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Encyclopedia > Ancient warfare

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
Military history
Eras
Prehistoric · Ancient · Medieval
Gunpowder · Industrial · Modern
Battlespace
Air · Information · Land · Sea · Space
Weapons
Armor · Artillery · Biological · Cavalry
Chemical · Electronic · Infantry ·
Nuclear · Psychological
Tactics

Attrition · Guerilla · Maneuver
Siege · Total war · Trench For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...

Lists
Battles · Commanders · Operations
Sieges · Theorists · Wars
War crimes · Weapons · Writers

Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. In Europe, the end of antiquity is often equated with the fall of Rome in 476. In China, it can also be seen as ending in the fifth century, with the growing role of mounted warriors needed to counter the ever-growing threat from the north. This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of time in human terms. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ...

Contents

Overview

The difference between prehistoric and ancient warfare is less one of technology than of organization. The development of first city-states, and then empires, allowed warfare to change dramatically. Beginning in Mesopotamia, states produced sufficient agricultural surplus that full-time ruling elites and military commanders could emerge. While the bulk of military forces were still farmers, the society could support having them campaigning rather than working the land for a portion of each year. Thus, organized armies developed for the first time. Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


These new armies could help states grow in size and became increasingly centralized, and the first empire, that of the Summerians, formed in Mesopotamia. Early ancient armies continued to primarily use bows and spears, the same weapons that had been developed in prehistoric times for hunting. Early armies in Egypt and China followed a similar pattern of using massed infantry armed with bows and spears. Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... A bow is a weapon that shoots arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow and/or the string. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ...


Chariots

As states grew in size, speed of movement became crucial because central power could not hold if rebellions could not be suppressed rapidly. The first solution to this was the chariot which became used in the Middle East around 2000 BC. First pulled by onager, oxen, and donkeys, they allowed rapid traversing of the relatively flat lands of the Middle East. The chariots were light enough that they could easily be floated across rivers. The breeding of more powerful horses soon allowed them to be used to pull chariots, and their greater speed made chariots even more efficient. For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, Pakistan, India, Israel, and Tibet (China). ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


The power of the chariot as a device both of transportation and of battle became the central weapon of the peoples of the Ancient Near East in the 2nd millennium BC. The typical chariot was worked by two men: one would be a bowman and fire at the enemy forces, while the other would control the vehicle. Over time, chariots carrying up to five warriors were developed. The effectiveness of these vehicles is still somewhat in doubt. In China, chariots became the central weapon of the Shang dynasty, allowing them to unify a great area. Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... This article is about persons held as enemy combatants. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...


Although chariots have been compared to modern-day tanks in the role they played on the battlefield, i.e., shock attacks, the chief advantage of the chariot was the tactical mobility they provided to bowmen. Because tightly packed infantry were the formation of choice, in order for ancient generals to maintain command and control during the battle as well as for mutual protection, a force of chariots could stand off at long range and rain arrows down on the infantrymen's heads. Because of their speed, any attempts to charge the chariots could be easily evaded. If, on the other hand, an infantry unit spread out to minimize the damage from arrows, they would lose the benefit of mutual protection and the charioteers could easily overrun them. In the military: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ...


From a tactical standpoint this put any force facing chariots on the horns of dilemma, making chariots indispensable to armies of the day. Chariots, however, were complicated pieces of hardware that required specialized craftsman to maintain them. Such services, therefore, made chariots expensive to own. When chariots were owned by individuals within a society, it tended to give rise to a warrior class of specialists and a feudal system (an example of which can be seen in Homer's The Iliad). Where chariots were publicly owned, they helped in the maintenance and establishment of a strong central government, e.g., the New Egyptian Kingdom. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... The Iliad is, with The Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a blind Ionian poet. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ...


Infantry

Greek Phalanx Formation.
Greek Phalanx Formation.

Chariots were also all but useless on the rugged terrain of much of the northern coast of the Mediterranean, in Armenia, Anatolia, Greece, and Italy. The Greeks thus were forced to rely on infantry tactics. Unlike isolated Egypt, Greece was frequently menaced by external forces. The rugged terrain also made unity unlikely, leading to constant local conflicts between city-states. In this high-pressure environment, infantry arms and tactics developed rapidly. The phalanx form was created, in which a solid wall of men could be far more damaging in unison than as individuals. The Greeks used longer spears than had been seen before and wore more armour than others. When confronted with the massed infantry tactics of the Persians in the Persian Wars, the Greeks emerged victorious despite far smaller numbers. However, when the Romans confronted the Macedonians the tactical flexibility of the Roman Legionaries allowed the outflanking and defeat of the traditional Phalanx formation. The Phalanx had dominated Greek warfare but was ultimately too inflexible to defeat a more mobile opponent. In the Middle East, which was then dominated by the Persian Empire, chariots had faded from importance. The breeding and evolution of the horse had continued and they were now strong enough to easily carry a fully armed man. Thus the chariot archers were replaced with horse-mounted archers and spearmen. Image File history File links Greek_Phalanx. ... Image File history File links Greek_Phalanx. ... Look up phalanx in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Phalanx (Greek word from phalangos, meaning Finger) can refer to: phalanx formation in ancient warfare. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Macedonian phalanx formation showing the employment of Macedonian spear or sarissas making the formation nearly impregnable from the front but cumbersome, tactically unwieldy and vulnerable from side or rear A phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... Persia redirects here. ...


This development proved a severe disadvantage for the people of the settled lowlands. In a pure infantry conflict, the greater manpower of the agricultural regions would prevail. The infrastructure and training for chariot warfare was also only available in the cities. Lone mounted warriors were far more at home in the steppe region than the agricultural ones. Once the new stronger horses, and technologies such as the saddle became widespread, they were quickly adopted by the nomads living in areas where farming was impossible but a good living could be made by nomadic raising of livestock. These nomads would spend much of their lives on horseback and were thus far more effective at using the animals in warfare. For many centuries, the states in Europe, the Middle East, China, and South Asia were threatened by riders from the Eurasian steppes. A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ...


Cavalry

In the 4th century BC, the Macedonians under Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great successfully integrated horse-borne warriors and the traditional Greek infantry, creating a military force of unmatched power. After conquering Southern Greece, Alexander turned his attention to the mighty Persian Empire. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


At this point the Persians had largely abandoned the chariot, although they were present at the battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC against Alexander. Though it remained the emperor's ceremonial vehicle, their army was a mix of infantry and cavalry, as well as more exotic forces such as war elephants. However, Alexander proved able to consistently outflank his opponent, and the Persian army was routed in a series of three battles. Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ...


In China, the valley empires were being increasingly menaced by the northern peoples from Mongolia, Manchuria, and Central Asia. To safeguard their kingdoms, the Chinese rulers made extensive use of their superiority in organization and manpower, most notably in the massive task of erecting the Great Wall of China, specifically designed to block cavalry forces. The wall was not enough, however, and the Chinese rulers were forced to integrate cavalry units into their armies, mostly recruited from the same northern barbarians they were trying to guard against. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th...


Although in most of Eurasia the mixture of cavalry and infantry became the norm, in Europe and North Africa a very different method of warfare was developing. The Mediterranean region is ringed by mountains, which make even horses difficult to use. Moreover, infantry is always far easier to transport onward by ship, so any society that could develop infantry capable of matching a cavalry force could dominate the region.


This was developed in the city of Rome, which soon began an unprecedented expansion throughout the Mediterranean world. Roman armies had little in the way of technology that was new; rather, they were successful through intensive organization and training. The Roman armies became a professional force of men who were committed for life and who, through their discipline, skill, fortifications, and sheer numbers, could defeat any other force in the region. To solve the problem of infantry's slow speed, they linked their empire by a network of high quality and well-maintained roads that allowed for rapid movement of considerable forces. Cavalry were only used as scouts or auxiliaries. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


However, the Romans' success depended on an extensive organization and structure of their empire. Once this began to fray, the army also soon began to collapse. The horse peoples of the steppe had not ceased advancing, either, as horses became stronger, bows became more deadly, and riding equipment more effective. By the 4th century onwards cavalry rapidly began to take over from heavy infantry as the mainstay in the Roman army, the long transition from infantry to cavalry was by then well underway, to the point were it was the infantry that was supporting the cavalry not the cavalry supporting the infantry as it had been for centuries.


Naval warfare

Main article: Naval warfare This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The first dateable recorded sea battle occurred about 1210 BC: Suppiluliuma II, king of the Hittites, defeated a fleet from Cyprus, and burned their ships at sea. (Redirected from 1210 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC - 1210s BC - 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC Events and Trends 1213 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed and... Suppiluliuma II was the last known king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) 1218 BC – c. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite...


The Persian Wars were the first to feature large-scale naval operations: not just sophisticated fleet engagements with dozens of triremes on each side, but combined land–sea operations. Ships in the ancient world could operate only on the relatively quiet waters of seas and rivers; the oceans were off limits. Navies were almost always used as auxiliaries to land forces, often essential to bringing them supplies. They would rarely strike out on their own. With only limited-range weapons, naval galleys would often attempt to ram their opponents with their reinforced bow to cause damage or sink the enemy warships which often caused the two ships to become joined together, and initiated a boarding battle. Only occasionally was a decisive naval battle fought, such as the Battle of Salamis in which a numerically inferior Greek navy destroyed the larger Persian force, after which most of the Persian forces evacuated Greece. The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... A Greek trireme. ... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ...


The Punic Wars led to innovation on the high seas. Rome previously had hardly touched naval warfare, being only concerned with the Italian peninsula, while Carthage was a trading civilization, and so had developed a large fleet. Only by examining the ruins of Carthaginian ships did the Romans come to build an effective navy. Moreover, they developed an implement called the corvus which was a way of dropping a gangplank onto an enemy ship, this gave the Romans an enormous advantage as their superiority in close-quarters combat could come into play as legionnaires boarded the Carthaginian ships and slaughtered the crews with ease. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... A corvus (meaning raven in Latin) was a Roman military boarding device used in naval warfare during the First Punic War against Carthage. ...


Tactics and weapons

Strategy

Ancient strategy focused broadly on the twin goals of convincing the enemy that continued war was more costly than submitting, and of making the most gain from war as possible.


Forcing the enemy to submit generally consisted of defeating their army in the field. Once the enemy force was routed, the threat of siege, civilian deaths, and the like often forced the enemy to the bargaining table. However, this goal could be accomplished by other means. Burning enemy fields would force the choice of surrendering or fighting a pitched battle. Waiting an enemy out until their army had to disband due to the beginning of the harvest season or running out of payment for mercenaries presented an enemy with a similar choice. The exceptional conflicts of the ancient world were when these rules of warfare were violated. The Spartan and Athenian refusal to accept surrender after many years of war and near bankruptcy in the Peloponnesian War is one such exceptional example, as is the Roman refusal to surrender after Cannae. “Athenian War” redirects here. ... Cannae (mod. ...


A more personal goal in war was simple profit. This profit was often monetary, as was the case with the raiding culture of the Gallic tribes. But the profit could be political, as great leaders in war were often rewarded with government office after their success. These "strategies" often contradict modern common sense as they conflict with what would be best for the states involved in the war.


Tactics

Effective tactics varied greatly, depending on:

  1. The sizes and skill levels of both armies
  2. The unit types of both forces
  3. Terrain and positional advantages of both armies
  4. The weather

Often, if a general knew that he had an overwhelming strength advantage, he would attempt to attack the enemy's front with his infantry while keeping his cavalry on his sides, or flanks. This maneuver would be done after the archers and siege equipment (which were kept safely behind the infantry) had fired several volleys of arrows or boulders at the opposition. After these volleys had softened up the enemy, the infantry would then advance and charge the opposing front line. When the infantry had engaged them and their attention was focused on their infantry attackers, the cavalry would then flank in from the right and the left, decimating the enemy and leaving no room for them to rout (retreat).


In the case that the general's advantage was more slight, he might try to rout the enemy, as fleeing troops are far less organized and easier to kill than their steadfast brethren. This can be accomplished by attacking the weak troops (skirmishers) of the enemy with strong infantry, slaughtering many of them, and thus causing them to rout. Once one unit sees another unit routing, it is much more inclined to flee in the panic. An even greater achievement would be to break the will of the enemy general himself, (or kill him) causing him and his bodyguard to flee, leaving his army with little choice but to follow suit. This tactic attempts to start the domino effect, resulting in the entire opposing force fleeing the field of battle. Once the entire opposing force had been routed, it was not uncommon to use cavalry to destroy as much of the routing force as possible, weakening the enemy further.


Weapons

Main article: List of ancient weapons

Ancient weapons included the bow and arrow, the sling; polearms such as the spear, falx and javelin; hand-to-hand weapons such as swords, spears, clubs, axes, and knives. Catapults, siege towers, and battering rams were used during sieges. Mêlée (the specific definition, not the rough one that includes polearms) Axe Masakari Sagaris Tomahawk Cestus Club Eku Gun (staff) (not the projectile weapon) Knife Kukri Mace Mere Meteor hammer Pugio Katar Sappara Sword Surujin Polearms Falx Hasta Javelin (also ranged) Soliferrum (ditto) Lathi (in a sense; it... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... A pole weapon or polearm is a close combat weapon with the main fighting part of the weapon placed on the end of a long shaft, typically of wood. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... A typical falx Falx is a latin word originally meaning sickle, but was later used to mean any of a number of tools that had a curved blade that was sharp on the inside edge such as a scythe. ... Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tool. ... Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... 19th century French drawing of a medieval belfry. ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ...


Sieges

Main article: Siege
The Egyptian siege of Dapur in the 13th century BC, from Ramesseum, Thebes.

City walls and fortifications were essential for the defense of the first cities in the ancient Near East. The walls were built by mud bricks, stone, wood or a combination of these materials depending on local availability. The earliest representations of siege warfare is dated to the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, c.3000 BC, while the first siege equipment is known from Egyptian tomb reliefs of the 24th century BC showing wheeled siege ladders. Assyrian palace reliefs of the 9th to 7th centuries BC display sieges of several Near Eastern cities. Though a simple battering ram had come into use in the previous millennium, the Assyrians improved siege warfare. The most common practise of siege warfare was however to lay siege and wait for the surrender of the enemies inside. Due to the problem of logistics, long lasting sieges involving anything but a minor force could seldom be maintained. A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (410x614, 92 KB) Ramesseum. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (410x614, 92 KB) Ramesseum. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Sieges ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Ramesseum from the air - showing pylons and secondary buildings The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great, also spelt Ramses and Rameses). It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... The Protodynastic Period of Egypt refers to the period of time at the very end of the Predynastic Period. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...


Cultures

Egyptian

For most parts of its long history, ancient Egypt was unified under one government. The main military concern for the nation was to keep enemies out. The arid plains and deserts surrounding Egypt were inhabited by nomadic tribes who occasionally tried to raid or settle in the fertile Nile river valley. The Egyptians built fortresses and outposts along the borders east and west of the Nile Delta, in the Eastern Desert, and in Nubia to the south. Small garrisons could prevent minor incursions, but if a large force was detected a message was sent for the main army corps. Most Egyptian cities lacked city walls and other defenses. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ...


The first Egyptian soldiers carried a simple armament consisting of a spear with a copper spearhead and a large wooden shield covered by leather hides. A stone mace was also carried in the Archaic period, though later this weapon was probably only in ceremonial use, and was replaced with the bronze battle axe. The spearmen were supported by archers carrying a composite bow and arrows with arrowheads made of flint or copper. No armour was used during the 3rd and early 2nd Millennium BC. The major advance in weapons technology and warfare began around 1600 BC when the Egyptians fought and finally defeated the Hyksos people who had made themselves lords of Lower Egypt. It was during this period the horse and chariot were introduced into Egypt. Other new technologies included the sickle sword, body armour and improved bronze casting. The next leap forwards came in the Late Period (712-332 BC), when mounted troops and weapons made of iron came into use. After the conquest by Alexander the Great, Egypt was heavily Hellenized and the main military force became the infantry phalanx. The ancient Egyptians were not great innovators in weapons technology, and most weapons technology innovation came from Western Asia and the Greek world. An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Macedonian phalanx formation showing the employment of Macedonian spear or sarissas making the formation nearly impregnable from the front but cumbersome, tactically unwieldy and vulnerable from side or rear A phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears...


In the 2nd Millennium BC, the Egyptian military changed from levy troops into a firm organization of professional soldiers. Conquests of foreign territories, like Nubia, required a permanent force to be garrisoned abroad. The encounter with other powerful Near Eastern kingdoms like Mitanni, the Hittites, and later the Assyrians and Babylonians, made it necessary for the Egyptians to conduct campaigns far from home. Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


These soldiers were paid with a plot of land for the provision of their families. After fulfilment of their service the veterans were allowed retirement to these estates. Generals could become quite influential at the court, but unlike other feudal states the Egyptian military was completely controlled by the king. Foreign mercenaries were also recruited; first Nubians (Medjay), and later also Libyans and Sherdens in the New Kingdom. By the Persian period Greek mercenaries entered service into the armies of the rebellious pharaohs. The Jewish mercenaries at Elephantine served the Persian overlords of Egypt in the 5th century BC. Although, they might also have served the Egyptian Pharaohs of the 6th century BC. The Medjai were an ancient people of Nubia. ... Elephantine Island, showing the nilometer (lower left) and the Aswan Museum. ...


As far as had been seen from the royal propaganda of the time, the king or the crown prince personally headed the Egyptian troops into battle. The army could number tens of thousands of soldiers, so the smaller battalions consisting of 250 men, led by an officer, may have been the key of command. The tactics involved a massive strike by archery followed by an infantry and/or chariotry attacking the broken enemy lines. The enemies could, however, try to surprise the large Egyptian force with ambushes and by blocking the road as the Egyptian campaign records informs us.


Within the Nile valley itself, ships and barges were important military elements. Ships were vital for providing supplies for the troops. The Nile river had no fords so barges had to be used for river crossings. Dominating the river often proved necessary for prosecuting sieges, like the Egyptian conquest of the Hyksos capital Avaris. Egypt had no navy to fight naval battles at sea before the Late Period. However, a battle involving ships took place at the Egyptian coast in the 12th century BC between Ramesses III and the Sea people. The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... Sea Peoples is the term used in ancient Egyptian records of a race of ship-faring raiders who drifted into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean and attempted to enter Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially year 5 of Rameses III of the 20th Dynasty. ...


Mesopotamia

Main article: Military history of the Assyrian Empire

The Assyrian Empire originated in the early 2nd millennium BC,[4][5] succeeding the Akkadian Kingdom of the late 3rd millennium BC.[6] Assyria did not become a powerful military state until the early 1st millenium BC, when Ashurnasirpal IIs conquests reasserted Assyrias hegemony in the Near East...

Indian

During the Vedic period (fl. 3500-1500 BC), the Vedas and other associated texts contain references to warfare. The earliest allusions to a specific battle are those to the Battle of the Ten Kings in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda. India has a long military history dating back several millennia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Veda redirects here. ... Combatants Trtsu (Indo-Aryans) Alinas (Nuristanis?) Anu (Kashmiris) Bhrigus (Indo-Aryans) Bhalanas (Khorasans) Dasa (Dahae?) Druhyus (Ghandaris) Matsya (Indo-Aryans) Parsu (Persians?) Purus (Indo-Aryans) Panis (Parni?) Commanders King Sudas Vasishtha The Ten Kings Vishvamitra Strength Unknown but less More than 6,666 Casualties Unknown but less 6,666 (Mandala... The seventh Mandala of the Rig Veda has 104 hymns, to Agni, Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, Mitra-Varuna, the Asvins, Ushas, Indra-Varuna, Varuna, Vayu (the wind), two each to Sarasvati and Vishnu, and to others. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ...


The two great ancient epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata (c. 1000-500 BC) are centered around conflicts and refer to military formations, theories of warfare and esoteric weaponry. Valmiki's Ramayana describes Ayodhya's military as defensive rather than aggressive. The city, it says, was strongly fortified and was surrounded by a deep moat. Ramayana describes Ayodhya in the following words: "The city abounded in warriors undefeated in battle, fearless and chinskilled in the use of arms, resembling lions guarding their mountain caves". Mahabharata describes various military techniques, including the Chakravyuha. For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmÄ«ki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Chakravyuha is an army formation mentioned in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. ...


The world's first recorded military application of war elephants is in the Mahabharatha.[1] From India, war elephants were taken to the Persian Empire where they were used in several campaigns. The Persian king Darius III employed about 50 Indian elephants in the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC) fought against Alexander the Great. In the Battle of the Hydaspes River, the Indian king Porus, who ruled in Punjab, with his smaller army of 200 war elephants, 2000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry, presented great difficulty for Alexander the Great's larger army of 4000 cavalry and 50,000 infantry, though Porus was eventually defeated. At this time, the Magadha Empire further east in northern and eastern India and Bengal had an army of 6000 war elephants, 80,000 cavalry, 200,000 infantry and 8000 armed chariots. Had Alexander the Great decided to continue his campaign in India, he could have faced extremely strong opposition from such a large army. The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... Persia redirects here. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between... Combatants Macedonian Empire Greek allies Persian allies Indian allies Paurava Commanders Alexander the Great, Craterus King Porus Strength 34,000 infantry,[2][3][4] 7,000 cavalry[5][6] 50,000 infantry,[7] 5,000 cavalry,[7] 200 war elephants,[8][9] 1,000 chariots[10] Casualties 4,000 infantry... King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, The state falls with in the territory of Trigata Kingdom of Katoch Rulers i. ... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Chanakya (c. 350-275 BC) was a professor of political science at Takshashila University, and later the Prime Minister of emperor Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chanakya wrote the Arthashastra, which covered various topics on ancient Indian warfare in great detail, including various techniques and strategies relating to war. These included the earliest uses of espionage and assassinations. These techniques and strategies were employed by Chandragupta Maurya, who was a student of Chanakya, and later by Ashoka the Great (304-232 BC). Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Takshashila University in ancient India was the worlds first university, dated from around 700 BCE. It was well known as an institution of higher learning in ancient India, attracting applicants from around the world who had to sit tough entrance examinations to be admitted. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...


Chandragupta Maurya conquered the Magadha Empire and expanded to all of northern India, establishing the Maurya Empire, which extended from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. In 305 BC, Chandragupta defeated Seleucus I Nicator, who ruled the Seleucid Empire and controlled most of the territories conquered by Alexander the Great. Seleucus eventually lost his territories in Southern Asia, including southern Afghanistan, to Chandragupta. Seleucus exchanged territory west of the Indus for 500 war elephants and offered his daughter to Chandragupta. In this matrimonial alliance the enmity turned into friendship, and Seleucus' dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to the Mauryan court at Pataliputra. As a result of this treaty, the Maurya Empire was recognized as a great power by the Hellenistic World, and the kings of Egypt and Syria sent their own ambassadors to his court. According to Megasthenes, Chandragupta Maurya built an army consisting of 30,000 cavalry, 9000 war elephants, and 600,000 infantry, which was the largest army known in the ancient world. Ashoka the Great went on to expand the Maurya Empire to almost all of South Asia, along with much of Afghanistan and parts of Persia. Ashoka eventually gave up on warfare after converting to Buddhism. The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Megasthenes (c. ... ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


Chinese

Main article: Military history of China

Ancient China during the Shang Dynasty was a Bronze Age society based on chariot armies. Archaeological study of Shang sites at Anyang have revealed extensive examples of chariots and bronze weapons. The overthrow of the Shang by the Zhou saw the creation of a feudal social order, resting militarily on a class of aristocratic chariot warriors (士). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... Anyang (Simplified Chinese: 安阳, Traditional Chinese: 安陽; pinyin: Ä€nyáng) is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


In the Spring and Autumn Period, warfare increased exponentially. Zuo zhuan describes the wars and battles among the feudal lords during the period. Warfare continued to be stylised and ceremonial even as it grew more violent and decisive. The concept of military hegemon (霸) and his "way of force" (霸道) came to dominate Chinese society. The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ...


Warfare became more intense, ruthless and much more decisive during the Warring States Period, in which great social and political change was accompanied by the end of the system of chariot warfare and the adoption of mass infantry armies. Cavalry was also introduced from the northern frontier, despite the cultural challenge it posed for robe-wearing Chinese men. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Persian

Ancient Persia first emerged as a major military power under Cyrus the Great. Its form of warfare was based on massed infantry in light armor to pin the enemy force whilst cavalry dealt the killing blow. Cavalry was used in huge numbers but it is not known whether they were heavily armored or not. Most Greek sources claim the Persians wore no armor, but we do have an example from Herodotus which claims that an unhorsed cavalryman wore a gold cuirass under his red robes. Chariots were used in the early days but during the later days of the Persian Empire they were surpassed by horsemen. During the Persian Empire's height, they even possessed War elephants from North Africa and distant India. The elite of the Persian Army were the famous Persian Immortals, a 10,000 strong unit of professional soldiers armed with a spear, a sword and a bow. Archers also formed a major component of the Persian Army. Ancient Iranian Women-Warriors. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... Indian war elephant, relief at Mathura, 2nd century BC War elephants were important, although not widespread, weapons in ancient military history. ... A Persian Immortal wielding a spear, wicker shield, dagger, and bow. ...


Tactics were simple: Persian commanders simply overran the enemy with massive amounts of infantry and cavalry, while from the rear they would rain arrows down upon the foes in massive volleys. It was said that a Persian arrow volley would blot out the sun. The reason for these massive numbers, were to inspire 'shock and awe'. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers would discourage an enemy and make their surrender almost guaranteed. If the enemy did not surrender, the Persian commander would send in the first wave, which was almost always enough in number to overwhelm any force. If that failed, they sent in the second wave, more troops of higher quality. If that too was unsuccessful, the final wave was sent, spearheaded by the infamous Immortals. These tactics were generally successful in the Middle East, but when the Persians started to push into the west, against the Greeks, the light Persian infantry were unable to combat the heavily armored phalanxes of the Greek city-states. A major reason for this was that most Persian weapons were incapable of piercing Greek armor, as the Persians learned at the Battle of Thermopylae. For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ...


Illyrian

Very little is known about Illyrian military tactics. The Illyrian king Bardyllis turned Illyria into a formidable local power in the 4th century BC. The main cities of the Illyrian kingdom were Lissus and Epidamnus. However their power was weakened by bitter rivalries and jealousy. Bardyllis (also attested as Bardylis) was an Illyrian king who ruled from 385 to 358 BC and founded the Bardyllis Dynasty. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... Lezhë (Albanian: Lezhë or Lezha) is a city in northwest Albania, in the district and county with the same name. ... The Greek city of Epidamnos (Strabo Geography vi. ...


They were known as war-like tribes who were never really united, and fought without any real coordination. Their fighting technique seemed to rely heavily on individual accomplishment rather than a coordinating unit. In 359 BC, King Perdiccas III of Macedon was killed by attacking Illyrians. In 358 BC, however, Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, utterly crushed the Illyrians and assumed control of their territory as far as Lake Ohrid. http://www. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Perdiccas III was king of Macedonia from 365 to 359 BC, succeeding his brother Alexander II. Son of Amyntas III and Eurydice, he was underage when Alexander II was killed by Ptolemy of Aloros, who then ruled as regent. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Lake Ohrid (Macedonian: Охридско Езеро, Ohridsko Ezero Albanian: Liqeni i Ohrit) straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern region of the Republic of Macedonia and eastern Albania. ...


During the existence of the Illyrian civilization, they were conquered by the Romans and the Macedonians, then later by the Ottoman Turks (although by then the population of the territory was known as the Albanians). Central New York City. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Greek

The general trend of Greek military technology and tactics was dominated by reliance on citizen farmers who could only go to war when they were not needed in the fields. These soldiers organized themselves in to a phalanx, a dense body of armoured men armed with spears and protected by interlocking shields. The military history of Greece is the history of the wars and battles of the Greek people in Greece, the Balkans and the Greek colonies in the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea since classical antiquity. ... Macedonian phalanx formation showing the employment of Macedonian spear or sarissas making the formation nearly impregnable from the front but cumbersome, tactically unwieldy and vulnerable from side or rear A phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears...


Infantry did almost all of the fighting in Greek battles. The Greeks did not have any cavalry tradition. Hoplites, Greek infantry, fought with a long spear and a large shield, the hoplon from which they get their name. Light infantry, the peltasts, served as skirmishers. Warfare in Hellenic Greece centered mainly around heavy infantrymen called hoplites. ... A Hoplon is the circular shield carried by Greek infantry of the Hellenistic period. ... A peltast was a type of light infantry in Ancient Greece who often served as skirmishers. ...


Despite the fact that most Greek cities were well fortified (with the notable exception of Sparta) and Greek technology was not up to the task of breaching these fortifications by force, most land battles were pitched ones fought on open ground. This was because of the limited period of service Greek soldiers could offer before they needed to return to their farms. To draw out a city's defenders, its fields would be threatened with destruction, threatening the defenders with starvation in the winter if they did not surrender or accept battle. For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ...


This pattern of warfare was broken during the Peloponnesian War, when Athens's command of the sea allowed the city to ignore the destruction of the Athenian crops by Sparta and her allies by shipping grain into the city from the Crimea. This led to a warfare style in which both sides were forced to engage in repeated raids over several years without reaching a settlement. It also made sea battle a vital part of warfare. Greek naval battles were fought between triremes -- long and speedy rowing ships which engaged the enemy by ramming and boarding actions. “Athenian War” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... A Greek trireme Triremes were ancient war galleys with three rows of oars on each side. ...


Macedonian

During their time, the Macedonians were regarded as the most complete well co-ordinated military force in the known world. Although they are best known for the achievements of Alexander the Great, his father Philip II of Macedon created and designed the fighting force Alexander used in his conquests. Without this army having been already prepared, his conquests would never have taken place. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Philip provided his Macedonian soldiers in the phalanx with sarissa, a spear which was 6 meters in length, about 18 feet. The sarissa, when held upright by the rear rows of the phalanx (there were usually eight rows), helped hide maneuvers behind the phalanx from the view of the enemy. When held horizontal by the front rows of the phalanx, enemies could be run through from far away. Macedonian phalanx formation showing the employment of Macedonian spear or sarissas making the formation nearly impregnable from the front but cumbersome, tactically unwieldy and vulnerable from side or rear A phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears... For the Bronze Age Hittite city, go to Kusakli. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ...


In 358 BC he met the Illyrians in battle with his reorganized Macedonian phalanx, and utterly defeated them. The Illyrians fled in panic, leaving the majority of their 9,000-strong army dead. The Macedonian army invaded Illyria and conquered most Illyrian tribes with the exception of those near the Adriatic coast. Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ...


After the defeat of the Illyrians, Macedon's policy became increasingly aggressive. Paeonia was already forcefully integrated into Macedon under Philip's rule. In 357 BC Philip broke the treaty with Athens and attacked Amphipolis which he surrendered to the Greeks when he came to power. The city fell back in the hands of Macedonia after an intense siege. Then he secured possession over the gold mines of nearby Mount Pangaeus, which would enable him to finance his future wars. Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Paionia or Paeonia (in Greek Παιονία) was in ancient geography, the land of the Paeonians (Ancient Greek Παίονες), the exact boundaries of which, like the early history of its inhabitants, are very obscure. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Look up Philip in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Philip in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Localization of Amphipolis Amphipolis (Greek, Ἀμφίπολις – Amphípolis) was an ancient Greek city in the region once inhabited by the Edoni people in the present-day periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ...


In 356 the Macedonian army advanced further eastward and captured the town of Crenides (near modern Drama) which was in the hands of the Thracians, and which Philip renamed after himself to Philippi. The Macedonian eastern border with Thrace was now secured at the river Nestus (Mesta). Krinides or Crenides (Greek, Modern/Monotonic: Κρηνίδες, Ancient/Polytonic: Κρηνἱδες) is a town and an ancient site that includes the archaeological site of Philippi in the Kavala prefecture in eastern Macedonia. ... Drama (Greek: Δράμα) is a town and municipality in northeastern Greece. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Look up Philip in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of Greece showing Philippi Philippi (in Ancient Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, founded by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... ...


Philip next marched into northern Greece. In Thessaly he defeated his enemies and by 352, he was firmly in control of this northern Greek region. The Macedonian army advanced as far as the pass of Thermopylae which divides Greece in two parts, but it did not attempt to take it because it was strongly guarded by a joint Greek force of Athenians, Spartans, and Achaeans. Look up Philip in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the clipper ship, see Thermopylae (clipper). ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ...


Having secured the bordering regions of Macedon, Philip assembled a large Macedonian army and marched deep into Thrace for a long conquering campaign. By 339 after defeating the Thracians in series of battles, most of Thrace was firmly in Macedonian hands save the most eastern Greek coastal cities of Byzantium and Perinthus who successfully withstood the long and difficult sieges. But both Byzantium and Perinthus would have surely fell had it not been for the help they received from the various Greek city-states, and the Persian king himself, who now viewed the rise of Macedonia and its eastern expansion with concern. Ironically, the Greeks invited and sided with the Persians against the Macedonians, although Persia had been the nation hated the most by Greece for more than a century. The memory of the Persian invasion of Greece some 150 years ago was still alive, but the Greek hatred for the Macedonians had put it aside. Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Look up Philip in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Perinthus (Turkish Eski Eregli, old Heraclea) was an ancient town of Thrace, on the Propontis, 22 miles west of Selymbria, strongly situated on a small peninsula on the bay of that name. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Perinthus (Turkish Eski Eregli, old Heraclea) was an ancient town of Thrace, on the Propontis, 22 miles west of Selymbria, strongly situated on a small peninsula on the bay of that name. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Persia redirects here. ...


Much later would be the conquests of his son, Alexander the Great, who would go on to create a style of cavalry warfare in which he advanced a Greek style of combat, in which he was able to muster large bodies of men for long periods of time for his campaigns against Persia. Cavalry also played an important role in Alexander's style of warfare, especially his Companions, an elite formation. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Persia redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The Companions (Greek Εταίροι) were Alexander the Greats elite cavalry, the main offensive arm of his army, and also his elite guard. ...


Roman

The Roman army was the world's first professional army. It had its origins in the citizen army of the Republic, which was staffed by citizens serving mandatory duty for Rome. The reforms of Marius around 100 BC turned the army into a professional structure, still largely filled by citizens, but citizens who served continuously for 25 years before being discharged. Soldiers of the Roman Army (on manoeuvres in Nashville, Tennessee) Rome was a militarized state whose history was often closely entwined with its military history over the 1228 years that the Roman state is traditionally said to have existed. ... The Roman army was primarily based around heavy infantry. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC 101 BC - 100 BC - 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95...


The Romans were also noted for making use of auxiliary troops, non-Romans who served with the legions and filled roles that the traditional Roman military could not fill effectively, such as light skirmish troops and heavy cavalry. Later in the Empire, these auxiliary troops, along with foreign mercenaries, became the core of the Roman military. By the late Empire, tribes such as the Visigoths were bribed to serve as mercenaries. Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ...


The Roman navy was traditionally considered less important, although it remained vital for the transportation of supplies and troops, also during the great purge of pirates from the Mediterranean sea by Pompey the Great in the 1st century BC. Most of Rome's battles occurred on land, especially when the Empire was at its height and all the land around the Mediterranean was controlled by Rome. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


But there were notable exceptions. The First Punic War, a pivotal war between Rome and Carthage in the 3rd century BC, was largely a naval conflict. And the naval Battle of Actium established the Roman empire under Augustus. Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


Dacian

Main article: Dacia Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now...


The Dacian tribes, located on modern-day Romania and Moldova were part of the greater Thracian family of peoples. They established a highly militarized society and, during the periods when the tribes were united under one king (82-44 BC, 86-106) posed a major threat to the Roman provinces of Lower Danube. Dacia was conquered and transformed into a Roman province in 106 after a long, hard war. Alternate meanings: see Dacia (disambiguation) Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa (Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served when it is governed by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


The most important weapon of the Dacian arsenal was the falx. This dreaded weapon, similar to a sickle came in two variants: a shorter, one-handed falx, and a longer two-handed version. The shorter falx was called sica (sickle) in the Dacian language. The two-handed falx was a polearm. It consisted of a three-feet long wooden shaft with a long curved iron blade of nearly-equal length attached to the end. The blade was sharpened only on the inside, and was reputed to be devastatingly effective. However, it left its user vulnerable because, being a two-handed weapon, the warrior could not also make use of a shield. Alternatively, it might used as a hook, pulling away shields and cutting at vulnerable limbs. For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... This article is about armaments factories. ... A typical falx Falx is a latin word originally meaning sickle, but was later used to mean any of a number of tools that had a curved blade that was sharp on the inside edge such as a scythe. ... Using a sickle A sickle is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... A pole weapon or polearm is a close combat weapon with the main fighting part of the weapon placed on the end of a long shaft, typically of wood. ... A shaft can be Look up shaft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A blade is the flat part of a tool or weapon that normally has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, most recently, steel intentionally used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike an animate or inainimate object. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... A shield is a protective device, meant to intercept attacks. ... Look up Hook in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Using the falx, the Dacian warriors were able to counter the power of the compact, massed Roman formations. During the time of the Roman conquest of Dacia (101-102, 105-106), legionaries had reinforcing iron straps applied to their helmets. The Romans also introduced the use of leg and arm protectors (greaves and manica) as further protection against the falxes. Combatants Dacians Roman Empire Commanders Decebal Trajan Strength around 40,000 in the first war - 15,000 in the second war (based on population estimate) 150,000 in the first war - 200,000 in the second war Casualties most of the Dacian army, tens of thousands of Dacian civilians sold... A Legionary is a member of a legion. ... Pith helmet of Harry S. Truman A helmet is a form of protective clothing worn on the head and usually made of metal or some other hard substance, typically for protection from falling objects or high-speed collisions. ... A greave (from 12th century French greve shin, of uncertain origin) is a piece of armour that protects the leg. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Mozambique ...


The Dacians constructed stone strongholds, davas, in the Carpathian Mountains in order to protect their capital Sarmizegetusa. The fortifications were built on a system of circular belts. This allowed the defenders, after a stronghold was lost, to retreat to the next one using hidden escape gates. Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Sarmisegetuza was the most important Dacian military, religious and political center. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ...


The Dacians were adepts of surprise attacks and skilful, tactical withdrawals using the fortification system. During the wars with the Romans, fought by their last king Decebal (87-106 ), the Dacians almost crushed the Roman garrisons South of the Danube in a surprise attack launched over the frozen river ( winter of 101-102 ). Only the intervention of Emperor Trajan with the main army saved the Romans from a major defeat. But, by 106 the Dacians were surrounded in their capital Sarmizegetusa. The city was taken after the romans discovered and destroyed the capital's water supply line. Decebalus, from the Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87-106 CE) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... This article is about the Danube River. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ...


As a result, the king committed suicide and Dacia became a Roman province until 271. For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Germanic

Historical records of the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine and west of the Danube do not begin until quite late in the ancient period, so only the period after 100 BC can be examined. What is clear is that the Germanic idea of warfare was quite different from the pitched battles fought by Rome and Greece. Instead the Germanic tribes focused on raids. http://www. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC 101 BC - 100 BC - 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The purpose of these was generally not to gain territory, but rather to capture resources and secure prestige. These raids were conducted by irregular troops, often formed along family or village lines, in groups of 10 to about 1,000. Leaders of unusual personal magnetism could gather more soldiers for longer periods, but there was no systematic method of gathering and training men, so the death of a charismatic leader could mean the destruction of an army. Armies also often consisted of more than 50 percent noncombatants, as displaced people would travel with large groups of soldiers, the elderly, women, and children. Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ...


Large bodies of troops, while figuring prominently in the history books, were the exception rather than the rule of ancient warfare. Thus a typical Germanic force might consist of 100 men with the sole goal of raiding a nearby Germanic or foreign village. According to Roman sources, when the Germanic Tribes did fight pitched battles, the infantry often adopted wedge formations, each wedge being lead by a clan head. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ...


Though often defeated by the Romans, the Germanic Tribes were remembered in Roman records as fierce combatants, whose main downfall was that they failed to unite successfully into one fighting force, under one command. Their successors would eventually overwhelm and conquer the ancient world, giving rise to modern Europe and medieval warfare. For an analysis of German tactics versus the Roman empire see Tactical problems in facing the Gauls and the Germanic tribes For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Command has multiple meanings: An order. ... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ...


Japanese

Main article: Military history of Japan

The early Yamato period had seen a continual engagement in the Korean Peninsula until Japan finally withdrew, along with the remaining forces of the Baekje Kingdom. Several battles occurred in these periods as the Emperor's succession gained importance. By the Nara period, Honshū was completely under the control of the Yamato clan. Near the end of the Heian period, samurai became a powerful political force, thus starting the feudal period. The military history of Japan is characterised by a long period of feudal wars, followed by domestic stability, and then foreign conquest. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Yamato (大和) were the dominant peoples of ancient Japan, and the ancestors of most modern Japanese people. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ...


Important ancient wars

  • Greco-Persian Wars
The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that began around 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC.
The Peloponnesian War was begun in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth. The war was documented by Thucydides, an Athenian general, in his work The History of The Peloponnesian War. The war lasted 27 years, with a brief truce in the middle.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and the city of Carthage (a Phoenician descendant). They are known as the "Punic" Wars because Rome's name for Carthaginians was Punici (older Poeni, due to their Phoenician ancestry).
  1. The First Punic War was primarily a naval war fought between 264 BC and 241 BC.
  2. The Second Punic War is famous for Hannibal's crossing of the Alps and was fought between 218 BC and 202 BC.
  3. The Third Punic War resulted in the destruction of Carthage and was fought between 149 BC and 146 BC.
  • Roman-Persian Wars
The Roman-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Roman Empire and Persian Empire that began between the Roman Republic and Parthia in 92 BC and lasted until the Eastern Roman Empire and Sassanid Empire in 627 AD. This series of conflicts became the longest war between two entities in all of history, until it eventually came to an end with the Arab Muslim conquests of the 7th century.

Persian Wars redirects here. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Persia redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC 450 BC 449 BC - 448 BC - 447 BC 446 BC... “Athenian War” redirects here. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC - 431 BC - 430 BC 429 BC... The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. As it was led by Athens, it is sometimes pejoratively referred to as the Athenian Empire. ... The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of states in the Peloponnese in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. By the end of the 6th century, Sparta had become the most powerful state in the Peloponnese, and was the political and military hegemon over Argos, the next most powerful state. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the battles, conflicts, and politics of the Peloponnesian War, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens), written by an Athenian general who served in the war, Thucydides. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 269 BC 268 BC 267 BC 266 BC 265 BC - 264 BC - 263 BC 262 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 246 BC 245 BC 244 BC 243 BC 242 BC - 241 BC - 240 BC 239 BC 238... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Roman empire in 218 BC (in dark red) A Carthaginian army under Hannibal attacks Romes Spanish allies. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC 150 BC - 149 BC - 148 BC 147 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 151 BC 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC - 146 BC - 145 BC 144 BC... Combatants Roman Republic, succeeded by Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire later Persian Empire projected through Parthian and Sassanid dynasties Commanders Lucullus, Pompey, Crassus, Mark Antony, Trajan, Valerian I, Julian, Justinian I, Belisarius, Heraclius Surena, Shapur I, Shapur II, Kavadh I, Khosrau I, Khosrau II, Shahrbaraz, Rhahzadh The Roman-Persian... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 97 BC 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC - 92 BC - 91 BC 90 BC 89... Byzantine redirects here. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet...

Important ancient battles

The Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC) was fought between Egyptian forces under the command of the pharaoh Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Kadesh. ... (Redirected from 1457 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC - 1450s BC - 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC Events and Trends According to some, 1456 BC was the year that Moses... Combatants Trtsu (Indo-Aryans) Alinas (Nuristanis?) Anu (Kashmiris) Bhrigus (Indo-Aryans) Bhalanas (Khorasans) Dasa (Dahae?) Druhyus (Ghandaris) Matsya (Indo-Aryans) Parsu (Persians?) Purus (Indo-Aryans) Panis (Parni?) Commanders King Sudas Vasishtha The Ten Kings Vishvamitra Strength Unknown but less More than 6,666 Casualties Unknown but less 6,666 (Mandala... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... . This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and trends Significant people Categories: 1270s BC ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (Redirected from 1046 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC - 1040s BC - 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC 1000s BC 990s BC Events and Trends 1048 BC - Medon, King of Athens, dies after a reign... In the Battle of Megiddo of 609 BCE, the forces of Egypt fought those of the Kingdom of Judah. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... At the Battle of Pteria (547 or 546 BC), the Persian forces of Cyrus the Great fought a drawn battle with the invading Lydian forces of Croesus, forcing Croesus to withdraw back west into his own kingdom. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... The Battle of Thymbra was the decisive battle in the war between Croesus of Lydia and Cyrus of Persia in 546 BC. Cyrus, having pursued Croesus into Lydia following the drawn Battle of Pteria, met Croesuss army - including Egyptian and Greek contingents - in battle near Sardis and utterly defeated... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Leotychides Artaÿntes Strength About 40,000 60,000 men, 300 ships Casualties 40,000 The Battle of Mycale, Greek Μάχη Μυκάλης, Mache tes Mycales , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. ... 479 pr. ... Two famous ancient battles were fought at Chaeronea in Boeotia: Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) Battle of Chaeronea (86 BC) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... For other uses, see Battle of Issus (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC - 333 BC - 332 BC 331 BC 330... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC - 331 BC - 330 BC 329 BC... Combatants Macedonian Empire Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Ariobarzan † Strength 17,000[1][2] 700[1] Casualties Thousands[1] 700[1] The Battle of the Persian Gate was fought northeast of todays Yasuj in Iran between a group of Persian patriots led by Ariobarzan against the large invading Macedonian... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... Combatants Macedonian Empire Greek allies Persian allies Indian allies Paurava Commanders Alexander the Great, Craterus King Porus Strength 34,000 infantry,[2][3][4] 7,000 cavalry[5][6] 50,000 infantry,[7] 5,000 cavalry,[7] 200 war elephants,[8][9] 1,000 chariots[10] Casualties 4,000 infantry... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 331 BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC - 326 BC - 325 BC 324 BC 323... Sagunt (Spanish Sagunto; Latin Saguntum) is an ancient city in Hispania, in the modern fertile district of Camp de Morvedre in the province of Valencia in eastern Spain. ... The Roman empire in 218 BC (in dark red) A Carthaginian army under Hannibal attacks Romes Spanish allies. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder Strength 6,000 cavalry unknown Casualties small small The Battle of Ticinus was a battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio in November 218 BC. It... The Roman empire in 218 BC (in dark red) A Carthaginian army under Hannibal attacks Romes Spanish allies. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Tiberius Sempronius Longus Strength 10,000 cavalry, 28,000 infantry and thirty elephants 36,000-38,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry Casualties Unknown, but low 20,000 The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was the first major battle of the Second Punic... The Roman empire in 218 BC (in dark red) A Carthaginian army under Hannibal attacks Romes Spanish allies. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Gaius Flaminius † Strength 30,000 soldiers 30,000-40,000 soldiers Casualties 1,500 soldiers 15,000 killed or drowned 15,000 captured The Battle of Lake Trasimeno (June 24, 217 BC, April on the Julian calendar) was a Roman defeat in the Second... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC - 217 BC - 216 BC 215 BC... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Barca Quintus Fabius Maximus Strength 2,000 infantry, 2,000 Oxen, 2000 Camp Followers 4000 infantry, plus reserves Casualties Light 1000+ The Battle of Ager Falernus is part of the Second Punic War. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC - 217 BC - 216 BC 215 BC... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders M. Minucius Rufus Quintus Fabius Maximus Hannibal Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Geronium was fought in 217 BC during the Second Punic War between Roman forces under M. Minucius Rufus and Hannibals Carthaginian army. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC - 217 BC - 216 BC 215 BC... For the 11th-century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC 217 BC - 216 BC - 215 BC 214 BC... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hasdrubal Barca † Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Porcius Licinus Strength unknown Livius: 2 city legions, Nero: 6,000 foot, 1,000 horse, Licinus: 2 legions Casualties 57,000 killed, 5,400 prisoners 8,000 killed The Battle of the Metaurus was a pivotal battle... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC - 207 BC - 206 BC 205 BC... In the Battle of Jingxing (井陘之戰), in 205 BC, the famed Chinese commander Han Xin, with an army of 30,000 levies, defeated a numerically larger army of Zhao near Jingxing (Jing Gorge), a narrow and dangerous defile in modern Hebei province. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 209 BC 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC - 204 BC - 203 BC 202 BC... Combatants Han Dynasty State of Qi, Western Chu Commanders Han Xin Tian Guang, Long Qie The Battle of Wei River (濰水之戰) was fought in 204 BC between the Han and a combined force of Qi and Western Chu. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 209 BC 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC - 204 BC - 203 BC 202 BC... Combatants Principality of Han Western Chu Commanders Liu Bang Xiang Yu Strength ~300,000 ~100,000 The Battle of Gaixia (垓下之戰) was a Chinese battle in 202 BC, during the Chu-Han contention between rival rulers of China which followed the collapse of the Qin Dynasty. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... Combatants Roman Republic Parthia Commanders Marcus Licinius Crassus †, Publius Crassus † Surena Strength 35,000 Roman legionaries, 4,000 cavalry, 4,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry Casualties 20,000 dead, 10,000 captured, 4,000 wounded Reportedly very light The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in 53... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders Gaius Julius Caesar Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Strength Approximately 22,000 legionaries, 5,000-10,000 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 1800 Approximately 60,000 legionaries, 4,200 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 5,000-8,000 Casualties 1,200 6,000 The... Consuls: Gaius Julius Caesar, Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength 10,000 to 18,000 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle... For other uses, see 9 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Northern Xiongnu Han Dynasty Commanders Northern Chanyu (unnamed chief) Dou Xian Southern Chanyu Deng Hong Strength Unknown 46,000 cavalry (30,000 Southern Xiongnu and 8,000 Qiang) Casualties 13,000 dead, 200,000 surrendered and 1,000,000 livestocks captured Minimal The Battle of Ikh Bayan, was a... This article is about the year 89. ... For the film also known as The Battle of Red Cliff, see Red Cliff (film). ... hello my name is marco u ... Combatants Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Commanders Shapur I Valerian Strength 40,000 70,000 including Praetorian Guard Casualties Minimal Heavy The Battle of Edessa took place between the armies of the Roman Empire under the command of Emperor Valerian and Sassanid forces under King Shapur I in 259. ... Valerian (david neiman was here) captured by the Alamanni (possibly 260) The Franks who invaded the Roman Empire near Cologne in 257, reach Tarraco in Hispania Pope Dionysius elected. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Goths Commanders Valens â€  Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax Strength 15,000–30,000 10,000–20,000 Casualties 10,000–20,000 Unknown The second Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Roman... Events Mid-February: Lentienses cross frozen Rhine, invading Roman Empire. ... Combatants Former Qin Dynasty Eastern Jin Dynasty Commanders Fu Jiān (Emperor Xuanzhao of Former Qin); Fu Rong Xie Shi; Xie Xuan Strength 300,000 ? 80,000 ? Casualties 70-80% losses Unknown The Battle of Fei River or “Feishui” (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a battle in 383, where... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ... For other uses, see Battle of Chalons (disambiguation). ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... The second of three barbarian sacks of Rome, the sack of 455 was at the hands of the Vandals, then at war with the usurping Western Roman Emperor Petronius Maximus. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ...

Unit types

Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... A sling is a projectile weapon typically used to throw blunt missiles at the enemy. ... A peltast was a type of light infantry in Ancient Greece who often served as skirmishers. ... The hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ... A Persian Immortal wielding a spear, wicker shield, dagger, and bow. ... Macedonian phalanx formation showing the employment of Macedonian spear or sarissas making the formation nearly impregnable from the front but cumbersome, tactically unwieldy and vulnerable from side or rear A phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears... The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Persian Empire and other armies. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Roman legionaries, 1st century. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... The Clibanarii (from the Latin, clibani, meaning campoven) were a late Roman and Byzantine military unit of heavy armored horsemen. ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ... Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... Sketch of an Onager, from Antique technology by Diels. ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ... Scorpio (Dart-thrower) was a Roman artillery invention in 50 BC and described by Vitruvius with the next major improvement being the Cheiroballista. ... 19th century French drawing of a medieval belfry. ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ...

Sources

  1. ^ R. Sukumar (1993). The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management. Cambridge University Press. 
  1. Anglim, Simon, and Phyllis G. Jestice. Fighting Techniques of the Ancient World (3000 B.C. to 500 A.D.): Equipment, Combat Skills, and Tactics. Dunne Books: 2003. ISBN 0-312-30932-5.
  2. Bradford, Alfred S. With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World. Praeger Publishing: 2001. ISBN 0-275-95259-2.
  3. Connolly, Peter. Greece and Rome at War. Greenhill Books: 1998. ISBN 1-85367-303-X.
  4. Gabriel, Richard A. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger Publishing: 2002. ISBN 0-275-97809-5
  5. Gichon, Mordechai, and Chaim Herzog. Battles of the Bible. Greenhill Books: 2002. ISBN 1-85367-477-X.
  6. Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Complete Roman Army. Thames & Hudson: 2003. ISBN 0-500-05124-0.
  7. Keegan, John. A History of Warfare. Vintage: 1993. ISBN 0-679-73082-6.
  8. Kern, Paul Bentley. Ancient Siege Warfare. Indiana University Press: 1999. ISBN 0-253-33546-9.
  9. Leblanc, Steven A. Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest. University of Utah Press: 1999. ISBN 0-87480-581-3.
  10. Mayor, Adrienne. Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World. Overlook Press: 2003. ISBN 1-58567-348-X.
  11. Peers, Chris J. Ancient Chinese Armies 1500–200 BC. Osprey Publishing: 1990. ISBN 0-85045-942-7.
  12. Peers, Chris J., and Michael Perry. Imperial Chinese Armies : 200 BC–589 AD. Osprey Publishing: 1995. ISBN 1-85532-514-4.
  13. Van Creveld, Martin. "Technology and War: From 2000 B.C. to the Present". Free Press: 1991. ISBN 0-02-933153-6.
  14. Warry, John Gibson, and John Warry. Warfare in the Classical World: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Weapons, Warriors and Warfare in the Ancient Civilisations of Greece and Rome. University of Oklahoma Press: 1999.

One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ... One of the Men-at-Arms Series. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Warfare in Ancient Greece | Thematic Essay | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art (487 words)
Death, Burial, and the Afterlife in Ancient Greece
The heavy bronze shield, which was secured on the left arm and hand by a metal band on its inner rim, was the most important part of a hoplite's panoply, as it was his chief defense.
In nearly every medium of Attic art of the sixth century B.C., the hoplite and warfare feature prominently, as military service was a primary distinction of citizenship—a mark of status and often of wealth, as well as a means of attaining glory.
Ancient warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5901 words)
Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period.
Warfare became more intense, ruthless and much more decisive during the Warring States Period, in which great social and political change was accompanied by the end of the system of chariot warfare and the adoption of mass infantry armies.
This pattern of warfare was broken during the Peloponnesian War, when Athens's command of the sea allowed the city to ignore the destruction of the Athenian crops by Sparta and her allies by shipping grain into the city from the Crimea.
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