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Encyclopedia > Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov, 1943
Andrei Sakharov, 1943

Dr. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Russian: Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов) (May 21, 1921December 14, 1989) was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union. Andrei Sakharov, 1943 File links The following pages link to this file: Andrei Sakharov Categories: Pre-1973 Soviet Union images ... Andrei Sakharov, 1943 File links The following pages link to this file: Andrei Sakharov Categories: Pre-1973 Soviet Union images ... Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov (born in 1930 in Kulebaki) is a Russian historian, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1991). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Articles with similar titles include physician, a person who practices medicine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...

Contents

Life and career

Sakharov was born in Moscow in 1921. His father was Dmitri Ivanovich Sakharov, a private school physics teacher and an amateur pianist. Dmitri's grandfather Ivan had been a prominent lawyer in Tsarist Russia who had displayed respect for social awareness and humanist principles (including advocating the abolition of capital punishment) that would later influence his grandson. Sakharov's mother was Ekaterina Alekseyevna Sakharova (née Sofiano and of Greek ancestry). His parents and his paternal grandmother, Maria Petrovna, largely shaped Sakharov's personality. Although his paternal great-grandfather had been a priest in the Russian Orthodox Church, and his pious mother did have him baptised, his father was an atheist and religion did not play an important role in his life, though he did believe that a non-scientific "guiding principle" governed the universe and human life.[1] Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Pianist Claudio Arrau, Carnegie Hall, 1954. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Both legal and moral status of Capital punishment in Russia are currently controversial. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ...


Sakharov entered Moscow State University in 1938. Following evacuation in 1941 during the Great Patriotic War, he graduated in Aşgabat, in today's Turkmenistan. He was then assigned laboratory work in Ulyanovsk. During this period, in 1943, he married Klavdia Alekseyevna Vikhireva, with whom he raised two daughters and a son before she died in 1969.[1] He returned to Moscow in 1945 to study at the Theoretical Department of FIAN (the Physical Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences). He received his Ph.D. in 1947. Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... Combatants Soviet Union,1 Poland (from January 1945) Germany,1 Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia Commanders Aleksei Antonov, Azi Aslanov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Pavel Rotmistrov, Semyon Timoshenko, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Nikolai Vatutin... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: ‎, UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, and `Ishqábád, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Ulyanovsk (Russian: ), formerly Simbirsk (), is a city on the Volga River in Russia, 893 km east from Moscow. ... The Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a Russian research institute specializing in physics. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ...

Andrei Sakharov and Igor Kurchatov, 1958
Andrei Sakharov and Igor Kurchatov, 1958

On World War II's end, Sakharov researched cosmic rays. In mid-1948 he participated in the Soviet atomic bomb project under Igor Kurchatov. The first Soviet atomic device was tested on August 29, 1949. After moving to Sarov in 1950, Sakharov played a key role in the next stage, the development of the hydrogen bomb. The first Soviet fusion device was tested on August 12, 1953, using what was called the Sloika design. In 1953, he received his D.Sc. degree, was elected a full member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and was awarded the first of his three Hero of Socialist Labor titles. Sakharov continued to work at Sarov, playing a key role in the development of the first megaton-range Soviet hydrogen bomb using a design known as "Sakharov's Third Idea" in Russia and the Teller-Ulam design in the United States. It was first tested as RDS-37 in 1955. A larger variation of the same design which Sakharov worked on was the 50MT Tsar Bomba of October 1961, which was the most powerful device ever exploded. Image File history File links 1958_Sakharov_Kurchatov. ... Image File history File links 1958_Sakharov_Kurchatov. ... Igor The Beard Kurchatov Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov (И́горь Васи́льевич Курча́тов) (January 8, 1903 – February 7, 1960), Soviet/Russian physicist. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right) The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. ... Igor The Beard Kurchatov Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov (И́горь Васи́льевич Курча́тов) (January 8, 1903 – February 7, 1960), Soviet/Russian physicist. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Sarov (Russian: ) is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The first (albeit not true) Soviet Hydrogen (Super) Test, dubbed Joe 4 Joe 4 (USSR version: RDS-4 (Reaktivnyi Dvigatel Stalina; Stalins Rocket Engine)) was an American nickname for the first Soviet test of a thermonuclear weapon and was on August 12, 1953. ... D.Sc. ... Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Hero of Socialist Labor (Герой Социалистического Труда in Russian, or Geroy Sotsialisticheskogo Truda) was an honorary title in the Soviet Union and the highest degree of distinction for exceptional achievements in national economy and culture. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ... RDS-37 was a Soviet name for their first nuclear test of a true hydrogen bomb. ... A Tsar Bomba-type casing on display at Chelyabinsk-70 . ...


He also proposed an idea for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor, the tokamak, which is still the basis for the majority of work in the area. Sakharov, in association with Igor Tamm, proposed confining extremely hot ionized plasma by torus shaped magnetic fields for controlling thermonuclear fusion that led to the development of the tokamak device. The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... Igor Tamm. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... In geometry, a torus (pl. ... In physics, a magnetic field is a force field that surrounds electric current circuits. ... In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. ...


Sakharov proposed the idea of induced gravity as an alternative theory of quantum gravity. Sakharov proposed the idea of induced gravity as an alternative theory of quantum gravity. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Turn to activism

From the late-1950s Sakharov had become concerned about the moral and political implications of his work. Politically active during the 1960s, Sakharov was against nuclear proliferation. Pushing for the end of atmospheric tests, he played a role in the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed in Moscow. In 1965 he returned to fundamental science and began working on cosmology but continued to oppose political discrimination. World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... Physical cosmology, as a branch of astrophysics, is the study of the large-scale structure of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. ...


The major turn in Sakharov’s political evolution started in 1967, when anti-ballistic missile defense became a key issue in US–Soviet relations. In a secret detailed letter to the Soviet leadership of July 21, 1967, Sakharov explains the need to "take the Americans at their word" and accept their proposal "for a bilateral rejection by the USA and the Soviet Union of the development of antiballistic missile defense", because otherwise an arms race in this new technology would increase the likelihood of nuclear war. He also asked permission to publish his manuscript (which accompanied the letter) in a newspaper to explain the dangers posed by this kind of defense. The government ignored his letter and refused to let him initiate a public discussion of ABM in the Soviet press. An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...


In May 1968 he completed an essay, Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom, where the anti-ballistic missile defense is featured as a major threat of world nuclear war. After this essay was circulated in samizdat and then published outside the Soviet Union, Sakharov was banned from all military-related research and Sakharov returned to FIAN to study fundamental theoretical physics. In 1970 he, along with Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov, was one of the founders of the Moscow Human Rights Committee and came under increasing pressure from the regime. He married a fellow human rights activist, Yelena Bonner, in 1972. Samizdat, book published by Pathfinder Press containing a collection of forbidden Trotskyist Samizdat texts. ... Valery Chalidze (Georgian: ; Russian: , Valeriy Nikolayevich Chalidze) (born 1938) is a Georgian-American author, publisher, and the former Soviet dissident and human rights activist. ... Yelena Georgiyevna Bonner (Russian language: Елена Георгиевна Боннер, born February 15, 1923) is a human rights activist in the former Soviet Union and wife of late Andrei Sakharov. ...


In 1973 he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize and in 1974 was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca. He was awarded the Nobel prize in 1975, although he was not allowed to leave the Soviet Union to collect it. His wife read his speech at the acceptance ceremony. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Prix mondial Cino Del Duca (Cino Del Duca World Prize) is a major international literary award established in 1969 in France by Simone Del Duca (1912-2004) to continue the work of her late husband, publishing magnate Cino Del Duca (1899-1967). ...

L-to-R: Elena Bonner, Andrei Sakharov, Sofia Kalistratova. 1977 photo
L-to-R: Elena Bonner, Andrei Sakharov, Sofia Kalistratova. 1977 photo

Sakharov's ideas on social development led him to put forward the principle of human rights as a new basis of all politics. In his works he declared that "the principle 'what is not prohibited is allowed' should be understood literally", denying the importance and validity of all moral or cultural norms not codified in the laws. He was arrested on January 22, 1980, following his public protests against the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and was sent to internal exile in the city of Gorky, now Nizhny Novgorod, a closed city that was inaccessible to foreign observers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 463 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 834 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Andrei Sakharov Yelena Bonner Sofia Kalistratova... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 463 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 834 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Andrei Sakharov Yelena Bonner Sofia Kalistratova... At the Moscow Tribune. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Internal Exile (A Collection of a Boys Own Stories) was Fishs second solo album after leaving Marillion in 1988. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny and also transliterated into English as Nizhniy Novgorod or Nizhni Novgorod or Nizhnii Novgorod, is the fourth largest city of Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny and also transliterated into English as Nizhniy Novgorod or Nizhni Novgorod or Nizhnii Novgorod, is the fourth largest city of Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... A closed city (town) is a city/town with travel and residency restrictions in the former Soviet Union, or in a CIS country. ...


Between 1980 to 1986, Sakharov was kept under tight Soviet police surveillance. In his memoirs he mentions that their apartment in Gorky was repeatedly subjected to searches and heists. He remained isolated but unrepentant until December 1986 when he was allowed to return to Moscow as Mikhail Gorbachev initiated the policies of perestroika and glasnost. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...   (Russian: IPA: ) is a Russian word for transparency or openness. ...


In 1988 Sakharov was given the International Humanist Award by the International Humanist and Ethical Union. Founded in Amsterdam in 1952, International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) is the sole world umbrella organisation [1] embracing Humanist, atheist, rationalist, secular, skeptic, Ethical Culture, freethought and similar organisations world-wide. ...


He helped to initiate the first independent legal political organizations and became prominent in the Soviet Union's growing political opposition. In March 1989, Sakharov was elected to the new parliament, the All-Union Congress of People's Deputies and co-led the democratic opposition. The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ...


Soon after 9:00 pm on December 14, 1989, Sakharov went to his study to take a nap before preparing an important speech he was to deliver the next day in the Congress. His wife went to wake him at 11:00 pm as he had requested but she found Sakharov dead on the floor. A sudden heart attack had taken his life at the age of 68.[2] He was interred in the Vostryakovskoye Cemetery in Moscow. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ...


Influence

The Sakharov Prize, established in 1988 and awarded annually by the European Parliament for people and organizations dedicated to human rights and freedoms, was named in his honor. The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, named after Soviet scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, was established in December 1985 by the European Parliament as a means to honour individuals or organizations who had dedicated their lives to the defence of human rights and freedoms. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary body of the European Union. ...


An Andrei Sakharov prize is also to be awarded by the American Physical Society every second year from 2006, "to recognize outstanding leadership and/or achievements of scientists in upholding human rights". The Andrei Sakharov Prize is a prize that is to be awarded every second year by the American Physical Society from 2006. ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Andrei Sakharov Archives

The Andrei Sakharov Archives and Human Rights Center, established at Brandeis University in 1993, are now housed at Harvard University.[1]


Trivia

  • Sakharov and the "Sakharov Drive" were mentioned in Arthur C. Clarke's novel 2010: Odyssey Two. The drive is not described in detail and the principles on which it is based (presumably imagined by Sakharov) are not given.
  • Sakharov is mentioned briefly in Kurt Vonnegut's Timequake.
  • One of the Enterprise-D shuttlecraft in Star Trek: The Next Generation is named for him.
  • During the 1980s, the block of 16th Street NW between L and M streets in front of the Soviet embassy in Washington, D.C. was renamed "Andrei Sakharov Place" as a form of protest against his 1980 arrest and detention.

Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (born December 16, 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same name. ... 2010: Odyssey Two, is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke (January 1982) and also a motion picture (1984) by Peter Hyams entitled simply 2010, or sometimes 2010: The Year We Make Contact. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Timequake is a semi-autobiographical work by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... The USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-D) (or Enterprise-D, to distinguish it from prior starships with the same name) is a 24th century starship in the Star Trek fictional universe and the principal setting of the Star Trek: The Next Generation television series. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack...

Quotes

  • "In this pamphlet, advanced for discussion by its readers, the author has set himself the goal to present, with the greatest conviction and frankness, two theses that are supported by many people in the world. These are:
    1. The division of mankind threatens it with destruction… Only universal cooperation under conditions of intellectual freedom and the lofty moral ideals of socialism and labor, accompanied by the elimination of dogmatism and pressure of the concealed interests of ruling classes, will preserve civilization…
    2. The second basic thesis is that intellectual freedom is essential to human society — freedom to obtain and distribute information, freedom for open-minded and unfearing debate and freedom from pressure by officialdom and prejudices. Such a trinity of freedom of thought is the only guarantee against an infection of people by mass myths, which, in the hands of treacherous hypocrites and demagogues, can be transformed into bloody dictatorship. Freedom of thought is the only guarantee of the feasibility of a scientific democratic approach to politics, economics and culture." (Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom, in The New York Times, July 22 1968) [2]
  • "I foresee a universal information system (UIS), which will give everyone access at any given moment to the contents of any book that has ever been published or any magazine or any fact. The UIS will have individual miniature-computer terminals, central control points for the flood of information, and communication channels incorporating thousands of artificial communications from satellites, cables, and laser lines. Even the partial realization of the UIS will profoundly affect every person, his leisure activities, and his intellectual and artistic development. …But the true historic role of the UIS will be to break down the barriers to the exchange of information among countries and people." (Saturday Review/World, August 24 1974)[3]

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Drell, Sidney D., and Sergei P. Kapitsa (eds.), Sakharov Remembered, pp. 3, 92. New York: Springer, 1991.
  2. ^ Coleman, Fred, The Decline and Fall of the Soviet Empire: Forty Years That Shook the World, from Stalin to Yeltsin, p. 116. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.
  3. ^ The human rights movement, 1969-1979.

Bibliography

  • Sakharov, Andrei, Facets of a Life. 1991.
  • Babyonyshev, Alexander, On Sakharov. New York, 1982.
  • Lozansky, Edward D., Andrei Sakharov and Peace. 1985.
  • Drell, Sidney D., and Sergei P. Kapitsa (eds.), Sahkarov Remembered. 1991
  • Gorelik, Gennady, with Antonina W. Bouis, The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press, 2005

See also

Sergei Kovalev Sergei Adamovich Kovalev (Russian: ) (born March 2, 1930) is a notable dissident and political prisoner in the former Soviet Union, and a human rights activist and politician in post-Soviet Russia. ... Natan Sharansky (Hebrew: נתן שרנסקי, Russian: Натан Борисович Щаранский; born January 20, 1948) is a notable former Soviet anticommunist, Zionist, Israeli politician and writer. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Jewish Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb. ... Stanisław Ulam in the 1950s. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Andrei Sakharov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1498 words)
Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union.
Sakharov, in association with Igor Tamm, proposed confining extremely hot ionized plasma by torus shaped magnetic fields for controlling thermonuclear fusion that led to the development of the tokamak device.
Sakharov died of a heart attack in 1989 at the age of 68, and was interred in the Vostryakovskoye Cemetery in Moscow.
Andrei Sakharov - MSN Encarta (807 words)
Sakharov’s brilliant mathematical work on gas dynamics, magnetic confinement of charged particles, and other problems was crucial to the creation of the Soviet hydrogen bomb first tested in August 1953.
Sakharov was denied permission to attend the Nobel ceremony in Oslo, Norway, on the grounds that he possessed state secrets from his earlier scientific work for the military.
Sakharov died of a heart attack on December 14, 1989, and was buried with state honors in Moscow.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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