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Encyclopedia > André Breton

André Breton (February 18, 1896September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist. His writings include the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924, in which he defined surrealism as pure psychic automatism. February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Poets are authors of poems, or of other forms of poetry such as dramatic verse. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Surrealist automatism is spontaneous writing, drawing, or the like practiced without conscious aesthetic or moral self-censorship. ...


Born into modest origins in Tinchebray (Orne) in Normandy, he studied medicine and psychiatry. During World War I he worked in a neurological ward in Nantes, where he met the spiritual son of Alfred Jarry, Jacques Vaché, a young man who lived his life like a work of art and committed suicide at age 24. Jacques Vaché had considerable influence on Breton, even though all that remains are some war letters. Orne is a département in the northwest of France named after the Orne River. ... Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ... Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... For a place in Brazil, see Nantes, Brazil City motto: Favet Neptunus eunti. ... Alfred Jarry (September 8, 1873–November 1, 1907) was a French writer born in Laval, Mayenne, France, not far from the border of Brittany; he was of Breton descent on his mothers side, a fact which would have a profound impact on some of his writings. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of intentionally ending ones own life; it is sometimes a noun for one who has committed, or attempted the act. ...


In 1919, Breton founded the review Littérature with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault. He also connected with Dadaist Tristan Tzara. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... Philipe Soupault (August 2, 1897 – March 12, 1990) was writer involved with the surrealist and Dada art movements in Paris. ... Dadaism or Dada is a post-World War I cultural movement in visual art as well as literature (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. ... Tristan Tzara (April 16, 1896 - December 25, 1963) is the pseudonym of Sami Rosenstock, born in Moineşti, Bacău, Romania. ...


In The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques), a collaboration with Soupault, he put the principle of automatic writing into practice. He published the Surrealist Manifesto in 1924, and was editor of La Révolution surréaliste from 1924. A group coalesced around him — Philippe Soupault, Louis Aragon, Paul Éluard, René Crevel, Michel Leiris, and Robert Desnos. Les Champs Magnetiques (The Magnetic Fields) is a novel by André Breton and Philippe Soupault. ... The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Paul Éluard was the nom de plume of Eugène Grindel (December 14, 1895 – November 18, 1952), a French poet. ... René Crevel (1900 – 1935) was a writer involved with the surrealist movement. ... Robert Desnos (July 4, 1900 - June 8, 1945) was a French surrealist poet. ...


Anxious to combine the changing of life of Rimbaud with the transforming of the world of Marx, Breton joined the Communist Party in 1927, from which he was expelled in 1933. Rimbaud can refer to: Arthur Rimbaud, 19th century poet and literary figure Penny Rimbaud, founder and drummer of the anarchist punk rock band Crass This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Karl Marx Karl Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London, UK) was an influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... In modern usage, a Communist party is a political party which promotes Communism, a sociopolitical philosophy based on the particular interpretation of Marxism put forth by Vladimir Lenin. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Under his influence, surrealism became a European movement that touched all domains of art, and called into question the cause of human understanding and the types of views given to things and events. World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ...


Dissatisfied with the Vichy government, Breton sought refuge in the United States in 1941. Breton returned to Paris in 1946, where he continued, until his death, to foster a second group of surrealists in the form of expositions or reviews (La Brèche, 1961-1965). Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the de facto French government of 1940-1944 during the Nazi Germany occupation of World War II. The Vichy position that it was the... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


His works include a novel, Nadja (1928). Nadja is a novel written by the French surrealist André Breton in 1928. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


He married three times

  • His first wife was the former Simone Kahn.
  • His second wife was the former Jacqueline Lamba.
  • His third wife was the former Elisa Claro.

André Breton died in 1966 and was interred in the Cimetière des Batignolles in Paris. The Cimetière des Batignolles is a cemetery in Paris. ...


References

  • What is Surrealism?: Selected Writings of André Breton (edited and with an Introduction by Franklin Rosemont).
  • Manifestoes of Surrealism by André Breton, translated by Richard Seaver and Helen R. Lane.

Franklin Rosemont (born October 2, 1943) was co founder of the Surrealist Movement in the United States. ...

External links

  • André Breton's workshop (http://www.atelierandrebreton.com)
  • The Manifesto of Surrealism (1924) (http://www.geocities.com/lmc2124/breton.html#manifesto)
  • Das "Anrennen gegen die Grenzen der Sprache" Diskussion mit Roland Barthes, André Breton, Gilles Deleuze & Raymond Federman by Ralph Lichtensteiger (http://www.lichtensteiger.de/methoden.html)
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André Breton
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André Breton

 
 

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