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Encyclopedia > Andreas Hofer
Andreas Hofer on an Austrian stamp.
Andreas Hofer on an Austrian stamp.
Button portraying Hofer.
Button portraying Hofer.

Andreas Hofer (November 22, 1767 - February 20, 1810) was a Tyrolean innkeeper and patriot. He was the leader of a rebellion against Napoleon's forces. Image File history File links Andreas Hofer Stamp File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Andreas Hofer Stamp File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Button2. ... Image File history File links Button2. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Tyrol is a historical region in Western Central Europe, which includes the Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Tyrol) and the Italian regions known as the South Tyrol and Trentino. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


Andreas Hofer was born 1767 in St. Leonhard, Tyrol. His father was an innkeeper of Sandwirt inn and Andreas followed his footsteps when he inherited the establishment. He also traded wine and horses in northern Italy and learned the language. He married Anna Ladurner. In 1791 he was elected into the Tyrolean Landtag. The Tyrol is a historical region in Western Central Europe, which includes the Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Tyrol) and the Italian regions known as the South Tyrol and Trentino. ... A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly, with some legislative authority, of a political entity called Land (i. ...


In the war of the Third Coalition against the French he became a sharpshooter and later a militia captain. When Tyrol was transferred from Austria to Bavaria in the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805, Hofer became a leader of the anti-Bavarian movement. In January 1809, he was part of a delegation to Vienna to ask Emperor Francis II of Austria for support of a possible uprising. Emperor gave his assurances and the delegation returned home. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... A marksman (also designated marksman) is a profession which is mostly to be found in military context. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker Militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The Treaty of Pressburg was signed on December 26, 1805 between France and Austria as a consequence of the Austrian defeats by France at Ulm (September 25 - October 20) and Austerlitz (December 2). ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... The title of Emperor of Austria was proclaimed in 1804 by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, who feared for the future of the old Reich in the face of Napoleons aggressions, and wished to maintain his imperial title in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (German language: Franz II, Heiliger Römischer Kaiser) also referred to as Franz I, Emperor of Austria (February 12, 1768 – March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the...


Hofer begun to secretly organize insurrection, visiting villagers and holding councils of war in local inns , Reputedly he was so much in the move that he signed his messages "Andreas Hofer, from where I am" and letters to him were addressed to "wherever he may be". At the same time other leaders organized their own forces elsewhere in the Alps. Hofer became a leader of a militia contingent of his valley in Passeiertal.

Contents

Armed rebellion begins

The Tyrolean rebellion began on April 9, 1809. The previous night organizers dumped sacks of sawdust to River Inn as a sign to start the rebellion. When the sawdust floated through Innsbruck and to the Inntal, it alerted the rebels. Village bells summoned men to fight with musket and farmyard implements. They soon overran smaller Bavarian garrisons and surprised a column of French infantry that was passing through the area. Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ...


On April 11 Tyrolean militia defeated a Bavarian force in Sterzing which led to the occupation of Innsbruck before noon. When the French and Bavarian counterattacked the next night, Tyroleans fought them in the city until they surrendered on the morning of the 13th. Hofer and his allies advanced south, taking Bozen and Trent. Sterzing-Vipiteno is an Italian commune in the province of Bolzano in Trentino-Alto Adige. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Bolzano (Italian: Bolzano, German: Bozen, Ladin: Bulsan, ; Note that many of the Italian dialects and Rhaeto-Romance languages in the area use Bulsan) is a city in the Trentino-South Tyrol region of Italy. ... Panorama of Trento. ...


Hope of successful rebellion waned when Napoleon defeated the Austrian forces of Archduke Charles of Austria. Austrian troops withdrew from Tyrol and Hofer withdrew back to the mountains. Bavarians reoccupied Innsbruck May 19, but when Napoleon's troops left, rebellion flared again. Victorious Archduke Charles of Austria during the Battle of Aspern_Essling (May 21_22, 1809) The epileptic younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, Archduke Charles of Austria (Erzherzog Karl) (September 5, 1771 - April 30, 1847) achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of Austrias army. ...


Hofer takes command

Hofer became an effective commander-in-chief of the Tyrolean rebels with the support of other leaders like Josef Speckbacker and Rev. Joachim Haspinger. He commanded approximately 20.000-strong force of Tyrolean and couple of hundred Austrian soldiers who had joined them after the retreat of Austrian army. In Iselberg on May 25 and May 29 Hofer's troops again defeated the Bavarians and drove them out of the country. Hofer's troops retook Innsbruck May 30. View on Bergisel from the Brenner Road View on Bergisel from the North The Bergisel is a hill (746 m) that lies to the south of Innsbruck, Austria, in the area of Wilten, where the Sill river (Wipptal) meets the Inn Valley. ...


On May 29 Hofer received a letter from Emperor Francis where he promised not to sign any peace treaty that would include giving up Tyrol. An Austrian intendant came to rule Tyrol and Hofer returned to his home. New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ...


Napoleon defeated Austrian troops in the Battle of Wagram on July 6. On July 12 the armistice in Znaim ceded Tyrol to Bavaria again. Napoleon sent 40,000 French and Bavarian troops to take over Tyrol and they reoccupied Innsbruck. The Battle of Wagram, around the isle of Lobau on the Danube and on the plain of the Marchfeld around the town of Deutsch-Wagram, 15 km north-east of Vienna, Austria, took place on July 5 and 6, 1809 and resulted in the decisive victory of French forces under...


After little hesitation, Hofer joined the battle again. The French promised a reward for his head. On August 13-14, his Tyroleans defeated the French troops of Marshal Lefebvre on Bergisel in a 12-hour battle after a downhill charge and again retook Innsbruck. François Joseph Lefebvre, Marshal of France François Joseph Lefebvre, duc de Dantzig, (1755-1820) was marshal of France during the Napoleonic Wars. ... View on Bergisel from the Brenner Road View on Bergisel from the North The Bergisel is a hill (746 m) that lies to the south of Innsbruck, Austria, in the area of Wilten, where the Sill river (Wipptal) meets the Inn Valley. ...

Statue of Andreas Hofer near Bergisel in Innsbruck.
Statue of Andreas Hofer near Bergisel in Innsbruck.

Hofer declared himself Imperial Commandant of the Tyrol in the absence of the rules for two months ruled the land from Hofburg in the name of the Emperor of Austria. He announced new laws and taxes and minted his own coins. He also sent two men to Britain to ask for assistance. On September 29 he received a medal from the emperor and another promise that Austria would not abandon Tyrol. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1336 KB) Summary Statue of Andreas Hoffer near Bergisel in Innsbruck (Austria) picture taken by Víctor Fernández on November 4th 2005 using a Nikon Coolpix 5900 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Andreas Hofer... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1336 KB) Summary Statue of Andreas Hoffer near Bergisel in Innsbruck (Austria) picture taken by Víctor Fernández on November 4th 2005 using a Nikon Coolpix 5900 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Andreas Hofer... Hofburg Neue Burg section, seen from Heldenplatz. ...


Hofer's hopes were dashed again on October 14 when the Treaty of Schönbrunn yet again ceded Tyrol to Bavaria. French and Bavarian troops advanced again and Hofer retreated to mountains. Promised amnesty, Hofer and his followers laid down their weapons November 8. Hofer retreated to his home valley. The Treaty of Schönbrunn was signed between France and Austria in 1809, ending the war of the Fifth Coalition during the Napoleonic Wars, at the beautiful castle Schloss Schönbrunn, which can be visited today as a tourist site. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Final attempt and capture

On November 12, Hofer received false reports of Austrian victories and tried to summon his troops again on November 15. This time there was little following and French troops defeated his troops. His subordinate commanders surrendered and asked him to escape over the mountains.


Hofer hid in a hut in the mountains in the Passeier valley and the French announced a reward of 1500 guilders for his head. His neighbor Franz Raffl betrayed him and revealed his hiding place to the authorities, and Hofer was captured by Italian troops on January 19, 1810. He was sent to Mantua in chains to face a court martial. Raffl died impoverished in Bavaria 20 years later. Guilder is the English name for the Dutch Gulden. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...


Court martial and execution

Officers holding the court martial disagree on the exact sentence until they received a message through Milan. It was supposedly from the Viceroy, transmitting Napoleon's order to "give him a fair trial and then shoot him" (Later Napoleon claimed to Prince Metternich that Hofer was executed against his wishes). Image:Metternich. ...


Andreas Hofer was executed by a firing squad on February 20, 1810. He refused a blindfold and gave money to a corporal in charge, telling him to "shoot straight". Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ... A blindfold is a strip of cloth used to cover the eyes, rendering the user effectively (but temporarily) blind. ...


Hofer became a martyr in Germany and Austria and a rallying point against the power of Napoleon. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Legacy and monuments

In 1823, Hofer's remains were moved from Mantua to Innsbruck, and in 1834, his tomb was decorated with a marble statue. In 1818, his family was given a patent of nobility by the emperor of Austria; however, some of his seventeen children had by that time already moved to America. In 1893, his bronze statue was placed at Bergisel (Innsbruck), and there is a large painting depicting his arrest hanging in the Palace of Maria Theresa in Innsbruck. There is an annual open-air play in Meran based on his deeds. Venus de Milo, front. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal document which is an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as a corporation. ... The title of Emperor of Austria was proclaimed in 1804 by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, who feared for the future of the old Reich in the face of Napoleons aggressions, and wished to maintain his imperial title in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should... Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast-metal sculpture of bronze is often called a bronze. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Meran (German) / Merano (Italian) is probably best known as a spa in the South Tyrol. ...


Sources:

  • Tom Pocock - Stopping Napoleon (2004)

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Andreas Hofer (866 words)
Hofer thought he could return to his home and leave the government in the hands of the Intendant Hormayr, who had been sent from Vienna.
Hofer stood for some time in the very heat of the battle, and by bis energetic efforts induced the already weakening ranks to renew their efforts.
Hofer, who was thereby strengthened in his delusion that the emperor would never abandon his faithful Tyrolese.
Andreas Hofer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (652 words)
Andreas Hofer (November 22, 1767 - February 20, 1810) was a Tyrolean innkeeper and patriot.
Hofer had to hide in the mountains in the Passeier valley and the French announced a reward of 1500 guilders for his head.
Andreas Hofer was executed by a firing squad on February 20, 1810.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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