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Encyclopedia > Andean Condor
Andean Condor
Fossil range: Pliocene to Recent

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Incertae sedis (disputed)
Family: Cathartidae
Genus: Vultur
Lesson, 1842
Species: V. gryphus
Binomial name
Vultur gryphus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Approximate range/distribution map of the Andean Condor. Yellow indicates presence.
Approximate range/distribution map of the Andean Condor. Yellow indicates presence.
Synonyms
  • Vultur fossilis Moreno & Mercerat, 1891
  • Vultur patruus Lönnberg, 1902
  • Vultur pratruus Emslie, 1988 (lapsus)

The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) is a species of South American bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae and is the only member of the genus Vultur. Found in the Andes mountains and adjacent Pacific coasts of western South America, it is the largest flying land bird in the Western Hemisphere. The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 421 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ... Genera Cathartes Coragyps Gymnogyps Sarcorhamphus The New World vulture family Cathartidae contains seven species found in North and South America. ... René Primevère Lesson (March 20, 1794 - April 28, 1849) was a French surgeon and naturalist. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Bust of Francisco Moreno, in front of the Los Glaciares National Park offices in El Calafate. ... Einar Lönnberg. ... Genera Cathartes Coragyps Gymnogyps Sarcorhamphus Vultur The New World vultures family Cathartidae contains seven species found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas. ... Genera Cathartes Coragyps Gymnogyps Sarcorhamphus The New World vulture family Cathartidae contains seven species found in North and South America. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...


It is a large black vulture with a ruff of white feathers surrounding the base of the neck and, especially in the male, large white patches on the wings. The head and neck are nearly featherless, and are a dull red color, which may flush and therefore change color in response to the bird's emotional state. In the male, there is a wattle on the neck and a large, dark red comb or caruncle on the crown of the head. Unlike most birds of prey, the male is larger than the female. Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ...


The condor is primarily a scavenger, feeding on carrion. It prefers large carcasses, such as those of deer or cattle. It reaches sexual maturity at five or six years of age and roosts at elevations of 3,000 to 5,000 m (10,000 to 16,000 ft), generally on inaccessible rock ledges. One or two eggs are usually laid. It is one of the world’s longest-living birds, with a lifespan of up to 50 years. For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


The Andean Condor is a national symbol of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, and plays an important role in the folklore and mythology of the South American Andean regions. The Andean Condor is considered near threatened by the IUCN. It is threatened by habitat loss and by secondary poisoning from carcasses killed by hunters. Captive breeding programs have been instituted in several countries. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Captive breeding is the process of breeding endangered animals by capturing them from their natural environment, breeding them in restricted conditions in zoos and other conservation facilities, and releasing them back to the wild when the population stabilizes and the threat to the animal in the wild is lessened or...

Contents

Taxonomy

The Andean Condor was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae and retains its original binomial name of Vultur gryphus.[2] The Andean Condor is sometimes called the Argentinean Condor, Bolivian Condor, Chilean Condor, Colombian Condor, Ecuadorian Condor, or Peruvian Condor after one of the nations to which it is native. The generic term Vultur is directly taken from the Latin vultur or voltur, which means "vulture".[3] Its specific epithet is derived from a variant of the Greek word γρυπός (grupós, "hook-nosed").[4] The word condor itself is derived from the Quechua cuntur.[5] Carl Linnaeus (Carl Linné, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , May 23 new style (13 May old style), 1707[1] – January 10, 1778) was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of Binomial nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Latin name redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ...


The exact taxonomic placement of the Andean Condor and the remaining six species of New World Vultures remains unclear.[6] Though both are similar in appearance and have similar ecological roles, the New World and Old World Vultures evolved from different ancestors in different parts of the world and are not closely related. Just how different the two families are is currently under debate, with some earlier authorities suggesting that the New World vultures are more closely related to storks.[7] More recent authorities maintain their overall position in the order Falconiformes along with the Old World Vultures[8] or place them in their own order, Cathartiformes.[9] The South American Classification Committee has removed the New World Vultures from Ciconiiformes and instead placed them in Incertae sedis, but notes that a move to Falconiformes or Cathartiformes is possible.[6] Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... Genera Cathartes Coragyps Gymnogyps Sarcorhamphus Vultur The New World vultures family Cathartidae contains seven species found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. A shorthand definition is that a niche is how an organism makes a living. ... † see also: Accipitridae Old World vultures belong to the family Accipitridae, which also includes eagles, kites, buzzards and hawks. ... Genera Mycteria Anastomus Ciconia Ephippiorhynchus Jabiru Leptoptilos The storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills. ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... The American Ornithologists Union (AOU) an ornithological organization in the USA. Unlike the National Audubon Society, its members are primarily professional ornithologists rather than amateur birders. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ...


The Andean Condor is the only accepted living species of its genus, Vultur.[10] Unlike the California Condor, which is known from extensive fossil remains and some additional ones of congeners, the fossil record of the Andean Condor recovered to date is scant. Presumed Plio-/Pleistocene species of South American condors were later recognized to be not different from the present species, although one known only from a few rather small bones found in a Pliocene deposit of Tarija Department, Bolivia, may have been a smaller palaeosubspecies, V. gryphus patruus.[11] For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1797) Synonyms Genus-level: Antillovultur Arredondo, 1976 Pseudogryphus Species-level: Vultur californianus Shaw, 1797 Gymnogyps amplus L. H. Miller, 1911 California Condor on the 2005 California State quarter The California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a species of North American bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Tarija is a city in southern Bolivia, located 22. ... A chronospecies is a species which which changes physically, morphologically, genetically, and/or behaviorally over time on an evolutionary scale such that the originating species and the species it becomes could not be classified as the same species had they existed at the same point in time. ...


Description

Although it is on average about five cm shorter from beak to tail than the California Condor, the Andean Condor is larger in wingspan, which ranges from 274 to 310 cm (9 to 10 ft).[12] It is also heavier, reaching up to 11 to 15 kg (24 to 33 lb) for males and 7.5 to 11 kg (16 to 24 lb) for females.[13] Overall length can range from 117 to 135 cm (46 to 53 in).[14] Measurements are usually taken from specimens reared in captivity.[12] Binomial name (Shaw, 1797) Synonyms Genus-level: Antillovultur Arredondo, 1976 Pseudogryphus Species-level: Vultur californianus Shaw, 1797 Gymnogyps amplus L. H. Miller, 1911 California Condor on the 2005 California State quarter The California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a species of North American bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae. ...

An Andean condor soaring, in silhouette
An Andean condor soaring, in silhouette

The adult plumage is a uniform black, with the exception of a frill of white feathers nearly surrounding the base of the neck and, especially in the male, large patches or bands of white on the wings which do not appear until the completion of the bird's first moulting.[14] The head and neck are red to blackish-red and have few feathers. The head and neck are meticulously kept clean by the bird,[15] and their baldness is an adaptation for hygiene, allowing the skin to be exposed to the sterilizing effects of dehydration and ultraviolet light at high altitudes.[13] The crown of the head is flattened. In the male, the head is crowned with a dark red caruncle or comb, while the skin of his neck lies in folds, forming a wattle.[14] The skin of the head and neck is capable of flushing noticeably in response to emotional state, which serves to communicate between individuals. Juveniles have a grayish-brown general coloration, blackish head and neck skin, and a brown ruff.[16] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (3528 × 2324 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (3528 × 2324 pixel, file size: 1. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... In animals, moulting (Commonwealth English) or molting (American English) is the routine shedding off old feathers in birds, or of old skin in reptiles, or of old hairs in mammals (see also coat (dog)). In arthropods, such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans, moulting describes the shedding of its exoskeleton (which... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


The middle toe is greatly elongated, and the hind one is only slightly developed, while the talons of all the toes are comparatively straight and blunt. The feet are thus more adapted to walking, and are of little use as weapons or organs of prehension as in birds of prey and Old World vultures.[17] The beak is hooked, and adapted to tear rotting meat.[18] The irises of the male are brown, while those of the female are deep red.[19] The eyelids lack eyelashes.[20] Contrary to the usual rule among birds of prey, the female is smaller than the male. Prehensility is the quality of an organ that has adapted for grasping or holding. ... Genera See text. ... In anatomy, the iris (plural irises or irides) is the most visible part of the eye of vertebrates, including humans. ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ...


Distribution and habitat

The Andean Condor is found in South America in the Andes. In the north, its range begins in Venezuela and Colombia, where it is extremely rare,[21] then continues south along the Andes in Ecuador, Peru, and Chile, through Bolivia and western Argentina to the Tierra del Fuego.[16] In the early nineteenth century, the Andean Condor bred from western Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego, along the entire chain of the Andes, but its range has been greatly reduced due to human activity.[22] Its habitat is mainly composed of open grasslands and alpine areas up to 5,000 m (16,000 ft) in elevation. It prefers relatively open, non-forested areas which allow it to spot carrion from the air, such as the páramo or rocky, mountainous areas in general.[23] It occasionally ranges to lowlands in eastern Bolivia and southwestern Brazil,[7] descends to lowland desert areas in Chile and Peru, and is found in southern-beech forests in Patagonia.[21] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... Espeletia (Frailejón) plant in the Venezuelan páramo. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ...


Ecology and behaviour

An Andean condor soars over southern Peru's Colca Canyon.
An Andean condor soars over southern Peru's Colca Canyon.

On wing, the movements of the condor are remarkably graceful as it wheels in majestic circles.[24] It soars with its wings held horizontally and its primary feathers bent upwards at the tips.[14] The lack of a large sternum to anchor its correspondingly large flight muscles identifies it physiologically as a primarily soarer. It flaps its wings on rising from the ground, but after attaining a moderate elevation it flaps its wings very rarely, relying on thermals to stay aloft.[25] Charles Darwin commented on having watched them for half an hour without once observing a flap of their wings.[26] It prefers to roost on high places from which it can launch without major wing-flapping effort. Andean Condors are often seen soaring near rock cliffs, using the heat thermals to aid them in rising in the air.[27] Image File history File linksMetadata Condor_flying_over_the_Colca_canyon_in_Peru. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Condor_flying_over_the_Colca_canyon_in_Peru. ... Colca Canyon is a canyon of the Colca River in southern Peru. ... Red Kite (Milvus milvus) in flight, showing remiges and rectrices. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ...


Like other New World Vultures, the Andean Condor has the unusual habit of urohydrosis: its cloaca empties onto its legs to cool them by evaporation.[28] Because of this habit, their legs are often streaked with a white buildup of uric acid.[17] Genera Cathartes Coragyps Gymnogyps Sarcorhamphus Vultur The New World vultures family Cathartidae contains seven species found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ... Evaporative cooling is a system in which latent heat of evaporation is used to carry heat away from an object to cool it. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ...


Diet

The Andean Condor is a scavenger, feeding mainly on carrion.[25] Wild condors inhabit large territories, often traveling more than 200 km (100 miles) a day in search of carrion.[13] In inland areas, they prefer large carcasses, such as those of dead farm animals or wild deer, while their diet consists mainly of beached carcasses of marine mammals when near the coast.[19] They will also raid the nests of smaller birds to feed on the eggs.[29] Coastal areas provide a constant food supply, and in particularly plentiful areas, some Andean Condors limit their foraging area to several kilometers of beach-front land.[22] They locate carrion by spotting it or by following other scavengers, such as ravens or other vultures.[30] It may follow New World Vultures of the genus Cathartes—the Turkey Vulture, the Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, and the Greater Yellow-headed Vulture—to carcasses. The Cathartes vultures forage by smell, detecting the scent of ethyl mercaptan, a gas produced by the beginnings of decay in dead animals. These smaller vultures cannot rip through the tougher hides of these larger animals with the efficiency of the larger condor, and their interactions are often an example of mutual dependence between species.[31] Andean Condors are intermittent eaters in the wild, often going for a few days without eating, then gorging themselves on several pounds at once, sometimes to the point of being unable to lift off the ground. Because its feet and talons are not adapted to grasping, it must feed while on the ground.[13] Like other carrion-feeders, it plays an important role in its ecosystem by disposing of carrion which would otherwise be a breeding ground for disease.[32] For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ... Species Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes melambrotus) Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) The genus Cathartes (Greek for purifier) includes medium-sized to large carrion-feeding birds in the New World vulture (Cathartidae) family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Approximate range/distribution map of the Turkey Vulture. ... Binomial name Cassin, 1845 The Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) is a species of bird of prey in the Cathartidae family. ... Binomial name Wetmore, 1964 Approximate range/distribution map of the Greater Yellow-headed Vulture, indicating countries of occurrence, rather than specific area occupied by the species. ... Ethanethiol, also known as ethyl mercaptan, is an organic compound used as an odorant in propane. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


Reproduction

A juvenile condor posing over Colca Canyon, Peru
A juvenile condor posing over Colca Canyon, Peru

Sexual maturity and breeding behavior do not appear in the Andean Condor until the bird is five or six years of age.[33] It may live for 50 years or more, and it mates for life.[34] During courtship displays, the skin of the male's neck flushes, changing from dull red to bright yellow, and inflates.[35] He approaches the female with neck outstretched, revealing the inflated neck and the chest patch, while hissing,[36] then extends his wings and stands erect while clicking his tongue.[19] Other courtship rituals include hissing and clucking while hopping with wings partially spread, and dancing.[13] The Andean condor prefers to roost and breed at elevations of 3,000 to 5,000 m (10,000 to 16,000 ft).[37] Its nest, which consists of a few sticks placed around the eggs, is created on inaccessible ledges of rock. However, in coastal areas of Peru, where there are few cliffs, some nests are simply partially shaded crannies scraped out against boulders on slopes.[22] It deposits one or two bluish-white eggs, weighing about 280 g (10 oz) and ranging from 75 to 100 mm (3 to 4 in) in length, during the months of February and March every second year. The egg hatches after 54 to 58 days of incubation by both parents.[19] If the chick or egg is lost or removed, another egg is laid to take its place. Researchers and breeders take advantage of this behavior to double the reproductive rate by taking the first egg away for hand-rearing, causing the parents to lay a second egg, which they are generally allowed to raise.[38] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 800 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Colca Canyon is a canyon of the Colca River in southern Peru. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ...


The young are covered with a grayish down until they are almost as large as their parents. They are able to fly after six months,[14] but continue to roost and hunt with their parents until age two, when they are displaced by a new clutch.[39] There is a well developed social structure within large groups of condors, with competition to determine a 'pecking order' by body language, competitive play behavior, and vocalizations.[40]


Relationship with humans

Conservation status

"Condors." Illustrated London Reading Book (1851)
"Condors." Illustrated London Reading Book (1851)

The Andean Condor is considered near threatened by the IUCN. It was first placed on the United States Endangered Species list in 1970,[41] a status which is assigned to an animal is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.[42] Threats to its population include loss of habitat needed for foraging and secondary poisoning from animals killed by hunters.[43] It is threatened mainly in the northern area of its range, and is extremely rare in Venezuela and Colombia, where it has undergone considerable declines in recent years.[44] Because it is adapted to very low mortality and has correspondingly low reproductive rates, it is extremely vulnerable to human persecution,[21] most of which stems from the fact that it is perceived as a threat by farmers due to alleged attacks on livestock.[34] Education programs have been implemented by conservationists to dispel this misconception.[45] Reintroduction programs using captive-bred Andean Condors, which release birds hatched in North American zoos into the wild to bolster populations,[45] have been introduced in Argentina, Venezuela, and Colombia. The first captive-bred Andean Condors were released into the wild in 1989.[46] When raising condors, human contact is minimal; chicks are fed with glove puppets which resemble adult Andean Condors in order to prevent the chicks from imprinting on humans, which would endanger them upon release as they would not be wary of humans.[47] The condors are kept in aviaries for three months prior to release, where they acclimatize to an environment similar to that which they will be released in.[47] Released condors are tracked by satellite in order to observe their movements and to monitor whether they are still alive.[18] Condors - Project Gutenberg eBook 11921 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Condors - Project Gutenberg eBook 11921 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... For other uses, see Endangered species (disambiguation). ... Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. ...


In response to the capture of all the wild individuals of the closely related California Condor, in 1988 the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a reintroduction experiment involving the release of captive Andean Condors into the wild in California. Only females were released to eliminate the possibility of accidentally introducing a South American species into the United States. The experiment was a success, and all the Andean Condors were recaptured and re-released in South America before the reintroduction of the California Condors took place.[48] Binomial name (Shaw, 1797) Synonyms Genus-level: Antillovultur Arredondo, 1976 Pseudogryphus Species-level: Vultur californianus Shaw, 1797 Gymnogyps amplus L. H. Miller, 1911 California Condor on the 2005 California State quarter The California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a species of North American bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Role in culture

The Andean Condor is a national symbol of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. It is the national bird of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador.[49] It plays an important role in the folklore and mythology of the South American Andean regions,[34] similar to the role the Bald Eagle plays in North America. Condors have been represented in Andean art from c. 2500 BCE onward,[50] and they are a part of indigenous Andean religions.[51] In Andean mythology, the Andean Condor was associated with the sun deity,[52] and was believed to be the ruler of the upper world.[53] The Andean Condor is considered a symbol of power and health by many Andean cultures, and it was believed that the bones and organs of the Andean Condor possessed medicinal powers, sometimes leading to the hunting and killing of condors to obtain its bones and organs.[18][54] In some versions of Peruvian bullfighting, a condor is tied to the back of a bull, where it pecks at the animal as bullfighters fight it. The condor generally survives and is set free.[55] In Peru, there is a ceremony known as the arranque del condor in which a live Andean Condor is suspended from a frame and is punched to death by passersby.[56] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Bald Eagle (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ...


The Andean Condor is a popular figure on stamps in many nations, appearing on one for Argentina in 1960, Bolivia in 1985, Chile in 2001, Colombia in 1992, Ecuador in 1958, Peru in 1973, and Venezuela in 2004.[57] It has also appeared on the coins and banknotes of Colombia and Chile.[58] The condor is featured in several coats of arms of Andean countries as a symbol of Andes mountains. A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... See also architecture with non-sequential dynamic execution scheduling (ANDES). ...

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Vultur gryphus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 23 September 2007.
  2. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii)., 86. “V. maximus, carúncula verticali longitudine capitis.” 
  3. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary, 5, London: Cassell Ltd., 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0. 
  4. ^ Liddell, Henry George (1980). Greek-English Lexicon, Abridged Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. 
  5. ^ "Raven". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd edition). (1989). Ed. J. Simpson, E. Weiner (eds). Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-861186-2. 
  6. ^ a b Remsen, J. V., Jr.; C. D. Cadena; A. Jaramillo; M. Nores; J. F. Pacheco; M. B. Robbins; T. S. Schulenberg; F. G. Stiles; D. F. Stotz & K. J. Zimmer. 2007. A classification of the bird species of South America. South American Classification Committee. Retrieved on 2007-10-15
  7. ^ a b Sibley, Charles G. and Burt L. Monroe. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of the Birds of the World. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04969-2. Accessed 2007-04-11.
  8. ^ Sibley, Charles G., and Jon E. Ahlquist. 1991. Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04085-7. Accessed 2007-04-11.
  9. ^ Ericson, Per G. P.; Anderson, Cajsa L.; Britton, Tom; Elżanowski, Andrzej; Johansson, Ulf S.; Kallersjö, Mari; Ohlson, Jan I.; Parsons, Thomas J.; Zuccon, Dario & Mayr, Gerald (2006): Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters online: 1-5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523 PDF preprint Electronic Supplementary Material (PDF)
  10. ^ "Vultur gryphus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 2008-01-13.
  11. ^ Fisher, Harvey L. (1944), “The skulls of the Cathartid vultures”, Condor 46 (6): 272–296, DOI 10.2307/1364013 
  12. ^ a b Ferguson-Lees, James; Christie, David A. (2001). Raptors of the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-12762-3. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Lutz, Dick (2002). Patagonia: At the Bottom of the World. DIMI Press, 71–74. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Hilty, Stephen L. (1977). A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, 88. ISBN 069108372X. 
  15. ^ "Behavior of the Andean Condor". Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  16. ^ a b Blake, Emmet Reid (1953). Birds of Mexico: A Guide for Field Identification. University of Chicago Press, 262–263. 
  17. ^ a b Feduccia, J. Alan (1999). The Origin and Evolution of Birds. Yale University Press, 300. ISBN 0226056414. 
  18. ^ a b c "Andean Condor". Zoological Society of San Diego. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  19. ^ a b c d Friends of the Zoo. "Andean Condor". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved on 2008-01-08.
  20. ^ Fisher, Harvey L. (1942), “The Pterylosis of the Andean Condor”, Condor 44 (1): 30–32, DOI 10.2307/1364195 
  21. ^ a b c "Species factsheet: Vultur Gryphus". BirdLife International (2004). Retrieved on 2008-01-04.
  22. ^ a b c Haemig, PD (2007). "Ecology of Condors". Ecology Online Sweden. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  23. ^ "Habitat of the Andean Condor". Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  24. ^ Kricher, John C. (1997). A Neotropical Companion. Princeton University Press, 224. ISBN 0691009740. 
  25. ^ a b Wehner, Ross; del Gaudio, Renee & Jankowski, Kazia (2007). Moon Peru. Avalon Travel, 180. ISBN 1566919835. 
  26. ^ Darwin, Charles (1909). The Voyage of the Beagle. P.F. Collier, 201. 
  27. ^ Benson, Sara & Paul Hellander (2007). Peru. Lonely Planet Publications, 53. ISBN 1740597494. 
  28. ^ Sibley, Charles G. and Jon E. Ahlquist (1991). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04085-7. 
  29. ^ "Andean Condor (Vultur Gryphus)". National Geographic. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  30. ^ Snyder, Noel F. R. and Helen Snyder (2006). Raptors of North America: Natural History and Conservation. Voyageur Press, 45. ISBN 0760325820. 
  31. ^ Muller-Schwarze, Dietland (2006). Chemical Ecology of Vertebrates. Cambridge University Press, 350. ISBN 0521363772. 
  32. ^ Gomez, LG; Houston, DC; Cotton, P; Tye, A (1994). "The role of greater yellow-headed vultures Cathartes melambrotus as scavengers in neotropical forest". Ibis 136 (2): 193–196. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1994.tb01084.x. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  33. ^ "Andean Condor (Vultur Gryphus)". The Peregrine Fund. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  34. ^ a b c Tait, Malcolm (2006). Going, Going, Gone: Animals and Plants on the Brink of Extinction. Sterling Publishing, 22. ISBN 1845250273. 
  35. ^ Whitson, Martha A; Whitson, Paul D. (1968). "Breeding Behavior of the Andean Condor (Vultur Gryphus)". Condor 71: 73–75. Cooper Ornithological Society. doi:10.2307/1366056. Retrieved on 2007-01-10. 
  36. ^ Gailey, Janet; Bolwig, Neils (1973). "Observations on the Breeding Behavior of the Andean Condor (Vultur Gryphus)". Condor 75: 60–68. Cooper Ornithological Society. doi:10.2307/1366535. Retrieved on 2007-01-10. 
  37. ^ Fjeldså, Jon; Krabbe, Niels (1990). Birds of the High Andes. Apollo Books, 90. ISBN 8788757161. 
  38. ^ National Research Council (1992). Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow. National Academies Press, 74. ISBN 0309047757. 
  39. ^ See e.g. Cisneros-Heredia (2006) for a record of a juvenile accompanying an adult male in July, too early to have been of that year's cohort.
  40. ^ Donazard, José A; Feijoo, Juan E. (2002). "Social structure of Andean Condor roosts: Influence of sex, age, and season". Condor 104 (1): 832–837. Cooper Ornithological Society. doi:10.1650/0010-5422(2002)104[0832:SSOACR]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. 
  41. ^ "Species Profile: Andean Condor". United States Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  42. ^ "Endangered Species Program". United States Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  43. ^ Reading, Richard P.; Miller, Brian (2000). Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues. Greenwood Press, 16. ISBN 0313308160. 
  44. ^ Beletsky, Les (2006). Birds of the World. JHU Press, 70. ISBN 0801884292. 
  45. ^ a b Roach, John (2004-07-22). "Peru's Andean Condors Are Rising Tourist Attraction". National Geographic News. National Geographic. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  46. ^ Conservation and Research for Endangered Species. "Andean Condor Reintroduction Program". Zoological Society of San Diego. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  47. ^ a b Pullin, Andrew S. (2002). Conservation Biology. Cambridge University Press, 234. ISBN 0521644828. 
  48. ^ "California condor, (Gymnogyps californianus)". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  49. ^ MacDonald, Tina; MacDonald, Duncan. "National Birds". Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  50. ^ Werness, Hope B. (2004). The Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in Art. Continuum International Publishing Group, 103. ISBN 0826415253. 
  51. ^ Howard-Malverde, Rosaleen (1997). Creating Context in Andean Cultures. Oxford University Press, 16. ISBN 0195109147. 
  52. ^ Mundkur, Balaji (1983). The Cult of the Serpent. SUNY Press, 129. ISBN 0873956311. 
  53. ^ Mills, Alice ; Parker, Janet & Stanton, Julie (2006). Mythology: Myths, Legends and Fantasies. New Holland Publishers, 493. ISBN 1770074538. 
  54. ^ "History of the Andean Condor". Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  55. ^ Kokotovic, Misha (2007). The Colonial Divide in Peruvian Narrative:Social Conflict and Transculturation. Sussex Academic Press, 49. ISBN 1845191846. 
  56. ^ Mackenzie, John P.S. (1986). Birds of Prey. Toronto: NorthWood, Inc, 30. ISBN 1-55971-019-5. 
  57. ^ "Andean Condor". Bird Stamps. Retrieved on 2008-01-15.
  58. ^ "A Field Guide to the Birds on Banknotes". Krause Publications. Retrieved on 2008-01-16.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Sibley (August 7, 1917 - April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Sibley (August 7, 1917 - April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist. ... Jon Edward Ahlquist specialized in molecular phylogenetics and ornithology, collaborating extensively with Charles Sibley, primarily at Yale University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F. (2006): Notes on breeding, behaviour and distribution of some birds in Ecuador. Bull. B.O.C. 126(2): 153-164.
  • Ericson, Per G. P.; Anderson, Cajsa L.; Britton, Tom; Elżanowski, Andrzej; Johansson, Ulf S.; Kallersjö, Mari; Ohlson, Jan I.; Parsons, Thomas J.; Zuccon, Dario & Mayr, Gerald (2006): Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters, in press. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0523 PDF preprint Electronic Supplementary Material
  • Ferguson-Lees, James & Christie, David A. (2001): Raptors of the World. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. ISBN 0-618-12762-3
  • Fisher, Harvey L. (1944): The skulls of the Cathartid vultures. Condor 46(6): 272–296. PDF fulltext
  • Sibley, Charles Gald & Ahlquist, Jon Edward ([1991]): Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. ISBN 0-300-04085-7
  • Sibley, Charles Gald & Monroe, Burt L. Jr. (1990): Distribution and taxonomy of the birds of the world: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. ISBN 0-300-04969-2
  • South American Classification Committee (SACC) (2007): A classification of the bird species of South America. Version 2007-09-21. Accessed 2007-09-23.

The Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club (ISSN 0007-1595) is an ornithological journal published by the British Ornithologists Club. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... Charles Sibley (August 7, 1917 - April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist. ... Jon Edward Ahlquist specialized in molecular phylogenetics and ornithology, collaborating extensively with Charles Sibley, primarily at Yale University. ... Charles Sibley (August 7, 1917 - April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist. ... The American Ornithologists Union (AOU) an ornithological organization in the USA. Unlike the National Audubon Society, its members are primarily professional ornithologists rather than amateur birders. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Condor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (663 words)
Both condors are very large broad-winged soaring birds, the Andean Condor being 5 cm shorter (beak to tail) on average than the northern species, but larger in wingspan.
The adult plumage is of a uniform fl, with the exception of a frill of white feathers nearly surrounding the base of the neck and, especially in the male, large patches or bands of white on the wings which do not appear until the completion of the first moulting.
On the wing the movements of the condor, as it wheels in majestic circles, are remarkably graceful.
Andean Condor - Vultur gryphus (474 words)
Condors mate for life, they both take care of their chick, they don't kill animals, only eat their remains, and they look the way they do for very specialized reasons.
Condors can soar to altitudes of 18,000 feet, and to keep their heads warm at that height they tuck them into a downy, white neck ruff.
Andean condors roost on the face of a cliff, and use the thermal updraft of warm morning air to lift off.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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