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Encyclopedia > Ancient philosophy

This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. In Europe, the spread of Christianity through the Roman world marked the end of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy. The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Western philosophy

Presocratic philosophers and sophists

Thales of Miletus Thales of Miletus also known as Thales the Milesian (Θαλῆς ὁ Μιλήσιος), (ca. ... Anaximander Possibly what Anaximanders map looked like Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος)(c. ... Anaximenes (in Greek: Άναξιμένης) of Miletus (585 BC - 525 BC) was a Greek philosopher from the latter half of the 6th century, probably a younger contemporary of Anaximander, whose pupil or friend he is said to have been. ... Pherecydes of Syros (in Greek: Φερεχύδης) was a Greek thinker from the island of Siros, Magna Graecia of the 6th century BC. Pherecydes authored the Heptamychia, one of the first attested prose works in Greek literature, which formed an important bridge between... Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: Πυθαγόρας; circa 582 BC – circa 507 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) mathematician and philosopher, founder of the mathematical, mystic, religious, and scientific society called Pythagoreans. ... Xenophanes of Colophon (Greek: Ξενοφάνης, 570 BC-480 BC) was a Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (Greek: Αναξαγόρας, c. ... Zeno of Elea (IPA:zÉ›noÊŠ, É›lɛɑː)(circa 490 BC? – circa 430 BC?) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of southern Italy and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides. ... Empedocles of Agrigentum Empedocles (Greek: Εμπεδοκλής, circa 490 BCE – c. ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Philolaus (circa 480 BC – circa 405 BC) was a Greek mathematician and philosopher. ... Melissus of Samos, Greek philosopher of the Eleatic School, was born probably not later than 470 BC. According to Diogenes Laërtius, ix. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: Δημόκριτος) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace around 460 BC[1][2]). Democritus was a student of Leucippus and co-originator of the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable, indivisible elements which he called atomos, from which we get the... Prodicus of Ceos (Πρόδικος Pródikos, born c. ... Hippias can also refer to a son of Pisistratus and a tyrant of Athens. ... Diogenes Apolloniates or Diogenes of Apollonia (c. ... Thrasymachus (c 459-400 BCE) was a sophist of Ancient Greece best known as a character in Platos Republic. ...

Classical Greek philosophers

This article is about the philosopher Socrates, not to be confused with the playwright Sophocles Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; circa 470–399 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Euclid of Megara, a Greek Socratic philosopher who lived around 400 BC, was the follower of Socrates. ... Portrait bust of Antisthenes Engraving of Antisthenes. ... Aristippus (c. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , c. ... Speusippus was an ancient Greek philosopher, nephew and successor of Plato. ... Diogenes by John William Waterhouse, depicting his lamp, tub and diet of onions. ... Xenocrates of Chalcedon (396 - 314 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scholarch or rector of the Academy from 339 to 314 BC. Removing to Athens in early youth, he became the pupil of the Socratic Aeschines, but presently joined himself to Plato, whom he attended to Sicily in 361. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Stilpo (Stilpon), Greek philosopher of the Megarian school, was a contemporary of Theophrastus and Crates. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ...

Hellenistic philosophers

The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Pyrrho (c. ... Roman marble bust of Epicurus Epicurus (Epikouros or in Greek) (341 BC, Samos – 270 BC, Athens) was an ancient Greek philosopher, the founder of Epicureanism, one of the most popular schools of thought in Hellenistic Philosophy. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ... Cleanthes (c. ... Timon (c. ... Arcesilaus (Ἀρκεσίλαος) (c. ... Menippus, of Gadara in Coele-Syria, Greek cynic and satirist, lived during the 3rd century BC. According to Diogenes Laërtius (vi. ... Archimedes (Greek: ; c. ... Chrysippus of Soli (279-207 BC) was Cleanthess pupil and eventual successor to the head of the stoic philosophy (232-204 BC). ... Carneades (c. ... Kleitomachos (Greek: Κλειτόμαχος, variously also transliterated Cleitomachus or Clitomachus), originally named Hasdrubal (187-109 BCE) was a Carthaginian who came to Athens around 146 BCE and studied philosophy under Carneades, whom he succeeded as head of the New Academy in 126 BCE. According to Diogenes Laertius, Kleitomachos wrote some 400 books... PHILO OF LARISSA, Greek philosopher of the first half of the ist century B.C. During the Mithradatk wars he left Athens and took up his residence in Rome. ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depects his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... Antiochus of Ascalon (c. ... Aenesidemus, Greek philosopher, was born at Cnossus in Crete and taught at Alexandria, probably during the first century BC. He was the leader of what is sometimes known as the third scepticismal school and revived to a great extent the doctrine of Pyrrho and Timon. ... Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE) was an Alexandrian Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Agrippa was a Sceptic philosopher who probably lived towards the end of the 1st century A.D. He is regarded as the author of the five tropes which are purported to establish the impossibility of certain knowledge. ...

Hellenistic schools of thought

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Gadabout redirects here. ... Eclecticism is an approach to thought that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions or conclusions, but instead draws upon multiple theories to gain complementary insights into phenomena, or applies only certain theories in particular cases. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... For the Finnish funeral doom metal band, see Skepticism (band). ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Sophism (gr. ...

Roman philosophers and philosophers of late antiquity

For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Classical pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ... == ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Musonius Rufus, a Roman Stoic philosopher of the 1st century AD, was born in Volsinii, Etruria about AD 20-30. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Epictetus (c. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... In Greek mythology, Alcinous (sometimes with the diacritical mark Alcinoüs; also transliterated as Alkínoös) was a son of Nausithous and father of Nausicaa and Laodamas with Arete. ... Sextus Empiricus (fl. ... Alexander of Aphrodisias, pupil of Aristocles of Messene, the most celebrated of the Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle, and styled, by way of pre-eminence, o exegetes (the expositor), was a native of Aphrodisias in Caria. ... Ammonius Saccas (3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher of Alexandria, often called the founder of the Neoplatonic school. ... Plotinus Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... Porphyry (Greek: , c. ... Iamblichus (ca. ... Themistius (317 - c. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury. ... Proclus Lycaeus (February 8, 412 – April 17, 485), surnamed The Successor or diadochos (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major Greek philosophers (see Damascius). ... Damascius, the last of the Neoplatonists, was born in Damascus about AD 480. ... Boethius teaching his students (initial from a 1385 Italian manuscript of the Consolation of Philosophy) Boethius redirects here. ... Simplicius, a native of Cilicia, a disciple of Ammonius and of Damascius, was one of the last of the Neoplatonists. ...

Indian philosophy

Main article: Indian philosophy

The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya...

Vedic philosophy

Indian philosophy begins with the Vedas where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. In the famous Rigvedic Hymn of Creation the poet says: The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are the main scriptural texts of Hinduism, also known as the Sanatana Dharma, and are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ...


"Whence all creation had its origin, he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not, he, who surveys it all from highest heaven, he knows--or maybe even he does not know."


In the Vedic view, creation is ascribed to the self-consciousness of the primeval being (Purusha). This leads to the inquiry into the one being that underlies the diversity of empirical phenomena and the origin of all things. Cosmic order is termed rta and causal law by karma. Nature (prakriti) is taken to have three qualities (sattva, rajas, and tamas). This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ... In Hinduism and Budhism, Tamas, or tamo-guna, is the lower of the three gunas. ...

The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are the main scriptural texts of Hinduism, also known as the Sanatana Dharma, and are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Classical Indian philosophy

In classical times, these inquiries were systematized in six schools of philosophy. Some of the questions asked were:

  • What is the ontological nature of consciousness?
  • How is cognition itself experienced?
  • Is mind (chit) intentional or not?
  • Does cognition have its own structure?

The Six schools of Indian philosophy are: The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya...

Other traditions of Indian philosophy include: Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yə) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the schools of Indian philosophy. ... A woman practising hatha yoga Eka-Pada-Rajakapotasana (Single-Legged Pigeon) demonstrated at a Hindu temple. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... Vedanta (Devanagari: , ) is a school of philosophy within Hinduism. ...

Some ancient philosophers: Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka or Cārvāka, and also known as Lokayata or Lokyāta, is a thoroughly materialistic and atheistic school of thought with ancient roots in India. ...

Asanga (also called Aryasanga), born around 300 C.E., was a great exponent of the Yogacara. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as Consciousness-only (Sanskrit: Cittamātra). ... Bhartrihari (c 450–510) was an Indian author of Wikipedia and early figure in Indic linguistic theory. ... Bodhidharma was the Buddhist monk (usually Indian by most accounts) is credited as the founder of Chan/Zen Buddhism in 6th century China. ... This article is about the religion Zen. ... Template:Buttism Buttism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a philosophy, and a system of psychology. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Prime Minister Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Chanakya (c. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... An acharya (Thai, ajahn) is a prominent guru, teacher and scholar who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit achara, behavior). ... Takshashila University in ancient India was the worlds first university, dated from around 700 BCE. It was well known as an institution of higher learning in ancient India, attracting applicants from around the world who had to sit tough entrance examinations to be admitted. ... Dignāga (5th century AD), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Maharishi GAUTAM, one of the seven sages “Sapt Rishi” was creator of “Nyaya Shsatra”. “Nyaya Shastra” is oldest known book on judicial system. ... The Nyaya-sutras were composed by Aksapada Gautama (c. ... Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yÉ™) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... In natural philosophy, atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small, indestructible elements - atoms. ... Maharshi Jaimini is a student on Vyasa Maharishi. ... The Purva Mimamsa Sutras are the primary text of the Mimamsa school of Indian philosophy. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Indian people stubs | Indian philosophers ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the schools of Indian philosophy. ... A statue depicting Nagarjuna at the Samye Ling Monastery, Dumfriesshire, Scotland Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జున in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ... Madhyamaka is a Buddhist philosophical tradition that asserts that all phenomena are empty of self-nature or essence (Sanskrit: Svabhāva), that they have no intrinsic, independent reality apart from the causes and conditions from which they arise. ... Panini can refer to: Pāṇini, the 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian Panini (sandwich), a type of Italian sandwich Panini (stickers), a brand of collectible stickers Giovanni Paolo Panini, an Italian artist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Ashtadhyayi (Ạṣtādhyāyī, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... Patañjali as an incarnation of Adi Sesha Patañjali (DevanāgarÄ« पतञ्जलि) is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja Yoga. ... Raja Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga is one of the four major Yogic paths of Hinduism, the others being Karma yoga, Jnana yoga and Bhakti yoga. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Pingala (पिङ्गल ) is the supposed author of the Chandas shastra (, also Chandas sutra ), a Sanskrit treatise on prosody considered one of the Vedanga. ... Syntipas (the Greek form of Sindibad or Sendabar) was an Indian philosopher supposed to have lived about 100 B.C., and the reputed author of a collection of tales known generally in Europe as The Story of the Seven Wise Masters. ... Tiruvalluvar was one of the greatest Tamil poets. ... Tiruvalluvar statue at Kanyakumari Tirukkural (திருக்குறள் in Tamil) is an important work of Tamil literature by Tiruvalluvar written in the form of couplets expounding various aspects of life. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... Vasubandhu (Sanskrit. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as Consciousness-only (Sanskrit: Cittamātra). ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Sage Yajnavalkya (याज्ञवल्क्य) of Mithila advanced a 95-year cycle to synchronize the motions of the sun and the moon. ... The prime Upanishad among the many Upanishads written in ancient India, known very widely for its profound philosophical statements. ... In Hinduism, and in particular Jnana Yoga and Advaita Vedanta, neti neti is a chant or mantra, meaning not this, not this, or neither this, nor that ( is sandhi from not so). Adi Shankara was one of the foremost Advaita philosophers who advocated the neti-neti approach. ...

Old Iranian philosophy

Main article: Iranian philosophy

While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view on the role of man in the universe. The first charter of human rights by Cyrus the Great is widely seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zarathustra and developed in Zoroastrian schools of thought. Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद) are the main scriptural texts of Hinduism, also known as the Sanatana Dharma, and are a large corpus of texts originating in Ancient India. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KuruÅ¡,[1] modern Persian: کوروش - KuruÅ¡; ca. ... Zarathustra can refer to one of two people: Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, was an ancient Iranian prophet, founder of the Zoroastrian religion. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...

Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Zarathustra can refer to one of two people: Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, was an ancient Iranian prophet, founder of the Zoroastrian religion. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...

Chinese philosophy

Main article: Chinese philosophy

In China, less emphasis was put upon materialism as a basis for reflecting upon the world and more on conduct, manners and social behaviour, as evidenced by Taoism and Confucianism. Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Taoism (sometimes written as and actually pronounced as Daoism (dow-ism)) is the English name for: Dao Jia [philosophical tao] philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé Jīng) and the Zhuangzi; a family of organized Chinese religious... Confucian temple in Jiading district, Shanghai. ...

Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Confucian temple in Jiading district, Shanghai. ... Taoism (sometimes written as and actually pronounced as Daoism (dow-ism)) is the English name for: Dao Jia [philosophical tao] philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé Jīng) and the Zhuangzi; a family of organized Chinese religious... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or 조선, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ancient philosophy : Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online (2342 words)
Ancient philosophy was principally pagan, and was finally eclipsed by Christianity in the sixth century ad, but it was so comprehensively annexed by its conqueror that it came, through Christianity, to dominate medieval and Renaissance philosophy.
In this final phase of ancient philosophy, conveniently called ‘imperial’ because it more or less coincides with the era of the Roman empire, the Hellenistic creeds were gradually eclipsed by the revival of doctrinal Platonism, based on the close study of Plato’s texts, out of which it developed a massively elaborate metaphysical scheme.
For the vast majority of ancient philosophers, however, our knowledge of them depends on secondary reports of their words and ideas in other writers, of whom some are genuinely interested in recording the history of philosophy, but others bent on discrediting the views they attribute to them.
WCP: Ancient Philosophy (400 words)
Philosophy is Education is Politics: A Somewhat Aggressive Reading of Protagoras 334d-338e
Philosophy and Dialogue: Plato's Unwritten Doctrines from a Hermeneutical Point of View
A Notion of μηδέv in the Philosophy of Aristotle
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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