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Encyclopedia > Ancient history of Yemen
This article is part of the
History of Yemen series
Ancient history
Islamic period
Modern history
What is left of Awam Temple or the Sun temple in Marib. Built in the 8th century BC and performed its function for nearly 1000 years.
What is left of Awam Temple or the Sun temple in Marib. Built in the 8th century BC and performed its function for nearly 1000 years.

The ancient history of Yemen is especially important because Yemen is one of the oldest centers of civilization in the Near East. Its relatively fertile land and adequate rainfall in a moister climate helped sustain a stable population, a feature recognized by the ancient Greek geographer Ptolemy, who described Yemen as Eudaimon Arabia (better known in its Latin translation, Arabia Felix) meaning "fortunate Arabia" or Happy Arabia. Between the 12th century BCE and the 6th century CE, it was dominated by six successive civilizations which rivaled each other, or were allied with each other and controlled the lucrative spice trade: M'ain, Qataban, Hadhramaut, Awsan, Saba and Himyarite. Islam arrived in 630 CE, and Yemen became part of the Muslim realm. Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Marib (Arabic: مأرب) is a capital town of Marib Governorate, Yemen. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... (Redirected from 12th century BCE) (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... A fruit stand at a market. ... Region close to Sayun in the Hadhramaut Valley An ancient sculpture of a griffon from the royal palace at shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut Hadhramaut, Hadhramout or Hadramawt (Arabic: ‎ []) is a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Motto: Remis Velisque. ... A state in ancient Yemen dating from 115 BCE. Conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BCE, Qataban in 50 CE and Hadramaut 100 CE. It was the dominant state in Arabia until the sixth century. ...

Contents

Tihama cultural complex (1500-1200 BCE)

During the late 2nd millennium BCE, a cultural complex arose in the Tihama region of Yemen and northern Ethiopia and Eritrea (specifically Tigray Region, central Eritrea, and coastal areas like Adulis). An African origin has been posited, though it is not certain and the complex is still relatively unanalyzed.[1] Tihamah or Tihama (Arabic: ‎ []) is a narrow coastal region of Arabia on the Red Sea. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Tigray region. ... Adulis is an archeological site in Eritrea, about 30 miles south of Massawa. ...


Kingdom of Sheba (8th century BCE - 275 CE)

Main article: Sheba
This is one of the oldest relics found in Yemen. It dates back to the 8th century BCE, and it is inscribed with ancient Sabaean letters.
This is one of the oldest relics found in Yemen. It dates back to the 8th century BCE, and it is inscribed with ancient Sabaean letters.

During Sabaean rule, trade and agriculture flourished generating much wealth and prosperity. The Sabaean kingdom is located in what is now the Aseer region in southwestern Yemen, and its capital, Ma'rib, is located near what is now Yemen's modern capital, Sana'a [1]. As according to tradition, the eldest son of Noah, Shem, founded the city of Ma'rib. Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva: שבא, and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ) is a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva: שבא, and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ) is a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ... The Sabaeans were a people who lived in what is today Yemen in the final millennium BCE. They may be the same nation as the biblical Sheba. ... Sanaá (Arabic صنعاء, romanized as , and also known as Sana or Sanaa), population 1,303,000 (2000), is the capital of Yemen. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Shem (שֵׁם renown; prosperity; name, Standard Hebrew Å em, Tiberian Hebrew Å Ä“m; Greek Σημ, SÄ“m; ) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible who adhered to the Noahide Laws. ...


During Sabaean rule, Yemen was called "Arabia Felix" by the Romans who were impressed by its wealth and prosperity. The success of the Kingdom was based on the cultivation and trade of spices and aromatics including frankincense and myrrh. These were exported to the Mediterranean, India, and Abyssinia where they were greatly prized by many cultures, using camels on routes through Arabia, and to India by sea.


During the 8th and 7th century BCE, there was a close contact of cultures between the Kingdom of Dʿmt in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea and Saba'. Though the civilization was indigenous and the royal inscriptions were written in a sort of proto-Ethiosemitic, there were also some Sabaean immigrants in the kingdom as evidenced by a few of the Dʿmt inscriptions.[2][3] Dmt is the Sabaean name for a kingdom on the northern Ethiopian plateau that existed from around 800 BC until it was united in the Aksum kingdom around the birth of Jesus. ... Ethiopian Semitic languages (sometimes Ethiopic) is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages. ...


Agriculture in Yemen thrived during this time due to an advanced irrigation system which consisted of large water tunnels in mountains, and dams. The most impressive dam, known as the dam of Ma'rib was built ca. 700 BCE, provided irrigation for about 25,000 acres of land [2] and stood for over a millennium, finally collapsing in AD 570 after centuries of neglect.


The Sabaean kingdom, with its capital at Ma'rib where the remains of a large temple can still be seen, thrived for almost 14 centuries. Some have argued that this kingdom was the Sheba described in the Old Testament. Marib is a governorate of Yemen. ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva: שבא, and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ) is a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ...


Kingdom of Hadhramaut (8th century BCE - 300 CE)

Main article: Hadhramaut
A Griffon from the royal palace at Shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut.
A Griffon from the royal palace at Shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut.

The first known inscriptions of Hadramaut are known from the 8th century BCE. It was first referenced by an outside civilization in an Old Sabaic inscription of Karab'il Watar from the early 7th century BCE, in which the King of Hadramaut, Yada`'il, is mentioned as being one of his allies. When the Minaeans took control of the caravan routes in the 4th century BCE, however, Hadramaut became one of its confederates, probably because of commercial interests. It later became independent and was invaded by the growing kingdom of Himyar toward the end of the first century BCE, but it was able to repel the attack. Hadramaut annexed Qataban in the second half of the 2nd century AD, reaching its greatest size. During this period, Hadramaut was continuously at war with Himyar and Saba', and the Sabaean king Sha`irum Awtar was even able to take its capital, Shabwa, in 225. During this period the Kingdom of Aksum began to interfere in South Arabian affairs. King GDRT of Aksum acted by dispatching troops under his son, BYGT, sending them from the western coast to occupy Zafar, the Himyarite capital, as well as from the southern coast against Hadramaut as Sabaean allies. The kingdom of Hadramaut was eventually conquered by the Himyarite king Shammar Yuhar`ish around 300 CE, unifying all of the South Arabian kingdoms.[4] Region close to Sayun in the Hadhramaut Valley An ancient sculpture of a griffon from the royal palace at shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut Hadhramaut, Hadhramout or Hadramawt (Arabic: ‎ []) is a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards... Image File history File links Griffon_hadhramaut. ... Image File history File links Griffon_hadhramaut. ... Region close to Sayun in the Hadhramaut Valley An ancient sculpture of a griffon from the royal palace at shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut Hadhramaut, Hadhramout or Hadramawt (Arabic: ‎ []) is a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards... The Sabey language was a language and alphabet used in Ethiopia up until the 8th Century AD. The Sabay language was replaced by the Geez language and writing system. ... Himyar was a state in ancient South Arabia dating from 110 BC. It conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BC, Qataban in AD 50 and Hadramaut AD 100. ... The Sabaeans were an ancient people speaking a South Semitic language who lived in what is today Yemen and for a time in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... GDRT (vocalized by historians as Gadarat) was a king of Axum (c. ... Zafarظفار is an ancient Arabian site, situated in Yemen, some 130 km southsouthwest of the capital Sanaá. It was the capital of the Himyarites, who ruled much of southern Arabia (c. ...

Kingdom of Awsan (800 BCE - 500 BCE)

Main article: Awsan

Categories: Possible copyright violations ...

Kingdom of Qataban (4th century BCE - 200 CE)

Bronze lion with a rider made by the Qatabanians circa 75-50 BCE.
Bronze lion with a rider made by the Qatabanians circa 75-50 BCE.
Main article: Qataban

Kingdom of Ma'in (8th century BCE - 100 BCE)

Main article: Minaean

During Minaean rule the capital was at Karna (now known as Sadah). Their other important city was Yathill (now known as Baraqish). Other parts of modern Yemen include Qataban and the coastal string of watering stations known as the Hadhramaut. Though Saba' dominated in the earlier period of South Arabian history, Minaic inscriptions are of the same time period as the first Sabaic inscriptions. Note, however, that they pre-date the appearence of the Minaeans themselves, and, hence, are called now more appropriately as "Madhabic" rather than "Minaic". The Minaean Kingdom was centered in northwestern Yemen, with most of its cities laying along the Wadi Madhab. Minaic inscriptions have been found far afield of the Kingdom of Ma'in, as far away as al-`Ula in northwestern Saudi Arabia and even on the island of Delos and in Egypt. It was the first of the South Arabian kingdoms to end, and the Minaic language died around 100 CE.[5] Minaean was a kingdom in Southwestern Arabia from approximately 1200 BC until 650 bc, centred on what is now Yemen. ... Sadah is a governorate of Yemen. ... Region close to Sayun in the Hadhramaut Valley An ancient sculpture of a griffon from the royal palace at shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut Hadhramaut, Hadhramout or Hadramawt (Arabic: ‎ []) is a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of...


Kingdom of Himyar (100 BCE - 520 CE)

Main article: Himyar

The Himyarites had united Southwestern Arabia, controlling the Red Sea as well as the coasts of the Gulf of Aden. From their capital city, the Himyarite Kings launched successful military campaigns, and had stretched its domain at times as far east to the Persian Gulf and as far north to the Arabian Desert. Himyar was a state in ancient South Arabia dating from 110 BC. It conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BC, Qataban in AD 50 and Hadramaut AD 100. ...


During the 3rd century CE, the South Arabian kingdoms were in continuous conflict with one another. GDRT of Aksum began to interfere in South Arabian affairs, signing an alliance with Saba', and a Himyarite text notes that Hadramaut and Qataban were also all allied against the kingdom. As a result of this, the Kingdom of Aksum was able to capture the Himyarite capital of Zafar in the first quarter of the 3rd century. However, the alliances did not last, and Sha`ir Awtar of Saba' unexpectedly turned on Hadramaut, allying again with Aksum and taking its capital in 225. Himyar then allied with Saba' and invaded the newly taken Aksumite territories, retaking Zafar, which had been under the control of GDRT's son BYGT, and pushing Aksum back into the Tihama.[6][7] GDRT (vocalized by historians as Gadarat) was a king of Axum (c. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... Zafarظفار is an ancient Arabian site, situated in Yemen, some 130 km southsouthwest of the capital Sanaá. It was the capital of the Himyarites, who ruled much of southern Arabia (c. ... Tihamah or Tihama (Arabic: []) is a narrow coastal region of Arabia on the Red Sea. ...


They established their capital at Zafar (now just a small village in the Ibb region) and gradually absorbed the Sabaean kingdom. They traded from the port of al-Muza on the Red Sea. Dhu Nuwas, a Himyarite king, changed the state religion to Judaism in the beginning of the 6th century and began to massacre the Christians. Outraged, Kaleb, the Christian King of Aksum with the encouragement of the Byzantine Emperor Justin I invaded and annexed Yemen. About fifty years later, Yemen fell to Persia. Zafarظفار is an ancient Arabian site, situated in Yemen, some 130 km southsouthwest of the capital Sanaá. It was the capital of the Himyarites, who ruled much of southern Arabia (c. ... Ibb (or Abb) (Arabic: إب) is a town in Yemen, the capital of Ibb Governorate, situated on a mountain ridge, surrounded by fertile land. ... Yusuf Dhu Nuwas (also called Yusuf Asar Dhu Nuwas, Masruq, and Dunas Zhidovin) was the last king of Yemen (then called Himayar) from a Jewish dynasty of unknown origin. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Kaleb (c. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... Flavius Iustinus Augustus. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ...


Kingdom of Aksum (520 - 570 CE)

Main article: Kingdom of Aksum

Around 517/8, a Jewish king called Yusuf Asar Yathar (also known as Dhu Nuwas) usurped the kingship of Himyar from Ma`adkarib Ya`fur. Interestingly, Pseudo-Zacharias of Mytilene (fl. late 6th century) says that Yusuf became king because the previous king had died in winter, when the Aksumites could not cross the Red Sea and appoint another king. Ma`adkarib Ya`fur's long title puts its truthfulness in doubt, however.[8] Upon gaining power, Yusuf attacked the Aksumite garrison in Zafar, the Himyarite capital, killing many and destroying the church there.[9][10] The Christian King Kaleb of Axum learned of Dhu Nuwas's persecutions of Christians and Aksumites, and, according to Procopius, was further encouraged by his ally and fellow Christian Justin I of Byzantium, who requested Aksum's help to cut off silk supplies as part of his economic war against the Persians.[11] The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Yusuf Dhu Nuwas (also called Yusuf Asar Dhu Nuwas, Masruq, and Dunas Zhidovin) was the last king of Yemen (then called Himayar) from a Jewish dynasty of unknown origin. ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Zafarظفار is an ancient Arabian site, situated in Yemen, some 130 km southsouthwest of the capital Sanaá. It was the capital of the Himyarites, who ruled much of southern Arabia (c. ... Kaleb (c. ... Procopius (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Flavius Iustinus Augustus. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... For other senses of this word, see silk (disambiguation). ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ...


Kaleb sent a fleet across the Red Sea and was able to defeat Dhu Nuwas, who was killed in battle according to an inscription from Husn al-Ghurab, while later Arab tradition has him riding his horse into the sea.[12] Kaleb installed a native Himyarite viceroy, Sumyafa` Ashwa`, who ruled until 525, when he was deposed by the Aksumite general (or soldier and former slave[13]) Abraha with the support of disgruntled Ethiopian soldiers.[10][14] According to the later Arabic sources, Kaleb retaliated by sending a force of 3,000 men under a relative, but the troops defected and killed their leader, and a second attempt at reigning in the rebellious Abraha also failed.[15][16] Later Ethiopian sources state that Kaleb abdicated to live out his years in a monastery and sent his crown to be hung in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. While uncertain, it seems to be supported by the die-links between his coins and those of his successor, Alla Amidas. An inscription of Sumyafa` Ashwa` also mentions two kings (nagaśt) of Aksum, indicating that the two may have co-ruled for a while before Kaleb abdicated in favor of Alla Amidas.[17] Himyar was a state in ancient South Arabia dating from 110 BC. It conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BC, Qataban in AD 50 and Hadramaut AD 100. ... Abraha (died 570) was a governor of the territories in Arabia for the Axumite Kingdom, and later king of modern Yemen. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis in Greek and Surp Harutyun in Armenian) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... Panoramic view from Mt. ...


Procopius notes that Abraha later submitted to Kaleb's successor, as supported by the former's inscription in 543 stating Aksum before the territories directly under his control. During his reign, Abraha repaired the Marib Dam in 543, and received embassies from Persia and Byzantium, including a request to free some bishops who had been imprisoned at Nisbis (according to John of Epheseus's Life of Simeon).[18][15] Abraha ruled until at least 547, sometime after which he was succeeded by his son, Aksum. Aksum (called "Yaksum" in Arabic sources) was perplexingly referred to as "of Ma'afir" (ḏū maʻāfir), the southwestern coast of Yemen, in Abraha's Marib dam inscription, and was succeeded by his brother, Masruq. Aksumite control in Yemen ended in 570 with the invasion of the elder Sassanid general Vahriz who, according to later legends, famously killed Masruq with his well-aimed arrow.[19] The Marib Dam blocks the Wadi Adhanah (also Dhana or Adhana) in the valley of Dhana in the Balaq Hills, Yemen. ... Events The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople. ... Vahriz was head of the small expedition army sent by Khosrau I to Yemen to help them against the invading Ethiopians of Axum. ...


Later Arabic sources also say that Abraha constructed a great Church called al-Qulays at Sana'a in order to divert pilgrimage from the Kaaba and have him die in the Year of the Elephant (570) after returning from a failed attack on Mecca (though he is thought to have died before this time).[13] The exact chronology of the early wars are uncertain, as a 525 inscription mentions the death of a King of Himyar, which could refer either to the Himyarite viceory of Aksum, Sumyafa` Ashwa`, or to Yusuf Asar Yathar. The later Arabic histories also mention a conflict between Abraha and another Aksumite general named Aryat occurring in 525 as leading to the rebellion.[10] Abraha (died 570) was a governor of the territories in Arabia for the Axumite Kingdom, and later king of modern Yemen. ... Sanaá (Arabic صنعاء, romanized as , and also known as Sana or Sanaa), population 1,303,000 (2000), is the capital of Yemen. ... Picture of the Kaaba with Muslim pilgrims performing Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) The Kaaba (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), also known as al-Ka‘abatu’l-Musharrafat ( ‎), al-Baytu l-‘AtÄ«q ( ‎ The Primordial House), or al-Baytu’l-Ḥarām ( ‎ The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known... The Year of the Elephant (عام الفيل `Âm al-Fîl) is estimated at 570 CE. According to early Islamic historians such as Ibn Ishaq, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abraha, had built a great church in Sanaa intended to lure the Arabs away from the Kaaba. ... Abraha (died 570) was a governor of the territories in Arabia for the Axumite Kingdom, and later king of modern Yemen. ...


Sassanid period (570 - 630 CE)

Main article: Sassanid

The Persian king Khosrau I, sent troops under the command of Vahriz, who helped the semi-legendary Saif bin Dhi Yazan to drive the Ethiopian Aksumites out of Yemen. Southern Arabia became a Persian dominion under a Yemenite vassal and thus came within the sphere of influence of the Sassanid Empire. Later another army was sent to Yemen, and in 597/8 Southern Arabia became a province of the Sassanid Empire under a Persian satrap. It was a Persian province by name but after the Persians assassinated Dhi Yazan, Yemen divides into a number of autonomous kingdoms. This development was a consequence of the expansionary policy pursued by the Sassanian king Khosrau II Parviz (590-628), whose aim was to secure Persian border areas such as Yemen. Following the death of Khosrau II in 628, then the Persian governor in Southern Arabia, Badhan, converted to Islam and Yemen followed the new religion. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... A coin of Khosrau I. Khosrau I, (Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531... Vahriz was head of the small expedition army sent by Khosrau I to Yemen to help them against the invading Ethiopians of Axum. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Khosrau II, Parvez (the Victorious), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Bâdhân (persian: باذان) is a Middle-Persian mens name and the name of many important figures in the Persian history. ...


References

Citations

  1. ^ Fattovich, Rodolfo "The Near East and eastern Africa: their interaction," in Vogel, J.O. ed., "Encyclopedia of precolonial Africa." AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, 1997, pps.479–484.
  2. ^ Sima, Alexander. "Dʿmt" in Siegbert von Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), pp.185.
  3. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart. Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity, (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), pp.58.
  4. ^ Müller, Walter W. "Ḥaḍramawt," Encyclopaedia: D-Ha, pp.965-6.
  5. ^ Nebes, Norbert. "Epigraphic South Arabian," Encyclopaedia: D-Happ.334.
  6. ^ Sima, Alexander. "GDR(T)," Encyclopaedia: D-Ha, pp.718-9.
  7. ^ Munro-Hay, Aksum, pp.72.
  8. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart. Aksum, p.80.
  9. ^ Mentioned in an inscription dated to 633 of the Himyarite era, or 518 AD.
  10. ^ a b c Munro-Hay, Stuart. Aksum, p.81.
  11. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart. Aksum, p.54.
  12. ^ Alessandro de Maigret, Arabia Felix, translated by Rebecca Thompson (London: Stacey International, 2002), p. 251
  13. ^ a b Sima, Alexander, "Abraha" in Encyclopaedia: D-Ha, p.42.
  14. ^ A contemporary inscription refers to Sumyafa` Ashwa` as "viceroy for the kings of Aksum. Munro-Hay, Stuart "Arabia" in Encyclopaedia: D-Ha, p.297.
  15. ^ a b Munro-Hay, Stuart. Aksum, p.82.
  16. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart "Arabia" in Encyclopaedia: D-Ha, p.297.
  17. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart. Aksum, p.82.
  18. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart "Arabia" in Encyclopaedia: D-Ha, pp.297-8.
  19. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart "Arabia" in Encyclopaedia: D-Ha, p.298.

Further reading

  • Alessandro de Maigret. Arabia Felix, translated Rebecca Thompson. London: Stacey International, 2002. ISBN 1-900988-07-0
  • Andrey Korotayev. Ancient Yemen. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-922237-1[3].

 
 

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