possession of the Floridas would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished."[7] Monroe gave Jackson orders that were purposely ambiguous, sufficient for international denials. Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ... The Seminole are a Native American Indian people of Florida. ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ...

A bust of Andrew Jackson at the Plaza Ferdinand VII in Pensacola, Florida, where Jackson was sworn in as territorial governor.
A bust of Andrew Jackson at the Plaza Ferdinand VII in Pensacola, Florida, where Jackson was sworn in as territorial governor.

In a violent confrontation, the Seminoles attacked Jackson's Tennessee volunteers. The Seminoles' attack, however, left their villages vulnerable, and Jackson burned them and their crops. He found letters that indicated that the Spanish and British were secretly assisting the Indians. Jackson believed that the United States would not be secure as long as Spain and Great Britain encouraged Native Americans to fight and argued that his actions were undertaken in self-defense. Jackson captured Pensacola, Florida, with little more than some warning shots and deposed the Spanish governor. He captured, and then tried and executed two British subjects, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot who had been supplying and advising the Indians. Jackson's action also struck fear into the Seminole tribes as word of his ruthlessness in battle spread. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (718x960, 336 KB) A bust of Andrew Jackson, in Plaza Ferdinand VII, Pensacola, Florida. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (718x960, 336 KB) A bust of Andrew Jackson, in Plaza Ferdinand VII, Pensacola, Florida. ... A bust of Andrew Jackson at the Plaza Ferdinand VII, where Jackson was sworn in as Governor. ... Nickname: Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Escambia Government  - Mayor John Fogg Area  - City 39. ... Nickname: Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Escambia Government  - Mayor John Fogg Area  - City 39. ... Alexander George Arbuthnot. ...


The executions combined with Jackson's daring attack and seizure over a country they were not at war with created an international incident, and many in the Monroe administration called for Jackson to be censured. However, Jackson's actions were defended by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, an early believer in the Manifest Destiny. When the Spanish minister demanded a "suitable punishment" for Jackson, Adams wrote back "Spain must immediately [decide] either to place a force in Florida adequate at once to the protection of her territory, ... or cede to the United States a province, of which she retains nothing but the nominal possession, but which is, in fact, ... a post of annoyance to them."[8] Adams used Jackson's conquest, and Spain's own weaknesses, to convince the Spanish (in the Adams-Onís Treaty) to cede Florida to the United States. Jackson was subsequently named its territorial governor. For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 (formally titled the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty, and also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, and sometimes the Florida Purchase Treaty) was a historic agreement between the United States and...


Election of 1824

The Tennessee legislature nominated Jackson for president in 1822. It also made him a Senator again in the United States Senate. In 1824, most of the Democratic-Republican Party in Congress had boycotted the nominating caucus; those that adhered to it backed William H. Crawford for president and Albert Gallatin for vice president. A convention in Pennsylvania nominated Jackson for president almost a month later, on March 4. Gallatin critiqued Jackson as "an honest man and the idol of the worshippers of military glory, but from incapacity, military habits, and habitual disregard of laws and constitutional provisions, altogether unfit for the office."[9] Thomas Jefferson, who would later write to William Crawford in dismay at the outcome of the election,[10] wrote to Jackson in December of 1823: In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... The Congressional nominating caucus is the name for informal meetings in which American congressmen would agree on who to nominate for the Presidency and Vice Presidency from their political party. ... William Harris Crawfordlalalalalalala (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an important American politician, as well as a judge, during the early 19th century. ... Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...

"I recall with pleasure the remembrance of our joint labors while in the Senate together in times of great trial and of hard battling, battles indeed of words, not of blood, as those you have since fought so much for your own glory & that of your country; with the assurance that my attamts continue undiminished, accept that of my great respect & consideration."[11]

Biographer Robert V. Remini said that Jefferson "had no great love for Jackson." Daniel Webster wrote that Jefferson told him in December of 1824 that Jackson was a dangerous man unfit for the presidency. [12] Historian Sean Wilentz described Webster's account of the meeting as "not wholly reliable."[13] Robert V. Remini (b. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Sean Wilentz (b. ...


During his first run for the presidency in 1824, Jackson received a plurality of both the popular and electoral votes. Since no candidate received a majority, the election decision was given to the House of Representatives, which chose John Quincy Adams as president in 1825. Jackson denounced it as a "corrupt bargain" because House Speaker Henry Clay gave his votes to Adams, who then appointed Clay Secretary of State. Jackson later called for the abolition of the Electoral College in his first annual message to Congress as president.[14] Jackson's defeat burnished his political credentials, however, since many voters believed the "man of the people" had been robbed by the "corrupt aristocrats of the East." In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... Three deals cut in connection with the Presidency of the United States, two in contested United States presidential elections and one involving a Presidential appointment of a Vice President, have been described as Corrupt Bargains. ... For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ...


Election of 1828

The Tennessee legislature again nominated Jackson for the presidency. He resigned from United States Senate in 1825. Jackson attracted Vice President John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Thomas Ritchie into his camp (the latter two previous promoters of William H. Crawford). Van Buren, with help from his friends in Philadelphia and Richmond, revived the old Republican Party, gave it a new name, "restored party rivalries," and forged a national organization of durability.[15] That coalition handily defeated the reelection of John Quincy Adams in 1828. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, at the center of the foreign policy and financial disputes of his age and best known as a spokesman for... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Thomas Ritchie (Nov. ... William Harris Crawfordlalalalalalala (February 24, 1772 – September 15, 1834) was an important American politician, as well as a judge, during the early 19th century. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Richmond refers to various place names, schools and universities, people, and other uses around the world. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ...


During the election, Jackson's opponents referred to him as a "Jackass." Jackson liked the name and used the jackass as a symbol for a while, but it died out. However, it later became the symbol for the Democratic Party when cartoonist Thomas Nast popularized it.[16] Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ...


Presidency 1829–1837

See also: Jacksonian democracy

Jackson experienced the first known case of a President being handed a baby to kiss. However, Jackson declined to and handed the baby to Secretary of War John H. Eaton to do the honors.[4] Jacksonian democracy refers to the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his followers in the new Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... John Henry Eaton (June 18, 1790–November 17, 1856) was an American politician from Tennessee. ...


Federal debt

In 1835, Jackson managed to reduce the federal debt to only $33,733.05, the lowest it has been since the first fiscal year of 1791.[17] However, this accomplishment was short lived, and a severe depression from 1837 to 1844 caused a ten-fold increase in national debt within its first year.[18] WORLD OF WARCRAFT IS THE BEST GAME EVER INVENTED AND PLAY IT. IF YOU DONT PLAY WORLD OF WARCRAFT, YOU ARE A nOOb. ...


Spoils system

Main article: Spoils system

When Jackson became President, he implemented the theory of rotation in office, declaring it "a leading principle in the republican creed."[14] He believed that rotation in office would prevent the development of a corrupt bureaucracy. In addition, Jackson's supporters wanted to give the posts to fellow party members, as an incentive to continue and support the party, and as a reward to strengthen party loyalty. In practice, this meant replacing federal employees with friends or party loyalists.[19] By the end of his term, Jackson had dismissed less than twenty percent of the original federal employees.[20] While Jackson did not start the "spoils system," he did indirectly encourage its growth for many years to come. In the politics of the United States, a spoils system refers to an informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party. ... Rotation in office was a feature of the American political system of the nineteenth century. ...


Opposition to the National Bank

As president, Jackson worked to take away the federal charter of the Second Bank of the United States (it would continue to exist as a state bank). The Second Bank had been authorized, during James Madison's tenure in 1816, for a 20-year period. Jackson opposed the national bank concept on ideological grounds. In Jackson's veto message (written by George Bancroft), the bank needed to be abolished because: The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ... The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... George Bancroft (October 3, 1800 – January 17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman. ...

Democratic cartoon shows Jackson fighting the monster Bank. "The Bank," Jackson told Martin Van Buren, "is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!"
Democratic cartoon shows Jackson fighting the monster Bank. "The Bank," Jackson told Martin Van Buren, "is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!"
  • It concentrated an excessive amount of the nation's financial strength into a single institution
  • It exposed the government to control by "foreign interests"
  • It served mainly to make the rich richer
  • It exercised too much control over members of the Congress
  • It favored Northeastern states over Southern and Western states

Jackson followed Jefferson as a supporter of the ideal of an "agricultural republic" and felt the bank improved the fortunes of an "elite circle" of commercial and industrial entrepreneurs at the expense of farmers and laborers. After a titanic struggle, Jackson succeeded in destroying the bank by vetoing its 1832 re-charter by Congress and by withdrawing U.S. funds in 1833.

The bank's money-lending functions were taken over by the legions of local and state banks that sprang up. This fed an expansion of credit and speculation. At first, as Jackson withdrew money from the Bank to invest it in other banks, land sales, canal construction, cotton production, and manufacturing boomed.[21] However, due to the practice of issuing notes that were not backed by gold or silver reserves, there was soon rapid inflation and mounting debts by the states.[22] Then, in 1836, Jackson issued the specie circular, which required that government lands be bought in hard specie. Because banks lacked hard specie to issue in return for notes, many of them collapsed.[23] This was a direct cause for the Panic of 1837, which threw the national economy into a deep depression. The commercial progress of the nation's economy was noticeably dented by the resulting failures, and it took years to recover from the damage. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1512x918, 372 KB) Summary Jackson fights the Bank in 1832 (1833 print) Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1512x918, 372 KB) Summary Jackson fights the Bank in 1832 (1833 print) Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... The Specie Circular (Coinage Act) was an executive order issued by U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1836 and carried out by President Martin Van Buren. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... Whig campaign poster blames Van Buren for hard times (1840). ...

1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the devil's Bank

The U.S. Senate censured Jackson on March 28, 1834, for his actions in defunding the Bank of the United States; the censure was later expunged when the Jacksonians had a majority in the Senate. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1955x1309, 608 KB) 1833 cartoon--lithograph by Edward W. Clay. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1955x1309, 608 KB) 1833 cartoon--lithograph by Edward W. Clay. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Nullification crisis

Main article: Nullification crisis

Another notable crisis during Jackson's period of office was the "nullification crisis," or "secession crisis," of 1828 – 1832, which merged issues of sectional strife with disagreements over tariffs. Critics alleged that high tariffs (the "Tariff of Abominations") on imports of common manufactured goods made in Europe made those goods more expensive than ones from the northern U.S., thus raising the prices paid by planters in the South. Southern politicians thus argued that tariffs benefited northern industrialists at the expense of southern farmers. The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson that arose when the state of South Carolina attempted to nullify a federal law passed by the United States Congress. ... The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson that arose when the state of South Carolina attempted to nullify a federal law passed by the United States Congress. ... The Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations, was a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress in 1828. ...


The issue came to a head when Vice President John C. Calhoun, in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest of 1828, supported the claim of his home state, South Carolina, that it had the right to "nullify"—declare illegal—the tariff legislation of 1828, and more generally the right of a state to nullify any Federal laws which went against its interests. Although Jackson sympathized with the South in the tariff debate, he was also a strong supporter of a strong union, with considerable powers for the central government. Jackson attempted to face down Calhoun over the issue, which developed into a bitter rivalry between the two men. Particularly infamous was an incident at the April 13, 1830 Jefferson Day dinner, involving after-dinner toasts. Jackson rose first, glared at Calhoun, and in a booming voice shouted "Our federal Union: IT MUST BE PRESERVED!", a clear challenge to Calhoun. Calhoun glared at Jackson and, his voice trembling, but booming as well, responded "The Union: NEXT TO OUR LIBERTY, MOST DEAR!"[24] The next year, Calhoun and Jackson broke apart politically from one another, the first time a US President and US Vice-President had ever done so. Calhoun resigned in 1832 to serve as a US Senator for South Carolina. Around this time, the Petticoat Affair caused further resignations from Jackson's cabinet, leading to its reorganization as the Kitchen Cabinet. Calhoun's successor as Vice-President, Martin Van Buren played a leading role in the new cabinet. [25] John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, at the center of the foreign policy and financial disputes of his age and best known as a spokesman for... The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, also known as Calhouns Exposition , was written in 1828 by John C. Calhoun,in disguise under the pseudonym Mr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Petticoat Affair (also known as the Eaton Affair or the Eaton Malaria) was an 1831 U.S. sex scandal involving members of President Andrew Jacksons Cabinet. ... Kitchen cabinets are the built-in furniture installed in many kitchens for storage of food, cooking equipment, and often silverware and dishes for table service. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ...


In response to South Carolina's nullification threat, Congress passed a "Force Bill" in 1833, and Jackson vowed to send troops to South Carolina in order to enforce the laws. In December 1832, he issued a resounding proclamation against the "nullifiers," stating that he considered "the power to annul a law of the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object for which it was formed." South Carolina, the President declared, stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason," and he appealed to the people of the state to reassert their allegiance to that Union for which their ancestors had fought. Jackson also denied the right of secession: "The Constitution...forms a government not a league.... To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United States is not a nation."[26] pie is good ...


The crisis was resolved when Jackson sent warships to Charleston, South Carolina, and enacted Congress acts through the Force Bill.


Passage of the Force Bill depended on the vote of Henry Clay. Clay would finally yield to those urging him to compromise. He introduced a plan to reduce the tariff gradually until 1842, by which time no rate would be more than 20%. The Compromise Tariff of 1833 was to be a resolution to the Nullification Crisis. On March 1, 1833, Congress passed the Force Bill and the compromise tariff and Jackson signed both. The South Carolina Convention then met and rescinded its nullification ordinance. The Force Bill was then nullified because Jackson no longer had a need for it.


Indian removal

Perhaps the most controversial aspect of Andrew Jackson's presidency was his policy regarding American Indians.[27] Jackson was a leading advocate of a policy known as "Indian Removal," signing the Indian Removal Act into law in 1830. The Act authorized the President to negotiate treaties to purchase tribal lands in the east in exchange for lands further west, outside of existing U.S. state borders. A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... The Indian Removal Act, part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. ...


While frequently frowned upon in the North, the Removal Act was popular in the South, where population growth and the discovery of gold on Cherokee land had increased pressure on tribal lands. The state of Georgia became involved in a contentious jurisdictional dispute with the Cherokees, culminating in the 1832 U.S. Supreme Court decision (Worcester v. Georgia) which ruled that Georgia could not impose its laws upon Cherokee tribal lands. Jackson is often quoted (regarding the decision) as having said, "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!" Whether or not he actually said it is disputed.[28] The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Holding States were not permitted to redraw the boundaries of Indian lands or forbid residence in those territories, because the Constitution granted sole authority to Congress to regulate relations with sovereign Indian tribes. ... For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ...


In any case, Jackson used the Georgia crisis to pressure Cherokee leaders to sign a removal treaty. A small faction of Cherokees led by John Ridge negotiated the Treaty of New Echota with Jackson's administration. Ridge was not a recognized leader of the Cherokee Nation, and this document was rejected by most Cherokees as illegitimate.[29] Over 15,000 Cherokee signed a petition in protest; it was ignored by the Supreme Court.[30] In 1838, 1,600 Cherokee remained on their lands. The terms of the treaty were then enforced by Jackson's successor, Martin Van Buren, who ordered 7,000 armed troops to remove them.[31] This resulted in the deaths of over 4,000 Cherokee on the "Trail of Tears." This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band). ...

Richard Lawrence's attempt on Andrew Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching.

In all, more than 45,000 American Indians were relocated to the West during Jackson's administration. During this time, the administration purchased about 100 million acres (400,000 km²) of Indian land for about $68 million and 32 million acres (130,000 km²) of western land. Jackson was criticized at the time for his role in these events, and the criticism has grown over the years. Remini characterizes the Indian Removal era as "one of the unhappiest chapters in American history."[32] Download high resolution version (1224x846, 319 KB)the 1835 etching of the assassination attempt of Andrew Jackson. ... Download high resolution version (1224x846, 319 KB)the 1835 etching of the assassination attempt of Andrew Jackson. ... Richard Lawrence (1800? - 1861) Lawrence was born in England in 1800 (or perhaps 1801). ...


Attack and assassination attempt

The first attempt of bodily harm acted upon a President was acted upon Jackson. On May 6, 1833, President Jackson was sailing on the USS Cygnet bound to Fredericksburg, Virginia where he was to lay the cornerstone on a monument near the grave of Mary Ball Washington, George Washington's mother. While on a stopover near Alexandria, Virginia, Robert B. Randolph, who had recently been dismissed from the Navy for embezzlement upon Jackson's orders, struck the President. Before Randolph could do more harm, he fled the scene with several members of Jackson's party chasing him, including the well known writer Washington Irving. Jackson decided not to press charges.[4] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City* Founded 1728 Incorporated 1781 Government  - Mayor Thomas Tomzak Area  - City  10. ... Mary Ball Washington Sangford was the mother of George Washington. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - City  15. ... USN redirects here. ... Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ...


On January 30, 1835 an unsuccessful attack occurred in the United States Capitol Building; it was the first assassination attempt made against an American President. Jackson was crossing the Capitol Rotunda following the funeral of South Carolina Congressman Warren R. Davis when Richard Lawrence approached Jackson and attempted to fire two pistols, each of which misfired. Jackson proceeded to attack Lawrence with his cane, prompting his aides to restrain him. Davy Crockett was present to help restrain Lawrence. As a result, Jackson's statue in the Capitol Rotunda is placed in front of the doorway in which the attempt occurred. Richard Lawrence gave the doctors several reasons for the shooting. He had recently lost his job painting houses and somehow blamed Jackson. He claimed that with the President dead "money would be more plenty"—a reference to Jackson’s struggle with the Bank of the United States—and that he "could not rise until the President fell." Finally, he informed his interrogators that he was actually a deposed English King—Richard III, specifically, dead since 1485—and that Jackson was merely his clerk. He was deemed insane, institutionalized, and never punished for his assassination attempt. is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The south facade of the United States Capitol Capitol Hill redirects here. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... United States Capitol . The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Warren Ransom Davis (May 8, 1793 - January 29, 1835) was an American attorney and Representative from South Carolinas sixth Congressional district from 1827-35. ... Richard Lawrence (1800? - 1861) Lawrence was born in England in 1800 (or perhaps 1801). ... Colonel David Crockett (August 17, 1786 – March 6, 1836) was a celebrated 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier and politician; usually referred to as Davy Crockett and by the popular title King of the Wild Frontier. He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives, served in the... United States Capitol . The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ...


Administration and Cabinet

Official White House portrait of Jackson.
Official White House portrait of Jackson.
The Jackson Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Andrew Jackson 1829 – 1837
Vice President John C. Calhoun 1829 – 1832
None 1832 – 1833
Martin Van Buren 1833 – 1837
Secretary of State Martin Van Buren 1829 – 1831
Edward Livingston 1831 – 1833
Louis McLane 1833 – 1834
John Forsyth 1834 – 1837
Secretary of Treasury Samuel D. Ingham 1829 – 1831
Louis McLane 1831 – 1833
William J. Duane 1833
Roger B. Taney 1833 – 1834
Levi Woodbury 1834 – 1837
Secretary of War John H. Eaton 1829 – 1831
Lewis Cass 1831 – 1836
Attorney General John M. Berrien 1829 – 1831
Roger B. Taney 1831 – 1833
Benjamin F. Butler 1833 – 1837
Postmaster General William T. Barry 1829 – 1835
Amos Kendall 1835 – 1837
Secretary of the Navy John Branch 1829 – 1831
Levi Woodbury 1831 – 1834
Mahlon Dickerson 1834 – 1837


Andrew Jackson File links The following pages link to this file: Andrew Jackson ... Andrew Jackson File links The following pages link to this file: Andrew Jackson ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, at the center of the foreign policy and financial disputes of his age and best known as a spokesman for... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Edward Livingston (May 26, 1764–May 23, 1836) was a prominent American jurist and statesman. ... Louis McLane Louis McLane (May 28, 1786–October 7, 1857) represented the state of Delaware in both the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and served as the Secretary of the Treasury and later the Secretary of State under President Andrew Jackson. ... Portait of U.S. Secretary of State John Forsyth John Forsyth (October 22, 1780 – October 21, 1841) was a 19th century American politician from Georgia. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Samuel D. Ingham Samuel Delucenna Ingham (September 16, 1779 – June 5, 1860) was a U.S. Congressman and U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Andrew Jackson. ... Louis McLane Louis McLane (May 28, 1786–October 7, 1857) represented the state of Delaware in both the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and served as the Secretary of the Treasury and later the Secretary of State under President Andrew Jackson. ... William John Duane (May 9, 1780 - September 27, 1865) was a U.S. (Irish-born) lawyer. ... Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, from 1836 until his death in 1864, and the first Roman Catholic to hold that office. ... Levi Woodbury (December 22, 1789–September 4, 1851) was the first justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to have attended law school. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... John Henry Eaton (June 18, 1790–November 17, 1856) was an American politician from Tennessee. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... John MacPherson Berrien (August 23, 1781–January 1, 1856) of Georgia was a United States Senator and Andrew Jacksons Attorney General. ... Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, from 1836 until his death in 1864, and the first Roman Catholic to hold that office. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (December 17, 1795–November 8, 1858) was a lawyer, legislator and Attorney General of the United States. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... William Taylor Barry (February 5, 1784–August 30, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist. ... Amos Kendall (August 16, 1789–November 12, 2022) was an American politician who served as U.S. Postmaster General under Jackie Cook and President Steve Miller. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Gov. ... Levi Woodbury (December 22, 1789–September 4, 1851) was the first justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to have attended law school. ... U.S. Navy collection portrait of Mahlon Dickerson Mahlon Dickerson (April 17, 1770–October 5, 1853) was an American judge and politician. ...

Supreme Court appointments

John McLean (March 11, 1785 – April 4, 1861) was an American jurist and politician who served in the United States Congress, as U.S. Postmaster General, and as a justice on the Ohio and U.S. Supreme Courts. ... Henry Baldwin (January 14, 1780 - April 21, 1844) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 18, 1830, to April 21, 1844. ... Justice Wayne, in an 1855 photograph by Matthew Brady James Moore Wayne (1790 - July 5, 1867) was an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Georgia. ... Chief Justice Taney Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777–October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States from 1836 until his death in 1864. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch... This article needs cleanup. ... John Catron (January 7, 1786-May 30, 1865) was an American jurist who served as a Supreme Court justice from 1837 to 1865. ...

Major Supreme Court cases

Cherokee Nation v. ... Holding States were not permitted to redraw the boundaries of Indian lands or forbid residence in those territories, because the Constitution granted sole authority to Congress to regulate relations with sovereign Indian tribes. ... Holding That the Massachusetts state legislatures decision to grant a charter to the proprietors of Warren Bridge after granting a similar charter to the Charles River Bridge Company did not constitute a violation of the constitutional prohibition on ex post facto laws. ...

States admitted to the Union

This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Family and personal life

Daguerreotype of Andrew Jackson (1844/1845)
Daguerreotype of Andrew Jackson (1844/1845)
The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Jackson located at their home, The Hermitage.

Shortly after Jackson first arrived in Nashville in 1788, he took up residence as a boarder with Rachel Stockley Donelson, the widow of John Donelson. Here Jackson became acquainted with their daughter, Rachel Donelson Robards. At the time, Rachel Robards was in an unhappy marriage with Captain Lewis Robards, a man subject to irrational fits of jealous rage. Due to Lewis Robards' temperament, the two were separated in 1790. Shortly after their separation, Robards sent word that he had obtained a divorce. Trusting that the divorce was complete, Jackson and Rachel were married in 1791. Two years later they learned that the divorce had never actually been finalized, making Rachel's marriage to Jackson illegitimate. After the divorce was officially completed, Rachel and Jackson re-married in 1794.[33] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2934x3844, 2905 KB) Beschreibung Daguerreotype of Andrew Jackson, possibly taken by Edward Anthony, 1844/45 [1]. Other version Image:Andrew Jackson-1844. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2934x3844, 2905 KB) Beschreibung Daguerreotype of Andrew Jackson, possibly taken by Edward Anthony, 1844/45 [1]. Other version Image:Andrew Jackson-1844. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ... Tomb of Andrew and Rachael Jackson. ... Tomb of Andrew and Rachael Jackson. ... Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson (June 1767 - December 22, 1828) was the wife of 7th U.S. President Andrew Jackson. ... John Donelson, explorer and adventurer, was co-founder of the city of Nashville, Tennessee and the father of Rachel Jackson, the wife of seventh President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. ... Rachel Jackson, wife of President Andrew Jackson. ...


The controversy surrounding their marriage remained a sore point for Jackson, who deeply resented attacks on his wife's honor. Jackson fought 13 duels, many nominally over his wife's honor. Charles Dickinson, the only man Jackson ever killed in a duel, had been goaded into angering Jackson by Jackson's political opponents. In the duel, fought over a horse-racing debt and an insult to his wife on May 30, 1806, Dickinson shot Jackson in the ribs before Jackson returned the fatal shot. The bullet that struck Jackson was so close to his heart that it could never be safely removed. Jackson had been wounded so frequently in duels that it was said he "rattled like a bag of marbles."[34] At times he would cough up blood, and he experienced considerable pain from his wounds for the rest of his life. Charles Dickinson (1780-May 30, 1806), was a 19th century American and nationally famous duelist. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Rachel died of unknown causes on December 22, 1828, two weeks after her husband's victory in the election and two months prior to Jackson taking office as President. Jackson blamed John Quincy Adams for Rachel's death because the marital scandal was brought up in the election of 1828. He felt that this had hastened her death and never forgave Adams. John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ...


Jackson had two adopted sons, Andrew Jackson Jr., the son of Rachel's brother Severn Donelson, and Lyncoya, a Creek Indian orphan adopted by Jackson after the Creek War. Lyncoya died in 1828 at age sixteen of tuberculosis.[35][36]


The Jacksons also acted as guardians for eight other children. John Samuel Donelson, Daniel Smith Donelson and Andrew Jackson Donelson were the sons of Rachel's brother Samuel Donelson who died in 1804. Andrew Jackson Hutchings was Rachel's orphaned grand nephew. Caroline Butler, Eliza Butler, Edward Butler, and Anthony Butler were the orphaned children of Edward Butler, a family friend. They came to live with the Jacksons after the death of their father. Daniel Smith Donelson (June 23, 1801 – April 17, 1863) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Andrew Jackson Donelson (1799–1871) was a diplomat and candidate for the Vice Presidency. ...


The widower Jackson invited Rachel's niece Emily Donelson to serve as hostess at the White House. Emily was married to Andrew Jackson Donelson, who acted as Jackson's private secretary and in 1856 would run for Vice President of the United States on the American Party ticket. The relationship between the President and Emily became strained during the Petticoat Affair, and the two became estranged for over a year. They eventually reconciled and she resumed her duties as White House hostess. Sarah Yorke Jackson, the wife of Andrew Jackson Jr., became co-hostess of the White House in 1834. It was the only time in history when two women simultaneously acted as unofficial First Lady. Sarah took over all hostess duties after Emily died from tuberculosis in 1836. Emily Tennessee Donelson (June 1, 1807 - December 19, 1836) was the niece of US President Andrew Jackson. ... Andrew Jackson Donelson (1799–1871) was a diplomat and candidate for the Vice Presidency. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... The Petticoat Affair (also known as the Eaton Affair or the Eaton Malaria) was an 1831 U.S. sex scandal involving members of President Andrew Jacksons Cabinet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Jackson remained influential in both national and state politics after retiring to "The Hermitage," his Nashville home, in 1837. Though a slave-holder, Jackson was a firm advocate of the federal union of the states, and declined to give any support to talk of secession. This article is about the American plantation and museum. ... “Nashville” redirects here. ...


Jackson was a lean figure standing at 6 feet, 1 inch (1.85 m) tall, and weighing between 130 and 140 pounds (64 kg) on average. Jackson also had an unruly shock of red hair, which had completely grayed by the time he became president at age 61. He had penetrating deep blue eyes. Jackson was one of the more sickly presidents, suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough, caused by a musket ball in his lung which was never removed, that often brought up blood and sometimes even made his whole body shake. After retiring to Nashville, he enjoyed eight years of retirement and died at the Hermitage on June 8, 1845 at the age of 78, of chronic tuberculosis, "dropsy" and heart failure. is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ...


In his will, Jackson left his entire estate to his adopted son, Andrew Jackson Jr., except for specifically enumerated items that were left to various other friends and family members. Andrew Jackson was a member of First Presbyterian Church in Nashville. The Downtown Presbyterian Church in Nashville, Tennessee, affiliated with Presbyterian Church (USA), was formerly known as First Presbyterian Church. ...


Memorials

Hunters of Kentucky Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1927x2495, 1413 KB) Summary St Louis Cathedral and equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, Jackson Square, French Quarter. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1927x2495, 1413 KB) Summary St Louis Cathedral and equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, Jackson Square, French Quarter. ... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ... NOLA redirects here. ... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ... NOLA redirects here. ... “Nashville” redirects here. ... The Tennessee State Capitol, located in Nashville, Tennessee, is the home of the Tennessee legislature, and the location of the governors office. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Jackson within Jackson County, Michigan Country United States State Michigan County Jackson Government  - Mayor Jerry Ludwig Area  - City  11. ... : Crossroads of the South : The city of Grace and Benevolence United States Mississippi Hinds, (very small portions in Madison and Rankin) 106. ... Jackson is a city in Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, United States. ... Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oregon. ... Jacksonville is a city located in Jackson County, Oregon. ... Nickname: Location of Jacksonville within North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State County Onslow Founded 1757 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Mayor Sammy Phillips Area  - City 45. ... Jackson is a city in Madison County, Tennessee, United States. ... Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. ... Jackson County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... U.S. Highway 74 is an east-west United States highway that runs for 524 miles (843 km) from Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina to Chattanooga, Tennessee. ... Charlotte redirects here. ... Wilmington is a city in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ... The U.S. twenty dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of United States currency. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Black Jack The 2-Cent denomination United States postage stamp issued from July 1, 1863 to 1870, is generally referred to as the Black Jack due to the large portraiture of the United States President, Andrew Jackson on its face printed in pitch black. ... Fort Jackson is a United States Army Basic Combat Training (BCT) base located in South Carolina. ... Image File history File links Hunters_of_Kentucky. ...

Hunters of Kentucky.

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See also


The Second Party System is the term historians give to the political system existing in the United States from about 1824 to 1854. ... This is a list of places in the United States named for Andrew Jackson: Hermitage, Tennessee (after his homestead) Hickory County, Missouri (for his nickname, Old Hickory) Jackson, Georgia Jackson, Michigan Jackson, Mississippi Jackson, Ohio Jackson County, Alabama Jackson County, Arkansas Jackson County, Colorado Jackson County, Florida Jackson County, Illinois... This article is about the American plantation and museum. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band). ...


References

  1. ^ Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson (2005), p. 8, 35.
  2. ^ Andrew Jackson. Information Services Branch, State Library of North Carolina.
  3. ^ Andrew Jackson. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  4. ^ a b c Paletta, Lu Ann; Worth, Fred L (1988). The World Almanac of Presidential Facts. World Almanac Books. ISBN 0345348885. 
  5. ^ Andrew Jackson biography at virtuology.com
  6. ^ Remini, 118.
  7. ^ Ogg, 66.
  8. ^ Johnson, Allen (1920). Jefferson and His Colleagues. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  9. ^ Adams, Henry. The Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), 599.
  10. ^ Thomas Jefferson to William H. Crawford, February 15, 1825. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  11. ^ Thomas Jefferson to Andrew Jackson, December 18, 1823 Retrieved on 2006-11-21. See also: Andrew Stevenson's Eulogy of Andrew Jackson: (1846) in B. M. Dusenbery (ed.): Monument to the Memory of General Andrew Jackson. Philadelphia: Walker & Gillis, 250, 263-264. 
  12. ^ Remini, Jackson 1:109; Webster, Daniel (1857). in Webster, Fletcher (ed.): The Private Correspondence of Daniel Webster. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 371. 
  13. ^ Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson (2005), p. 8.
  14. ^ a b Andrew Jackson's First Annual Message to Congress. The American Presidency Project. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
  15. ^ Rutland, Robert Allen (1995), The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton, University of Missouri Press, pp. 55-56, ISBN 0826210341
  16. ^ Nickels, Ilona; "How did Republicans pick the elephant, and Democrats the donkey, to represent their parties?"; "Capitol Questions" feature at c-span.com; September 5, 2000
  17. ^ Historical Debt Outstanding - Annual 1791 - 1849. Public Debt Reports. Treasury Direct. Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
  18. ^ Watkins, Thayer. The Depression of 1837-1844. San José State University Department of Economics. Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
  19. ^ The Spoils System, as the rotation in office system was called, did not originate with Jackson. It originated with New York Governors in the late 18th and early 19th centuries (most notably George Clinton and DeWitt Clinton). While Thomas Jefferson brought it to the Executive Branch when he removed Federalist office-holders after becoming president. [http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h965.html The Spoils System versus the Merit System. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  20. ^ Jacksonian Democracy: The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  21. ^ http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=640 Digital History
  22. ^ http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/jackson/section10.rhtml Sparknotes
  23. ^ http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=640 Digital History
  24. ^ Ogg, 164.
  25. ^ Martin Van Buren biography at Encyclopedia Americana
  26. ^ Syrett, 36. See also: President Jackson's Proclamation Regarding Nullification, December 10, 1832. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  27. ^ For an attack on Jackson see Cave (2003). 65(6): 1330-1353. For a defense see Remini (2001).
  28. ^ Cave (2003); Remini (1988).
  29. ^ http://www.historicaldocuments.com/IndianRemovalAct.htm
  30. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html PBS
  31. ^ http://www.synaptic.bc.ca/ejournal/jackson.htm Indian Removal
  32. ^ Remini (2001).
  33. ^ Remini, Robert Vincent (2001). The Life of Andrew Jackson. HarperCollins, 17–25. 
  34. ^ Wallace, Chris (2005). Character : Profiles in Presidential Courage. New York, NY: Rugged Land. ISBN 1-59071-054-1. 
  35. ^ Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson. From: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved November 7, 2007.
  36. ^ Rachel Jackson. From: nndb.com. Retrieved November 7, 2007.

Sean Wilentz (b. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrew Stevenson (January 21, 1784–January 25, 1857) was a U.S. political figure. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Sean Wilentz (b. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the politics of the United States, a spoils system refers to an informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... DeWitt Clinton. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chris Wallace (born October 12, 1947) is an American journalist, currently the host of Fox News Sunday with Chris Wallace. ...

Secondary sources

  • Brands, H. W. Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times (2005), biography emphasizing military career
  • Brustein, Andrew. The Passions of Andrew Jackson. (2003).
  • Bugg Jr. James L. ed. Jacksonian Democracy: Myth or Reality? (1952), excerpts from scholars
  • Cave, Alfred A.. Abuse of Power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act of 1830 (2003)
  • Gammon, Samuel Rhea. The Presidential Campaign of 1832 (1922)
  • Hammond, Bray. Andrew Jackson's Battle with the "Money Power" (1958) ch 8, of his Banks and Politics in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War (1954); Pulitzer prize.
  • Hofstatder, Richard. The American Political Tradition (1948), chapter on Jackson.
  • James, Marquis. The Life of Andrew Jackson Combines two books: The Border Captain and Andrew Jackson: Portrait of a President; winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Biography.
  • Latner Richard B. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson: White House Politics, 1820-1837 (1979), standard survey.
  • Ogg, Frederic Austin ; The Reign of Andrew Jackson: A Chronicle of the Frontier in Politics 1919. short popular survey online at Gutenberg
  • Parton, James. Life of Andrew Jackson (1860). Volume I, Volume III.
  • Ratner, Lorman A. Andrew Jackson and His Tennessee Lieutenants: A Study in Political Culture (1997)
  • Remini, Robert V.. The Life of Andrew Jackson. Abridgment of Remini's 3-volume monumental biography, (1988)
    • Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821 (1977); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832 (1981); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845 (1984)
  • Remini, Robert V.. The Legacy of Andrew Jackson: Essays on Democracy, Indian Removal, and Slavery (1988)
  • Remini, Robert V.. Andrew Jackson and his Indian Wars (2001)
  • Remini, Robert V.. "Andrew Jackson," American National Biography (2000)
  • Rowland, Dunbar. Andrew Jackson's Campaign against the British, or, the Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, concerning the Military Operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813-1815 (1926)
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr. The Age of Jackson. (1945). Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for History. history of ideas of the era
  • Charles Grier Sellers, Jr. "Andrew Jackson versus the Historians," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 4. (Mar., 1958), pp. 615-634. in JSTOR
  • Syrett, Harold C. Andrew Jackson: His Contribution to the American Tradition (1953)
  • Taylor, George Rogers, ed. Jackson Versus Biddle: The Struggle over the Second Bank of the United States (1949), excerpts from primary and secondary sources
  • Ward, John William. Andrew Jackson, Symbol for an Age (1962) how writers saw him
  • Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson (2005) short biography

The Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography has been presented since 1917 for a distinguished biography or autobiography by an American author. ... Wikisource has original works written by or about: James Parton James Parton (February 9, 1822 – October 17, 1891) American biographer, was born in Canterbury, England He was taken to the United States when he was five years old, studied in New York City and White Plains, New York, and was... Robert V. Remini (b. ... Robert V. Remini (b. ... Robert V. Remini (b. ... Robert V. Remini (b. ... This article is about Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ... The Pulitzer Prize for History has been awarded since 1917 for a distinguished book upon the history of the United States. ...

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Political offices
New title Military Governor of Florida
1821
Succeeded by
William P. Duval
as Territorial Governor
Preceded by
John Williams
Chairman of the Senate
Military Affairs Committee

1823 – 1825
Succeeded by
William Henry Harrison
Preceded by
John Quincy Adams
President of the United States
March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837
Succeeded by
Martin Van Buren
United States House of Representatives
New district Member from Tennessee's
At-large congressional district

1796 – 1797
Succeeded by
William C. C. Claiborne
United States Senate
Preceded by
William Cocke
Senator from Tennessee (Class 1)
1797 – 1798
Served alongside: Joseph Anderson
Succeeded by
Daniel Smith
Preceded by
John Williams
Senator from Tennessee (Class 2)
1823 – 1825
Served alongside: John H. Eaton
Succeeded by
Hugh Lawson White
Party political offices
Preceded by
James Monroe
Democratic-Republican Party
presidential candidate¹

1824
Party broke up
New political party Democratic Party presidential candidate
1828, 1832
Succeeded by
Martin Van Buren
Honorary titles
Preceded by
James Madison
Oldest U.S. President still living
June 28, 1836 – June 8, 1845
Succeeded by
John Quincy Adams
Notes & References
1. The Democratic-Republican Party split in 1824, fielding four separate candidates: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and William Harris Crawford.
Persondata
NAME Jackson, Andrew
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION seventh President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH March 15, 1767(1767-03-15)
PLACE OF BIRTH Waxhaw, South Carolina/North Carolina
DATE OF DEATH June 8, 1845
PLACE OF DEATH The Hermitage, Nashville, Tennessee

  Results from FactBites:
 
Andrew Jackson (2046 words)
Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States, was born in the Waxhaws area near the border between North and South Carolina on March 15, 1767.
Jackson spent most of the next year and a half living with relatives and for six of those months was apprenticed to a saddle maker.
Jackson took the position he was the people's candidate and never lost an opportunity to point out that the people's choice in 1824 had been disregarded by the elite.
Andrew Jackson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4200 words)
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767– June 8, 1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), first governor of Florida (1821), general of the Battle of New Orleans (1815), a co-founder of the Democratic Party, and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy.
Jackson was born in a backwoods settlement to Presbyterian Scots-Irish immigrants in the Waxhaw area in the Carolinas, on March 15, 1767.
Jackson followed Jefferson as a supporter of the ideal of an "agricultural republic" and felt the bank improved the fortunes of an "elite circle" of commercial and industrial entrepreneurs at the expense of farmers and laborers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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HARMONMolly33
8th July 2010
When you're in the corner and have got no cash to go out from that point, you would have to take the loan . Just because it would help you emphatically. I take college loan every single year and feel OK just because of that.

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