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Encyclopedia > And did those feet in ancient time


"And did those feet in ancient time" is a short poem by William Blake from the preface to his epic Milton: a Poem (1804). Today it is best known as the hymn "Jerusalem", with music written by C. Hubert H. Parry in 1916. A song named Jerusalem may be: Jerusalem, British hymn whose lyrics come from William Blakes poem And did those feet in ancient time Jerusalem (folk/rock song), by Dan Bern Jerusalem (Matisyahu song) by Hasidic Reggae musician Matisyahu Jerusalem (Sinéad OConnor song), by OConnor/McMordie/Clowes... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (February 27, 1848 – October 7, 1918) was an English composer, probably best known for his setting of William Blakes poem, Jerusalem. ...


The text is as follows:

And did those feet in ancient time
walk upon England’s mountains green?
And was the holy Lamb of God
on England’s pleasant pastures seen?
And did the countenance divine
shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here
among these dark Satanic Mills?
Bring me my bow of burning gold!
Bring me my arrows of desire!
Bring me my spear! O clouds, unfold!
Bring me my chariot of fire!
I will not cease from mental fight,
nor shall my sword sleep in my hand,
till we have built Jerusalem
In England’s green and pleasant Land.

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The text of the poem was inspired by an apocryphal story that Jesus, while still a young man, accompanied by Joseph of Arimathea, came to the English town of Glastonbury. This is linked with an idea from the Book of Revelation that describes a Second Coming in which Jesus establishes a new Jerusalem. Henceforth the Christian Church in general, and the English Church in particular, used Jerusalem as a metaphor for heaven. It is a place where love is universal and all is well in contrast to the 'dark satanic mills'. (The hymn 'Jerusalem the Golden with milk and honey blessed... I know not oh I know not what joys await me there....' uses Jerusalem for the same metaphor). This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... Glastonbury is a small town in Somerset, England, situated at a dry spot on the Somerset Levels, 50km (31 miles) south of Bristol. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ...

The term "dark satanic mills", which entered the English language from this poem, is most often interpreted as referring to the early industrial revolution and its destruction of nature. [1] An alternative theory claims that Blake is referring to Stonehenge, an illustration of which is featured in the work, Milton. However, Blake did not see ancient Britain as satanic but rather saw the Druids and their supposed temple, Stonehenge, as precursors of Christianity.[2] The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ...

The line from the poem, "Bring me my Chariot of Fire!" draws on the story of 2 Kings 2:11, where the Old Testament prophet Elijah is taken directly to heaven: "And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Several of Blake's poems and paintings express a notion of universal humanity: "As all men are alike (tho' infinitely various)". He retained an active interest in social and political events for all his life, but was often forced to resort to cloaking social idealism and political statements in Protestant mystical allegory. Even though the poem was written during the Napoleonic Wars, Blake was an outspoken supporter of the French Revolution, whose successor Napoleon claimed to be. The poem expressed his desire for radical change without overt sedition. The poem is followed in the preface by a quotation from Numbers ch. 11, v. 29: "Would to God that all the Lord's people were prophets." This is thought to be a direct response to the views of John Milton which were republican, libertarian and radically Puritan and which supported regicide and social levelling. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick â€  Prince of Hohenlohe... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ...

Some of Blake's biographers have concluded that he believed in the legend, but he may not have intended such a literal interpretation because he asks questions rather than making a statement of fact. Instead it can be thought as saying that there may, or may not, have been a divine visit when there was briefly heaven in England, but that was then; now we should accept the challenge to create such a country once more. It has thus inspired soldiers and anyone else with a social conscience. Whatever Blake's exact intention, it seems unlikely that the "mental fight" was a physical war waged by an army against an external enemy, or that the various archaic weapons mentioned were intended to represent modern arms.


The poem, which was little known during the century which followed its writing, was included in a patriotic anthology of verse published in 1916, a time when morale had begun to decline due to the high number of casualties in the First World War and the perception that there was no end in sight. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Under these circumstances, it seemed to many to define what Britain was fighting for. Therefore, Robert Bridges, the Poet Laureate asked Parry to put it to music at a Fight for Right campaign meeting in London's Queen's Hall. The aims of this organisation were "to brace the spirit of the nation that the people of Great Britain, knowing that they are fighting for the best interests of humanity, may refuse any temptation, however insidious, to conclude a premature peace, and may accept with cheerfulness all the sacrifices necessary to bring the war to a satisfactory conclusion"[1]. Bridges asked Parry to supply the verse with "suitable, simple music that an audience could take up and join in". Originally Parry intended the first verse to be sung by a solo female voice, but this is rare nowadays. The most famous version was orchestrated by Sir Edward Elgar in 1922 for a large orchestra at the Leeds Festival. Upon hearing the orchestral version for the first time, King George V said that he preferred "Jerusalem" over "God Save the King", the National Anthem. Bridges on the cover of Time in 1929 Robert Seymour Bridges, OM, (October 23, 1844 – April 21, 1930) was an English poet, holder of the honour of poet laureate from 1913. ... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for state occasions and other government events. ... The Queens Hall was a classical music concert hall in Central London, opened in 1893 but is best known for being where The Promenade Concerts were founded in 1895. ... Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... This article is on the British patriotic anthem. ...

Currently, England does not have an official anthem, and so adopts "God Save the Queen", which is the United Kingdom and Commonwealth anthem. Since Jerusalem is considered to be England's most popular patriotic song, it has often been used as an alternative national anthem and there have been calls to give it official status[2]. However as a Romanticist paean the poem has come under criticism, mainly for asking four questions: each with a literal answer of 'no'. Consequently some see it as unsuitable as an English national anthem, especially as its reference to a foreign city would be puzzling to other nations. Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ...

The poem's idealistic theme or subtext accounts for its popularity across the philosophical spectrum. It was used as a campaign slogan by the Labour Party in the 1945 general election. (Clement Attlee said they would build "a new Jerusalem"). The song is also the unofficial anthem of the British Women's Institute, and historically was used by the National Union of Suffrage Societies.[3]. It has also been sung at conferences of the British Conservative Party. It is frequently sung as an office or recessional hymn in English cathedrals, churches and chapels on St George's Day. The hymn is also sung in some churches on Jerusalem Sunday, a day set aside to celebrate the holy city, in Anglican Churches throughout the world and even in some Episcopal Churches in the U.S. However some vicars in the Church of England, according to the BBC TV programme "Jerusalem:An Anthem for England", have said that the song is not technically a hymn, as it is not a prayer to God (which hymns always are). Consequently, it is not sung in some churches in England. In literature, a theme is a broad idea in a story, or a message or lesson conveyed by a work. ... Subtext is content of a book, play, film or television series which is not announced explicitly by the characters (or author) but is implicit or becomes something understood by the reader / viewer as the production unfolds. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ... The Womens Institute (WI) is a membership organisation for women in England and Wales. ... The National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), also known as the Suffragists (not to be confused with the suffragettes) was an organisation of womens suffrage societies in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ...

Across the Atlantic, too, Parry's hymn lives a second life of sorts. In the United States the song persists as the school song of at several private schools in New England and Canada. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...

Parry's tune is so well liked that some attempts have been made to increase its use elsewhere with other words. The established Church of Scotland debated altering the lyrics of the hymn to read "Albion" instead of England to make it more locally relevant. The tune has been set to several texts in the United States, where the traditional lyrics would have little relevance, including "O Love of God, how strong and true", which was performed in an arrangement by Michael McCarthy at Ronald Reagan's funeral at Washington National Cathedral in 2004. In some hymnals the tune is used with Carl P. Daw Jr.'s text "O Day of Peace That Dimly Shines" (based on Isaiah 11:1-9). The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... The white cliffs of Dover. ... Michael McCarthy Michael McCarthy is currently Director of Music at Washington National Cathedral. ... “Reagan” redirects here. ... Washington National Cathedral has been the site of three presidential state funerals: for Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald W. Reagan, Gerald R. Ford and a presidential burial for Woodrow Wilson and a memorial service for Harry Truman. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Notable performances

  • During the 1920s, many Women's Institutes (British) started closing meetings by singing Hubert Parry's setting of William Blake's words And did those feet in ancient time, known as "Jerusalem", and this caught on nationally. Although it has never actually been adopted as the WI's official anthem, in practice it holds that position.
  • It is sung every year by an audience of thousands at the end of the Last Night of The Proms in the Royal Albert Hall and simultaneously in the Proms in the Park venues throughout the country.
  • "Bring me my chariot of fire" inspired the title of the film Chariots of Fire. A church congregation sings "Jerusalem" at close of the film. It is track six ("Jerusalem") on the Chariots of Fire soundtrack performed by the Ambrosian Singers with a partial Vangelis composition overlay.

The logo of the England Cricket Team which shows the three Lions of England below a five-pointed crown The England cricket team is a cricket team which represents England and Wales, operating under the auspices of the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... A rugby union scrum. ... Wally Lewis passing the ball in Rugby League State of Origin. ... The Womens Institutes (WI) are membership organisations for women in England and Wales. ... A Promenade concert in the Royal Albert Hall, 2004. ... “Albert Hall” redirects here. ... Chariots of Fire is a British film released in 1981. ... Chariots of Fire is a British film released in 1981. ... Evangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou (Greek: Ευάγγελος Οδυσσέας Παπαθανασίου IPA: ) is a world-renowned Greek composer of electronic, new age and classical music and musical performer, under the artist name Vangelis Papathanassiou (Βαγγέλης Παπαθανασίου) or just Vangelis (a diminutive of Evangelos) [IPA: or ]. He is best known for his Academy Award winning score for the film Chariots...

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The intended meaning of the term civil religion often varies according to whether one is a sociologist of religion or a professional political commentator. ... The term Merry England, or in more jocular, half-timbered spelling Merrie England, refers to a semi-mythological, idyllic, and pastoral way of life that the inhabitants of England allegedly enjoyed at some poorly-defined point between the Middle Ages and the onset of the Industrial Revolution. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
And did those feet in ancient time: Information from Answers.com (1381 words)
"And did those feet in ancient time" is a short poem by William Blake from the preface to his epic Milton: a Poem (1804).
Also, it is used repeatedly in the episode "Owl-Stretching Time" (Episode 4, Season 1) as Eric Idle sings it from the Cardiff rooms, Libya; the first time he sings it, he substitutes the word 'feet' for 'teeth' for some reason.
This time it was a rousing electronic dance track, and was used as the England football team's theme at Euro 2000.
chapter3 (4253 words)
The location of the visit is given as "the summerland," a name often used in ancient times for the modern county of Somerset.
Ancient pigs of lead bearing official Roman seals have been discovered in the West of England dating from the time of the first century emperors Claudius and Nero.
Although the disciples and probably some of His other followers contributed to the common fund from time to time, it is likely that the bulk of this fund was provided by Jesus.
  More results at FactBites »



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