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Encyclopedia > André Ernest Modeste Grétry

André Ernest Modeste Grétry (February 8, 1741September 24, 1813), a Belgian-born French composer, was born at Liège, his father being a poor musician. February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events April 10 – Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz December 19 – Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 – Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius William Browning invents mineral water Elizabeth of Russia became czarina. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Liège (Dutch: Luik, German: Lüttich) is a major city located in the Belgian province of Liège, of which it is the capital. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ...

He was a choir-boy at the church of Saint-Denis. In 1753 he became a pupil of Leclerc and later of Renekin and Moreau. But of greater importance was the practical tuition he received by attending the performance of an Italian opera company. Here he heard the operas of Galuppi, Pergolesi, and other masters; and the desire of completing his own studies in Italy was the immediate result. To find the necessary means he composed in 1759 a mass which he dedicated to the canons of the Liège cathedral, and it was at the cost of Canon Hurley that he went to Italy in March 1759. In Rome he went to the Collège de Liège. Here Grétry resided for five years, studiously employed in completing his musical education under Casali. His proficiency in harmony and counter point was, however, according to his own confession, at all time very moderate. 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The foyer of Charles Garniers Opéra, Paris, opened 1875 Opera is an art form consisting of a dramatic stage performance set to music. ... Baldassare Galuppi (October 18, 1706 - January 3, 1785) was a Venetian composer noted for his operas, and particularly opera buffa. ... Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (January 4, 1710 - March 16, 1736) was an Italian composer, violinist and organist. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article discusses the Mass as part of Christian liturgy, in particular the form it has taken in the Latin rite of the Catholic Church. ... Canon can mean: A rule adopted by an ecumenical council of the Catholic or Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Location within Italy The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma) is the capital city of Italy and of its Latium region. ...

His first great success was achieved by La Vendemmiatrice, an Italian intermezzo or operetta, composed for the Aliberti theatre in Rome and received with universal applause. It is said that the study of the score of one of Monsigny's operas, lent to him by a secretary of the French embassy in Rome, decided Grétry to devote himself to French comic opera. On New Year's day 1767 he accordingly left Rome, and after a short stay at Geneva (where he made the acquaintance of Voltaire, and produced another operetta) went to Paris. Operetta (literally, little opera) is a performance art-form similar to opera, though it generally deals with less serious topics. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Geneva: the Mont Blanc bridge over the Rhône River and St Peters Cathedral Geneva (French: Genève) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland located where Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman, but the Genevois are fond of calling it Lac de Genève) empties into the... Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (November 21, 1694 – May 30, 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, deist and philosopher. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...

There for two years he had to contend with the difficulties incident to poverty and obscurity. He was, however, not without friends, and by the intercession of Count Creutz, the Swedish ambassador, Grétry obtained a libretto from Marmontel, which he set to music in less than six weeks, and which, on its performance in August 1768, met with unparalleled success. The name of the opera was Le Huron. Two others, Lucile and Le Tableau parlant, soon followed, and thenceforth Grétry's position as the leading composer of comic opera was safely established. Count Gustaf Philip Creutz (1729 - October 30, 1785), was a Swedish statesman, diplomat and poet. ... A libretto is the body of words used in an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, oratorio, or musical. ... Jean-François Marmontel (July 11, 1723 - December 31, 1799) was a French historian and writer, a member of the Encyclopediste movement. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Altogether he composed some fifty operas. His masterpieces are Zémire et Azor and Richard Cœur de Lion,—the first produced in 1771, the second in 1784. The latter in an indirect way became connected with a great historic event. In it occurs the celebrated romance, O Richard, O mon Roi, l'univers t'abandonne, which was sung at the banquet—"fatal as that of Thyestes," remarks Carlyle—given by the bodyguard to the officers of the Versailles garrison on October 3, 1789. La Marseillaise not long afterwards became the reply of the people to the expression of loyalty borrowed from Grétry's opera. 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Carlyle, Scottish essayist and historian. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in Leap years). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... La Marseillaise is the national anthem of France. ...

The composer himself was not uninfluenced by the great events he witnessed, and the titles of some of his operas, such as La Rosière républicaine and La Fête de la raison, sufficiently indicate the epoch to which they belong; but they are mere pièces de circonstance, and the republican enthusiasm displayed is not genuine. Little more successful was Grétry in his dealings with classical subjects. His genuine power lay in the delineation of character and in the expression of tender and typically French sentiment. The structure of his concerted pieces on the other hand is frequently flimsy, and his instrumentation so feeble that the orchestral parts of some of his works had to be rewritten by other composers, in order to make them acceptable to modern audiences. During the Revolution Grétry lost much of his property, but the successive governments of France vied in favouring the composer, regardless of political differences. From the old court he received distinctions and rewards of all kinds; the republic made him an inspector of the conservatoire; Napoleon granted him the cross of the legion of honour and a pension. Grétry died at the Hermitage in Montmorency, formerly the house of Rousseau. Fifteen years after his death Grétry's heart was transferred to his birthplace, permission having been obtained after a tedious lawsuit. In 1842 a colossal bronze statue of the composer was set up at Liège. The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... French Legion of Honor The Légion dhonneur (Legion of Honor ( AmE) or Legion of Honour ( ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Franco-Swiss philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

See Michael Brenet, Vie de Grétry (Paris, 1884); Joach. le Breton, Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de Grétry (Paris, 1814); A Grétry (his nephew), Grétry en famille (Paris, 1814); Felix van Hulst, Grétry (Liege, 1842); L. D. S. Notice biographique sur Grétry (Bruxelles, 1869). 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

This entry was originally from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica. (Redirected from 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica) The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...



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