FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. In its twelve-century existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy, to a republic based on a combination of oligarchy and democracy, to an autocratic empire. It came to dominate Western Europe and the entire area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest and assimilation. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by everybody The term autocrat is derived from the Greek word autokratôr (lit. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ...


The Roman empire went into decline. The western half of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. The eastern empire, governed from Constantinople, is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire after 476, the traditional date for the "fall of Rome" and for the subsequent onset of the Early Middle Ages, also known as the Dark Ages. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ...


Roman civilization is often grouped into "classical antiquity" with ancient Greece, a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome. Ancient Rome contributed greatly to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a major influence on the world today. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A simplified plan of the city of Rome from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...

Area under Roman control      Roman Republic      Roman Empire      Western Empire      Eastern Empire

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x760, 218 KB) Summary map of the Roman Empire based on Image:BlankMap-Europe-v3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x760, 218 KB) Summary map of the Roman Empire based on Image:BlankMap-Europe-v3. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ...

History

Further information: History of Rome and Timeline of ancient Rome

A simplified plan of the city of Rome from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Roman Empire of the East to conquer Rome. ...

Monarchy

Main article: Roman Kingdom
According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus, who were raised by a she-wolf.
According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus, who were raised by a she-wolf.

According to legend, Rome was founded on April 21, 753 BC by twin descendants of the Trojan prince Aeneas, Romulus and Remus.[1] The Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa was ejected from his throne by his cruel brother Amulius and Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to Romulus and Remus.[2][3] The new king feared that Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so they were to be drowned.[3] A she-wolf (or a shepard's wife in some accounts) saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.[4][5] The twins then founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over which one of them was to reign as the first of seven Kings of Rome, as well as become the source of the city's name.[6] As the city was bereft of women, legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins and the Sabines.[7] The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Image File history File links She-wolf_suckles_Romulus_and_Remus. ... Image File history File links She-wolf_suckles_Romulus_and_Remus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... {{Infobox_Monarch | name =Romulus | title =King of Rome | image = | reign =April 23, 753 BC - 717 BC | coronation = | predecessor =None | successor =Numa Pompilius | suc-type = | heir = | consort = | issue = | royal house = | royal anthem = | father =Mars | mother =Rhea Silvia | date of birth =771 BC | place of birth =Alba Longa | date of death =717 BC... Look up Legend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... {{Infobox_Monarch | name =Romulus | title =King of Rome | image = | reign =April 23, 753 BC - 717 BC | coronation = | predecessor =None | successor =Numa Pompilius | suc-type = | heir = | consort = | issue = | royal house = | royal anthem = | father =Mars | mother =Rhea Silvia | date of birth =771 BC | place of birth =Alba Longa | date of death =717 BC... In Roman mythology, King Numitor of Alba Longa, son of Procas, was the father of Rhea Silvia. ... Alba Longa (in Italian sources occasionally written Albalonga) was an ancient city of Latium, in the Alban Hills founder and head of the Latin Confederation; it was destroyed by Rome around the middle of the 7th century BC. // Legendary history According to legend Alba Longa was founded by Ascanius or... In Roman mythology, Amulius was the brother of Numitor and son of Procas. ... Rhea Silvia (also written as Rea Silvia), and also known as Ilia, was the mythical mother of the twins Romulus and Remus, who founded the city of Rome. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Sabine (in Latin and in Italian, Sabina) is a sub-region of Latium, Italy, on the North-East of Rome toward Rieti. ...


The city of Rome grew from settlements around a ford on the river Tiber, a crossroads of traffic and trade.[4] According to archaeological evidence, the village of Rome was probably founded sometime in the 8th century BC, though it may go back as far as the 10th century BC, by members of the Latin tribe of Italy, on the top of the Palatine Hill.[8][9] The Etruscans, who had previously settled to the north in Etruria, seem to have established political control in the region by the late 7th century BC, forming the aristocratic and monarchial elite. The Etruscans apparently lost power in the area by the late 6th century BC, and at this point, the original Latin and Sabine tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power.[10] Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archae, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel (c. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people of Latium Vetus (Old Latium), who migrated to the area in the 2nd millennium B.C. from the north []. Although they lived in independent city-states, the Latins had a common language (Latin), common religious beliefs and a close sense of kinship, expressed... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... Map showing the extent of the Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ...


Republic

Main article: Roman Republic
Marius, a Roman general and politician who dramatically reformed the Roman military.

The Roman Republic was established around 509 BC, according to later writers such as Livy, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed, and a system based on annually-elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established.[11] The most important magistrates were the two consuls, who together exercised executive authority in the form of imperium, or military command.[12] The consuls had to contend with the Senate, which was initially an advisory council of the ranking nobility, or patricians, but grew in size and power over time.[13] Other magistracies in the Republic include praetors, aediles, and quaestors.[14] The magistracies were originally restricted to patricians, but were later opened to common people, or plebeians.[14] Republican voting assemblies included the comitia centuriata (centuriate assembly), which voted on matters of war and peace and elected men to the most important offices, and the comitia tributa (tribal assembly), which elected less important offices.[15] Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Marius_Carthage. ... Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)¹ (157 BC - January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... Historical re-enactors as soldiers of the Roman Army on manoeuvres. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and trends September 13, 509 BC - The temple of Jupiter on Romes Capitoline Hill is... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Proud or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, son of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, and son-in-law of Servius Tullius. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ...


The Romans gradually subdued the other peoples on the Italian peninsula, including the Etruscans.[16] The last threat to Roman hegemony in Italy came when Tarentum, a major Greek colony, enlisted the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus in 281 BC, but this effort failed as well.[17][18] The Romans secured their conquests by founding Roman colonies in strategic areas, establishing stable control over the region.[19] In the second half of the 3rd century BC, Rome clashed with Carthage in the first of three Punic Wars. These wars resulted in Rome's first overseas conquests, of Sicily and Hispania, and the rise of Rome as a significant imperial power.[20][21] After defeating the Macedonian and Seleucid Empires in the 2nd century BC, the Romans became the dominant people of the Mediterranean Sea.[22][23] The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


But foreign dominance led to internal strife. Senators became rich at the provinces' expense, but soldiers, who were mostly small-scale farmers, were away from home longer and could not maintain their land, and the increased reliance on foreign slaves and the growth of latifundia reduced the availability of paid work.[24][25] Income from war booty, mercantilism in the new provinces, and tax farming created new economic opportunities for the wealthy, forming a new class of merchants, the equestrians.[26] The lex Claudia forbade members of the Senate from engaging in commerce, so while the equestrians could theoretically join the Senate, they were severely restricted in terms of political power.[27][26] The Senate squabbled perpetually, repeatedly blocking important land reforms and refusing to give the equestrian class a larger say in the government. Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence. The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians. Both brothers were killed, but the Senate passed some of their reforms in an attempt to placate the growing unrest of the plebeian and equestrian classes. The denial of Roman citizenship to allied Italian cities led to the Social War of 9188 BC.[28] The military reforms of Marius resulted in soldiers often having more loyalty to their commander than to the city, and a powerful general could hold the city and Senate ransom.[29] This led to civil war between Marius and his protegé Sulla, and culminated in Sulla's dictatorship of 81-79 BC.[30] Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... Latifundia are pieces of landed property covering tremendous areas. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... Tax farming was originally a Roman practise whereby the burden of tax collection was removed from the Roman State to private individuals or groups. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... Lex Claudia was a law established in ancient Rome in 218 BC. It is a law which prohibited senators from participating in overseas trade. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) is an often-controversial type of government-initiated or government-backed real estate property redistribution, generally of agricultural land. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The Gracchi were a plebeian family of ancient Rome. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... In the Roman Republic and later in the Roman Empire, all men could be very roughly divided into three classes. ... Template:Campaignbox Social War This article is about the conflict between Rome and her allies between 91 and 88 BC The Social War (also called the Italian War or the Marsic War, Social come from Socii meaning ¨Allies¨) was a war from 91 – 88 BC between the Roman Republic and... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC - 91 BC - 90 BC 89 BC 88... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC - 88 BC - 87 BC 86 BC 85... Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)¹ (157 BC - January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC), usually known simply as Sulla,[2] was a Roman general and dictator. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC - 81 BC - 80 BC 79 BC 78... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC 80 BC - 79 BC - 78 BC 77 BC 76...


In the mid-1st century BC, three men, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, formed a secret pact—the First Triumvirate—to control the Republic. After Caesar's conquest of Gaul, a stand-off between Caesar and the Senate led to civil war, with Pompey leading the Senate's forces. Caesar emerged victorious, and was made dictator for life.[31] In 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by senators who opposed Caesar's assumption of absolute power and wanted to restore constitutional government, but in the aftermath a Second Triumvirate, consisting of Caesar's designated heir, Augustus, and his former supporters, Mark Antony and Lepidus, took power.[32][33] However, this alliance soon descended into a struggle for dominance. Lepidus was exiled, and when Augustus defeated Antony and Cleopatra of Egypt at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, he became the undisputed ruler of Rome.[34] (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ... Combatants Julius Caesar and supporters, the Populares faction, Roman senate, the Optimates faction, Commanders Julius Caesar Mark Antony Pompey†, Titus Labienus†, Metellus Scipio†, Cato the younger†, Gnaeus Pompeius† Sextus Pompeius The Roman civil war of 49 BC, sometimes called Caesars Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS[1]), d. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC...


Empire

Main article: Roman Empire
The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent in the year 116.
The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent in the year 116.

With his enemies defeated, Augustus assumed almost absolute power, retaining only a pretense of the Republican form of government.[35] His designated successor, Tiberius, took power without serious opposition, establishing the Julio-Claudian dynasty, which lasted until the death of Nero in 68.[36] The territorial expansion of what was now the Roman Empire continued, and the state remained secure,[37] despite a series of emperors widely viewed as depraved and corrupt (for example, Caligula is argued by some to have been insane and Nero had a reputation for cruelty and being more interested in his private concerns than the affairs of the state[38]). Their rule was followed by the Flavian dynasty.[39] During the reign of the "Five Good Emperors" (96180), the Empire reached its territorial, economic, and cultural zenith.[40] The state was secure from both internal and external threats, and the Empire prospered during the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace").[41][42] With the conquest of Dacia during the reign of Trajan, the Empire reached the peak of its territorial expansion; Rome's dominion now spanned 2.5 million square miles (6.5 million km²).[43] Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... The Five Good Emperors is a term coined by the 18th century historian, Edward Gibbon, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... For other uses, see number 180. ... In broad terms, the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location (perpendicular, orthogonal). ... Roman Empire at its greatest extent with the conquests of Trajan Pax Romana (27 BCE-180 CE), Latin for the Roman peace, was the long period of relative peace experienced by the Roman Empire. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...


The period between 193 and 235 was dominated by the Severan dynasty, and saw several incompetent rulers, such as Elagabalus.[44] This and the increasing influence of the army on imperial succession led to a long period of imperial collapse and external invasions known as the Crisis of the Third Century.[45][46] The crisis was ended by the more competent rule of Diocletian, who in 293 divided the Empire into an eastern and western half ruled by a tetrarchy of two co-emperors and their two junior colleagues.[47] The various co-rulers of the Empire competed and fought for supremacy for more than half a century. On May 11, 330, Emperor Constantine I firmly established Byzantium as the capital of the Roman Empire and renamed it Constantinople.[48] The Empire was permanently divided into the Eastern Roman Empire (later known as the Byzantine Empire) and the Western Roman Empire in 395.[49] Events June 1 – Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated in his palace. ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... A bust depicting Elagabalus. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ...


The Western Empire was constantly harassed by barbarian invasions, and the gradual decline of the Roman Empire continued over the centuries.[50] In the fourth century, the westward migration of the Huns caused the Visigoths to seek refuge within the borders of the Roman Empire.[51] In 410, the Visigoths, under the leadership of Alaric I, sacked the city of Rome itself.[52] The Vandals invaded Roman provinces in Gaul, Spain, and northern Africa, and in 455 sacked Rome.[53] On September 4, 476, the Germanic chief Odoacer forced the last Roman emperor in the west, Romulus Augustus, to abdicate.[54] Having lasted for approximately 1200 years, the rule of Rome in the West came to an end.[55] Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ...


The Eastern Empire, by contrast, would suffer a similar fate, though not as drastic. Justinian managed to briefly reconquer Northern Africa and Italy, but Byzantine possessions in the West were reduced to southern Italy and Sicily within a few years after Justinian's death.[56] In the east the Byzantines were threatened by the rise of Islam, whose followers rapidly conquered territories in Syria and Egypt and soon presented a direct threat to Constantinople.[57] The Byzantines, however, managed to stop Islamic expansion into their lands during the 8th century, and beginning in the 9th century reclaimed the conquered lands.[58][57] In 1000 A.D. the eastern Empire was at its height: Basileios II reconquered Bulgaria and Armenia, culture and trade flourished.[59] But soon the expansion was abruptly stopped at the battle of Manzikert, 1071. This finally lead the empire into a dramatic decline. Several centuries of internal strife and Turkic invasions ultimately paved the way for Emperor Alexius I Comnenus to send a call for help to the West in 1095.[57] The West responded with the Crusades, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants in the Fourth Crusade. The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 would see the fragmentation of what little remained of the empire into successor states, the ultimate victor being that of Nicaea.[60] After the recapture of Constantinople by imperial forces, the empire was little more than a Greek state confined to the Aegean coast. The Eastern Empire came to an end when Mehmet II conquered Constantinople on May 29, 1453.[61] Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 40,000 [1] ~ 15,000 [2] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or The Battle of Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkish forces led by Alp... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Ä°znik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian church, the Nicene Creed, and as the capital... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ...


Society

The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed, and served as a hub for daily Roman life.

Life in ancient Rome revolved around the city of Rome, located on seven hills. The city had a vast number of monumental structures like the Colosseum, the Forum of Trajan and the Pantheon. It had fountains with fresh drinking-water supplied by hundreds of miles of aqueducts, theatres, gymnasiums, bath complexes complete with libraries and shops, marketplaces, and functional sewers. Throughout the territory under the control of ancient Rome, residential architecture ranged from very modest houses to country villas. In the capital city of Rome, there were imperial residences on the elegant Palatine Hill, from which the word "palace" is derived. The low and middle classes lived in the city center, packed into apartments, which were almost like modern ghettos. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1311x500, 176 KB)ur a fucking fag show me the fucking picturs now File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1311x500, 176 KB)ur a fucking fag show me the fucking picturs now File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Seven Hills of Rome east of the Tiber form the heart of Rome. ... The Taj Mahal, commissioned by the Muslim Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, as a mausoleum for his wife, Arjumand Banu Begum. ... Look up Structure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum, although the Romans referred to it more often as the Forum Magnum or just the Forum) was the central area around which ancient Rome developed, in which commerce, business, trading and the administration of justice took place. ... Facade of the Pantheon The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning Temple of all the Gods) is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. ... Fountain is also the name of an artwork by Marcel Duchamp An ornamental lit fountain photographed at night for about 6 seconds. ... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions at over 1. ... Roman theatre at Orange, France A Roman theatre is a theatre building built by the Romans for watching theatrical performances. ... In ancient Greece, the gymnasium (Greek: ; gymnasion) functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ... Roman public baths in Bath, England. ... Alternative meanings: Library (computer science), Library (biology) Modern-style library In its traditional sense, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ... A residential area is a type of land use where the predominant use is residential. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... A house in Pathanapuram, Kerala (India). ... The Roman Empire contained many kinds of villas. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... A residence may be a house, a place to live, like a nursing home. ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ...


The imperial city of Rome was the largest urban center of its time, with a population of about one million people (about the size of London in the early 19th century, when London was the largest city in the world), with some high-end estimates of 14 million and low-end estimates of 450,000.[62][63][64] The public spaces in Rome resounded with such a din of hooves and clatter of iron chariot wheels that Julius Caesar had once proposed a ban on chariot traffic at night. Historical estimates indicate that around 20 percent of population under the jurisdiction of the ancient Rome (25% to 40%, depending the standards used, in Roman Italy[65]) lived in innumerable urban centers, with population of 10,000 and more and several military settlements, a very high rate of urbanization by pre-industrial standards. Most of these centers had a forum and temples and same type of buildings, on a smaller scale, as found in Rome. Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000–500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ...


Government

Bust of Julius Caesar, whose rise to power and assassination set the stage for Augustus to establish himself as the first Princeps.

Initially, Rome was ruled by kings, who were elected from each of Rome's major tribes in turn.[66] The exact nature of the king's power is uncertain. He may have held near-absolute power, or may also have merely been the chief executive of the Senate and the people. At least in military matters, the king's authority (Imperium) was likely absolute. He was also the head of the state religion. In addition to the authority of the King, there were three administrative assemblies: the Senate, which acted as an advisory body for the King; the Comitia Curiata, which could endorse and ratify laws suggested by the King; and the Comitia Calata, which was an assembly of the priestly college which could assemble the people in order to bear witness to certain acts, hear proclamations, and declare the feast and holiday schedule for the next month. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The inscription in the Arch of Titus Modern coat of arms of Rome Manhole cover in Rome with SPQR inscription SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase, Senatus Populusque Romanus (The Senate and the Roman people), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The term Roman religion may refer to: Ancient Roman religion Imperial cult (Ancient Rome), Sol Invictus Mithraism Roman Christianity Category: ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romanorum) vested formal governmental powers in four separate peoples assemblies — the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, the Comitia Tributa, and the Concilium Plebis. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... The Comitia Calata was the most ancient and least-known of the Ancient Rome popular assemblies. ... The Forum for European-Australian Science and Technology Cooperation (FEAST) is a non-government organisation aimed at highlighting and developing collaborative research activities between Europe (European countries and the European Union) and Australia. ...


The class struggles of the Roman Republic resulted in an unusual mixture of democracy and oligarchy. The word republic comes from the Latin res publica which literally translates to public business. Roman laws traditionally could only be passed by a vote of the Popular assembly (Comitia Tributa). Likewise, candidates for public positions had to run for election by the people. However, the Roman Senate represented an oligarchic institution, which acted as an advisory body. In the Republic, the Senate held great authority (auctoritas), but no actual legislative power; it was technically only an advisory council. However, as the Senators were individually very influential, it was difficult to accomplish anything against the collective will of the Senate. New Senators were chosen from among the most accomplished patricians by Censors (Censura), who could also remove a Senator from his office if he was found "morally corrupt"; a charge that could include bribery or, as under Cato the Elder, embracing one's wife in public. Later, under the reforms of the dictator Sulla, Quaestors were made automatic members of the Senate, though most of his reforms did not survive. Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa and posessed ultimate legislative and judicial powers in the Roman Republic and were also responsible for the election of magistrates. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ...


The Republic had no fixed bureaucracy, and collected taxes through the practice of tax farming. Government positions such as quaestor, aedile, or praefect were funded from the office-holder's private finances. In order to prevent any citizen from gaining too much power, new magistrates were elected annually and had to share power with a colleague. For example, under normal conditions, the highest authority was held by two consuls. In an emergency, a temporary dictator could be appointed.[67] Throughout the Republic, the administrative system was revised several times to comply with new demands. In the end, it proved inefficient for controlling the ever-expanding dominion of Rome, contributing to the establishment of the Roman Empire. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a state, or to functional equivalents of a state, including tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements. ... Tax farming was originally a Roman practise whereby the burden of tax collection was removed from the Roman State to private individuals or groups. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... The word prefect can refer to any of a number of types of official, including: in Latin, praefectus: a high-ranking military or civil official in the Roman Empire; the title now attaches to the heads of some departments of the Roman Curia, who are traditionally Cardinals, and if they... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ...


In the early Empire, the pretense of a republican form of government was maintained. The Roman Emperor was portrayed as only a 'princeps', or "first citizen", and the Senate gained legislative power and all legal authority previously held by the popular assemblies. However, the rule of the emperors became increasingly autocratic over time, and the Senate was reduced to an advisory body appointed by the emperor. The Empire did not inherit a set bureaucracy from the Republic, since the Republic did not have any permanent governmental structures apart from the Senate. The Emperor appointed assistants and advisers, but the state lacked many institutions, such as a centrally-planned budget. Some historians have cited this as a significant reason for the decline of the Roman Empire. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Look up budget in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ...


The territory of the Empire was divided into provinces. The number of provinces increased with time, both as new territories were conquered and as provinces were divided into smaller units to discourage rebellions by powerful local rulers.[43] Upon the rise of Augustus and the Principate, the provinces were divided into imperial and senatorial provinces, depending on which institution had the right to select the governor. During the Tetrarchy, the provinces of the empire were divided into 12 dioceses, each headed by a praetor vicarius. The civilian and military authority were separated, with civilian matters still administered by the governor, but with military command transferred to a dux. Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ...


On a local level, towns were divided into colonia, colonies composed of former soldiers or members of the Roman underclass, and municipia, towns composed of enfranchised provincials. These cities were given constitutions based on the Roman model, with the elected duovirs and aediles serving as magistrates, and with the local curia, appointed from men of property for life, serving in an advisory capability, similar to the Senate. A colonia was a Roman outpost, usually established by veterans of a Roman Legion, who received land as a part of their retirement from the Legions. ...


Law

Main article: Roman law

The roots of the legal principles and practices of the ancient Romans may be traced to the law of the twelve tables (from 449 BC) to the codification of Emperor Justinian I (around 530 AD). Roman law as preserved in Justinian's codes continued into the Byzantine Empire, and formed the basis of similar codifications in continental Western Europe. Roman law continued, in a broader sense, to be applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 17th century. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Law of the Twelve Tables (Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC 450 BC 449 BC 448 BC 447 BC 446... The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is a fundamental work in jurisprudence issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Justinian depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The major divisions of the law of ancient Rome, as contained within the Justinian and Theodosian law codes, consisted of Ius Civile, Ius Gentium, and Ius Naturale. The Ius Civile ("Citizen law") was the body of common laws that applied to Roman citizens.[68] The Praetores Urbani (sg. Praetor Urbanus) were the individuals who had jurisdiction over cases involving citizens. The Ius Gentium ("Law of nations") was the body of common laws that applied to foreigners, and their dealings with Roman citizens.[69] The Praetores Peregrini (sg. Praetor Peregrinus) were the individuals who had jurisdiction over cases involving citizens and foreigners. Ius Naturale encompassed natural law, the body of laws that were considered common to all being. // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ...


Economy

Further information: Roman commerce,  Roman finance,  Roman currency, and Roman agriculture
A Roman denarius, a standardized silver coin.
A Roman denarius, a standardized silver coin.

Ancient Rome commanded a vast area of land, with tremendous natural and human resources. As such, Rome's economy remained focused on agriculture and trade. Agricultural free trade changed the Italian landscape, and by the 1st century BC, vast grape and olive estates had supplanted the yeoman farmers, who were unable to match the imported grain price. The annexation of Egypt, Sicily and Tunisia in North Africa provided a continuous supply of grains. In turn, olive oil and wine were Italy's main exports. Two-tier crop rotation was practiced, but farm productivity was overall low, around 1 ton per hectare. Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... For centuries the monetary affairs of the Roman Republic had rested in the hands of the Senate, which was steady and fiscally conservative. ... The main Roman currency during most of the Roman Republic and the western half of the Roman Empire consisted of coins including the aureus (gold), the denarius (silver), the sestertius (bronze), the dupondius (bronze), and the as (copper). ... The percentages and figures displayed below represent possible theoretical values. ... Maximinus denarius that I scanned. ... The main Roman currency during most of the Roman Republic and the western half of the Roman Empire consisted of coins including the aureus (gold), the denarius (silver), the sestertius (bronze), the dupondius (bronze), and the as (copper). ... First row : c. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... It has been suggested that Veraison be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Olive oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ...


Industrial and manufacturing activities were smaller. The largest such activity were the mining and quarrying of stones, which provided basic construction materials for the buildings of that period. In manufacturing, production was on a relatively small scale, and generally consisted of workshops and small factories that employed at most dozens of workers. However, some brick factories employed hundreds of workers. Manufacturing, a branch of industry, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... This article is about mineral extraction. ... A small cinder quarry A dimension stone quarry A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. ... An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction and sized to be layed with one hand using mortar. ...


Some economic historians (like Peter Temin) argue that the economy of the Early Roman Empire was a market economy and one of the most advanced agricultural economies to have existed (in terms of productivity, urbanization and development of capital markets), comparable to the most advanced economies of the world before the industrial revolution, the economies of 18th-century England and 17th-century Netherlands. There were markets for every type of good, for land, for cargo ships; there was even an insurance market. Dr. Peter Temin (born 1937) is a widely cited economist and economic historian, currently Elisha Gray II Professor of Economics, MIT and former head of the Economics Department. ... A Watt steam engine. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700 in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The economy of the early Republic was largely based on smallholding and paid labor. However, foreign wars and conquests made slaves increasingly cheap and plentiful, and by the late Republic, the economy was largely dependent on slave labor for both skilled and unskilled work. Slaves are estimated to have constituted around 20% of the Roman Empire's population at this time and 40% in the city of Rome. Only in the Roman Empire, when the conquests stopped and the prices of slaves increased, did hired labor become more economical than slave ownership. Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ...


Although barter was used in ancient Rome, and often used in tax collection, Rome had a very developed coinage system, with brass, bronze, and precious metal coins in circulation throughout the Empire and beyond—some have even been discovered in India. Before the 3rd century BC, copper was traded by weight, measured in unmarked lumps, across central Italy. The original copper coins (as) had a face value of one Roman pound of copper, but weighed less. Thus, Roman money's utility as a unit of exchange consistently exceeded its intrinsic value as metal. After Nero began debasing the silver denarius, its legal value was an estimated one-third greater than its intrinsic. Barter is a type of trade that do not use any medium of exchange, in which goods or services are exchanged for other goods and/or services. ... Coinage is: A Drinking game also known as Quarters a series of coins struck as part of currency a magazine about numismatics, capitalized: COINage The right or process of making coins The creation of a neologism, or new word; see word coinage The duty or tax on refined tin, abolished... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... A gold nugget A precious metal is a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... The As (plural Asses) was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, named after the homonymous weight unit (12 unciae = ounces), but not immune to weight depreciation. ... Officially the pound is the name for at least three different units of mass: The pound (avoirdupois). ... Intrinsic value can refer to: Intrinsic value (finance), of an option or stock. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... First row : c. ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ...


Horses were too expensive, and other pack animals too slow, for mass trade on the Roman roads, which connected military posts rather than markets, and were rarely designed for wheels. As a result, there was little transport of commodities between Roman regions until the rise of Roman maritime trade in the 2nd century BC. During that period, a trading vessel took less than a month to complete a trip from Gades to Alexandria via Ostia, spanning the entire length of the Mediterranean.[43] Transport by sea was around 60 times cheaper than by land, so the volume for such trips was much larger. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A pack animal is a beast of burden used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weigh bears on the animals back; the term may be applied to either an individual animal or a species so employed. ... For the one-off TV Drama, see Roman Road (TV Drama) A Roman road in Pompeii. ... Commodity is a term that refers to goods that are mined or agriculturally produced. ... Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Class structure

A Roman clad in a toga, the distinctive garment of ancient Rome.
A Roman clad in a toga, the distinctive garment of ancient Rome.

Roman society was strictly hierarchical, with slaves (servī) at the bottom, freedmen (libertī) above them, and free-born citizens (civēs) at the top. Free citizens were themselves also divided by class. The broadest, and earliest, division was between the patricians, who could trace their ancestry to one of the 100 Patriarchs at the founding of the city, and the plebeians, who could not. This became less important in the later Republic, as some plebeian families became wealthy and entered politics, and some patrician families fell on hard times. Anyone, patrician or plebeian, who could count a consul as his ancestor was a noble (nobilis); a man who was the first of his family to hold the consulship, such as Marius or Cicero, was known as a novus homo ("new man") and ennobled his descendants. Patrician ancestry, however, still conferred considerable prestige, and many religious offices remained restricted to patricians. The toga was the distinctive garb of Romen men, while women wore stolas. ... Image File history File links Toga_Illustration. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome. ... Social hierarchy, a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power. ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... poop. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... See Patriarchs (Bible) for details about Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob of the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in British English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... The term novus homo (literally, new man in Latin), referred in ancient Roman times to a person who was the first of his family to serve in the Roman Senate, or, less generally, the first to be elected as consul. ...


A class division originally based on military service became more important. Membership of these classes was determined periodically by the Censors, according to property. The wealthiest were the Senatorial class, who dominated politics and command of the army. Next came the equestrians (equites, sometimes translated "knights"), originally those who could afford a warhorse, who formed a powerful mercantile class. Several further classes, originally based on what military equipment their members could afford, followed, with the proletarii, citizens who had no property at all, at the bottom. Before the reforms of Marius they were ineligible for military service and are often described as being just barely above freed slaves in terms of wealth and prestige. Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ...


Voting power in the Republic was dependent on class. Citizens were enrolled in voting "tribes", but the tribes of the richer classes had fewer members than the poorer ones, all the proletarii being enrolled in a single tribe. Voting was done in class order and stopped as soon as a majority of the tribes had been reached, so the poorer classes were often unable even to cast their votes.


Allied foreign cities were often given the Latin Right, an intermediary level between full citizens and foreigners (peregrini), which gave their citizens rights under Roman law and allowed their leading magistrates to become full Roman citizens. While there were varying degrees of Latin rights, the main division was between those con suffrage ("with vote"; enrolled in a Roman tribe and able to take part in the comitia tributa) and sans suffrage (without vote; unable to take part in Roman politics). Some of Rome's Italian allies were given full citizenship after the Social War of 9188 BC, and full Roman citizenship was extended to all free-born men in the Empire by Caracalla in 212. Women shared some basic rights with their male counterparts, but were not fully regarded as citizens and were thus not allowed to vote or participate in politics. The Latin Right (Latin ius Latii or Latinitas or Latium) was a status given to a Roman colony intermediate between full Roman citizenship and not being a citizen at all (peregrines or provincials). ... Template:Campaignbox Social War This article is about the conflict between Rome and her allies between 91 and 88 BC The Social War (also called the Italian War or the Marsic War, Social come from Socii meaning ¨Allies¨) was a war from 91 – 88 BC between the Roman Republic and... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC - 91 BC - 90 BC 89 BC 88... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC - 88 BC - 87 BC 86 BC 85... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... Events Roman Emperor Caracalla decrees that freemen throughout the Roman Empire become Roman Citizens. ...


Family

The basic units of Roman society were households and families.[70] Households included the head (usually the father) of the household, paterfamilias (father of the family), his wife, children, and other relatives. In the upper classes, slaves and servants were also part of the household.[70] The head of the household had great power (patria potestas, "father's power") over those living with him: He could force marriage and divorce, sell his children into slavery, claim his dependents' property as his own, and even had the right to kill family members (though this last right apparently ceased to be exercised after the first century B.C.).[71] The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The Roman...


Patria potestas even extended over adult sons with their own households: A man was not considered a paterfamilias, nor could he truly hold property, while his own father lived.[71][72] During the early period of Rome's history, a daughter, when she married, fell under the control (manus) of the paterfamilias of her husband's household, although by the late Republic this fell out of fashion, as a woman could choose to continue recognizing her father's family as her true family.[73] However, as Romans reckoned descent through the male line, any children she had would belong to her husband's family.[74] It has been suggested that Kinship be merged into this article or section. ...


Groups of related households formed a family (gens). Families were based on blood ties (or adoption), but were also political and economic alliances. Especially during the Roman Republic, some powerful families, or Gentes Maiores, came to dominate political life. GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ...


Ancient Roman marriage was often regarded more as a financial and political alliance than as a romantic association, especially in the upper classes. Fathers usually began seeking husbands for their daughters when they reached an age between twelve and fourteen. The husband was almost always older than the bride. While upper class girls married very young, there is evidence that lower class women often married in their late teens or early twenties. Ancient Roman marriage was often regarded more as a financial and political alliance than as a romantic association, especially in the upper classes. ...


Education

Main article: Roman school

In the early Republic, there were no public schools, so boys were taught to read and write by their parents, or by educated slaves, called paedagogi, usually of Greek origin.[75][76][77] The primary aim of education during this period was to train young men in agriculture, warfare, Roman traditions, and public affairs.[75] Young boys learnt much about civic life by accompanying their fathers to religious and political functions, including the Senate for the sons of nobles.[76] The sons of nobles were apprenticed to a prominent political figure at the age of 16, and campaigned with the army from the age of 17 (this system would still be in use among some noble families well into the imperial era).[76] Educational practices were modified following the conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms in the Third Century BC and the resulting Greek influence, although it should be noted that Roman educational practices were still significantly different from Greek ones.[78][76] If their parents could afford it, boys and some girls at the age of 7 were sent to a private school outside the home called a lūdus, where a teacher (called a litterator or a magister ludi, and often of Greek origin) taught them basic reading, writing, arithmetic, and sometimes Greek, until the age of 11.[79][76][77] Beginning at age 12, students went to secondary schools, where the teacher (now called a grammaticus) taught them about Greek and Roman literature.[76][79] At the age of 16, some students went on to rhetoric school (where the teacher, almost always Greek, was called a rhetor).[76][79] Education at this level prepared students for legal careers, and required that the students memorize the laws of Rome.[76] Pupils went to school every day, except religious festivals and market days. There were also summer holidays. The Roman school is the education system of the Ancient Rome. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... This is a tentative list of topics regarding Roman culture. ... The literature of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire written in the Latin language. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ...


Culture

Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ...

Language

Main article: Latin
The Duenos inscription, a Latin text from circa the 6th century BC, is one of the earliest known examples of Roman writing.
The Duenos inscription, a Latin text from circa the 6th century BC, is one of the earliest known examples of Roman writing.[80]

The native language of the Romans was Latin, an Italic language the grammar of which relies little on word order, conveying meaning through a system of affixes attached to word stems.[81] Its alphabet was based on the Etruscan alphabet, which was in turn based on the Greek alphabet.[82] Although surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin, an artificial and highly stylized and polished literary language from the 1st century BC, the actual spoken language of the Roman Empire was Vulgar Latin, which significantly differed from Classical Latin in grammar and vocabulary, and eventually in pronunciation.[83] Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Duenos inscription, as recorded by Heinrich Dressel. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Latin, like all other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflectional, which allows for very flexible word order. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In-Silico Modeling and Conformational Mobility of String Pointer Reduction System (SPRS) Based on DNA Computers ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Old Italic refers to a number of related historical alphabets used on the Italian peninsula which were used for some non-Indo-European languages (Etruscan and probably North Picene), various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch (Faliscan and members of the Sabellian group, including Oscan, Umbrian, and South... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffiti at Pompeii, was the way that ordinary people of the Roman Empire spoke, which was different from the Classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... For the surname, see Grammer. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ...

Roman Inscription near Baku left by soldiers of Legio XII Fulminata, I century AD.
Roman Inscription near Baku left by soldiers of Legio XII Fulminata, I century AD.

While Latin remained the main written language of the Roman Empire, Greek came to be the language spoken by the well-educated elite, as most of the literature studied by Romans was written in Greek. In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which later became the Byzantine Empire, Latin was never able to replace Greek, and after the death of Justinian Greek became the official language of the Byzantine government.[84] The expansion of the Roman Empire spread Latin throughout Europe, and over time Vulgar Latin evolved and dialectized in different locations, gradually shifting into a number of distinct Romance languages. Image File history File links Gobustan_Rome. ... Image File history File links Gobustan_Rome. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 260 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: AZ10 Area code: +99412 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 40° 23 N Longitude: 49° 52 E Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ... Legio XII Fulminata, also known as Paterna or Antiqua, was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and accompanied him during the Gallic wars until 49 BC. They were stationed in Pharsalus in 48 BC and probably fought in the Battle of Pharsalus. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ...


Although Latin is an extinct language with very few remaining fluent speakers, it remains in use in many ways, such as through Ecclesiastical Latin, the traditional language of the Roman Catholic Church and the official language of the Vatican City. Additionally, even after fading from common usage Latin maintained a role as western Europe's lingua franca, an international language of academia and diplomacy. Although eventually supplanted in this respect by French in the 19th century and English in the 20th, Latin continues to see heavy use in religious, legal, and scientific terminology—it has been estimated that 80% of all scholarly English words derive directly or indirectly from Latin. An extinct language (also called a dead language) is a language which no longer has any native speakers. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Diplomat redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Religion

Archaic Roman religion, at least concerning the gods, was made up not of written narratives, but rather of complex interrelations between gods and humans.[85] Unlike in Greek mythology, the gods were not personified, but were vaguely-defined sacred spirits called numina. Romans also believed that every person, place or thing had its own genius, or divine soul. During the Roman Republic, Roman religion was organized under a strict system of priestly offices, which were held by men of senatorial rank. The College of Pontifices was uppermost body in this hierarchy, and its chief priest, the Pontifex Maximus, was the head of the state religion. Flamens took care of the cults of various gods, while augurs were trusted with taking the auspices. The sacred king took on the religious responsibilities of the deposed kings. In the Roman empire, emperors were held to be gods, and the formalized imperial cult became increasingly prominent. Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The term Roman religion may refer to: Ancient Roman religion Imperial cult (Ancient Rome), Sol Invictus Mithraism Roman Christianity Category: ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Numina (presence, singular numen) is a Latin term for deity and conveys the sense of immanence, of the sacred spirit that informs places and objects in Roman religion. ... In Roman mythology, every man had a genius and every woman a juno (Juno was also the name for the queen of the gods). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Bust of a flamen, 3rd century, Louvre A flamen was a name given to a priest assigned to a state supported god or goddess in Roman religion. ... The Augur was a priest or official in ancient Rome. ... An auspice (Latin: auspicium[1]) is a type of omen. ... A sacred king, according to the systematic interpretation of mythology developed by Sir James George Frazer in his influential book The Golden Bough, was a king who represented a solar deity in a periodically re-enacted fertility rite. ... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ...


As contact with the Greeks increased, the old Roman gods became increasingly associated with Greek gods.[86] Thus, Jupiter was perceived to be the same deity as Zeus, Mars became associated with Ares, and Neptune with Poseidon. The Roman gods also assumed the attributes and mythologies of these Greek gods. The transferral of anthropomorphic qualities to Roman Gods, and the prevalence of Greek philosophy among well-educated Romans, brought about an increasing neglect of the old rites, and in the 1st century BC, the religious importance of the old priestly offices declined rapidly, though their civic importance and political influence remained. Roman religion in the empire tended more and more to center on the imperial house, and several emperors were deified after their deaths. Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and either Jupiter or a magical flower. ... In Greek mythology, Ares (Greek: ) is the son of Zeus (ruler of the gods) and Hera. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... An anthropomorphic character; a cat ascribed human characteristics. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis (Greek: , meaning divinization (or deification, or to make divine) is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ...


Under the empire, the Romans absorbed the mythologies of their conquered subjects, often leading to situations in which the temples and priests of traditional Italian dieties existed side by side with those of foreign gods.[87] Numerous foreign cults grew popular, such as the worship of the Egyptian Isis and the Persian Mithras. Beginning in the 2nd century, Christianity began to spread in the Empire, despite initial persecution. Beginning with Emperor Nero, Roman official policy towards Christianity was negative, and at some points, simply being a Christian could be punishable by death. Under Emperor Diocletian, the persecution of Christians reached its peak. However, it became an officially supported religion in the Roman state under Constantine I and became exponentially popular. After a brief and unsuccessful pagan revival by the emperor Julian the Apostate[88] Christianity became the permanent religion of the empire. All religions except Christianity were prohibited in 391 by an edict of Emperor Theodosius I.[89] This article does not discuss cult in its original sense of religious practice; for that usage see Cult (religious practice). ... Isis is a goddess in Egyptian mythology. ... Motto (official) Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (ancient) Kerdār-e nÄ«k, pendār-e nÄ«k, goftār-e nÄ«k (Persian) Noble deeds, noble thoughts, noble words Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital... Mithras and the Bull: fresco from the mithraeum at Marino, Italy, (3rd century AD) Mithras was the central god of Mithraism, a syncretic Hellenistic mystery religion of male initiates that developed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and was practiced in the Roman Empire from... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... First Christians // In the two thousand years of the Christian faith, about 70 million believers have been killed for their faith, of whom 45. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Events All non-Christian temples in the Roman Empire are closed Quintus Aurelius Symmachus is urban prefect in Rome, and petitions Theodosius I to re-open the pagan temples. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ...


Art, music and literature

Roman sculpture was at its most original in the production of strongly characterized portraits such as this bust of Cato the Elder.

Roman painting styles show Greek influences, and surviving examples are primarily frescoes used to adorn the walls and ceilings of country villas, though Roman literature includes mentions of paintings on wood, ivory, and other materials.[90][91] Several examples of Roman painting have been found at Pompeii, and from these art historians divide the history of Roman painting into four periods. The First Style of Roman painting was practiced from the early second century BCE to the early or mid first century BCE. It was mainly composed of imitations of marble and masonry, though sometimes including depictions of mythological characters. The Second Style of Roman painting began during the early first century BCE, and attempted to realistically depict three-dimensional architectural features and landscapes. The Third Style occurred during the reign of Augustus (27 BCE.–14 CE), and rejected the realism of the Second Style in favor of simple ornamentation. A small architectural scene, landscape, or abstract design was placed in the center with a monochrome background. The Fourth Style, which began in the first century CE, depicted scenes from mythology, while retaining architectural details and abstract patterns.[90][91] Download high resolution version (487x679, 46 KB)Picture of statue of Cato. ... Download high resolution version (487x679, 46 KB)Picture of statue of Cato. ... [[Roman sculpture refers to the sculpture of Ancient Rome. ... A portrait is a painting, photograph, or other artistic representation of a person or object. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... [[Roman sculpture refers to the sculpture of Ancient Rome. ... Romans did not give a great place for music, and they did not invent it themselves. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... A XIV Century fresco featuring Saint Sebastian Note: Fresco is the NATO reporting name of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... The literature of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire written in the Latin language. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers... (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Events The Roman Republic... Venus de Milo, front. ... Masonry in action; a Mason at work. ... (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Events The Roman Republic... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Realists render everyday characters, situations, dilemmas, and objects, all in an true-to-life manner. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ...


Portrait sculpture during the period utilized youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. During the Antonine and Severan periods, more ornate hair and bearding became prevalent, created with deeper cutting and drilling. Advancements were also made in relief sculptures, usually depicting Roman victories. The Antonines most often referred to were two successive Roman Emperors who ruled between A.D. 138 and 180: Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, famous for their skilled leadership. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ...


Latin literature was from its very inception influenced heavily by Greek authors. Some of the earliest extant works are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome. As the Republic expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humour with an intent to provoke[[ laughter in general). ... History studies the past in human terms. ... In general usage a tragedy is a play, movie or sometimes a real world event with a sad outcome. ...


Roman music was largely based on Greek music, and played an important part in many aspects of Roman life. [92] In the Roman military, musical instruments such as the tuba (a long trumpet) or the cornu (similar to a French horn) were used to give various commands, while the bucina (possibly a trumpet or horn) and the lituus (probably an elongated J-shaped instrument), were used in ceremonial capacities.[93] Music was used in the amphitheaters between fights and in the odea, and in these settings is known to have featured the cornu and the hydraulis (a type of water organ).[94] The majority of religious rituals featured musical performances, with tibiae (double pipes) at sacrifices, cymbals and tambourines at orgiastic cults, and rattles and hymns across the spectrum.[95] Some music historians believe that music was used at almost all public ceremonies.[92] Music historians are not certain as to whether or not Roman musicians made a significant contribution to the theory or practice of music.[92] Romans did not give a great place for music, and they did not invent it themselves. ... The Music of Ancient Greece is almost completely lost. ... A modern reconstruction of a Roman centurion around 70 A modern reconstruction of a Roman miles, (10-240) The Roman legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army. ... For Trumpet Winsock, see Winsock. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... The horn (popularly known also as the French horn) is a brass instrument decended from the natural horn that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... The Odeon was a building used for musical performance in Athens built in the 5th century BC. Hence, any building in ancient Greece or the ancient Roman Empire was called an odeon. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbalum instrument. ... Kocek with tambourine 19th c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cults is a suburb on the western edge of Aberdeen, Scotland. ... A rattle is a percussion musical instrument. ... See also hymn - a program to decrypt iTunes music files. ... Music Theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ...


The graffiti, brothels, paintings, and sculptures found in Pompeii and Herculaneum suggest that the Romans had a very sex-saturated culture.[96] Others have been unearthed in public baths that could be considered the Roman equivalent of pornography.[citation needed] Graffiti (strictly, as singular, graffito, from the Italian — graffiti being the plural) are images or letters applied without permission to publicly viewable surfaces such as walls or bridges. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... The Mona Lisa is perhaps the best-known artistic painting in the Western world. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Pornographic movies Pornography (Porn) (from Greek πόρνη (porne) prostitute and γραφή (grafe) writing), more informally referred to as porn or porno, is the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ...


Games and activities

The youth of Rome had several forms of play and exercise, such jumping, wrestling, boxing, and racing.[97] In the countryside, pastimes for the wealthy also included fishing and hunting.[98] The Romans also had several forms of ball playing, including one resembling handball.[97] Dice games and board games were extremely popular pastimes.[99] Women did not participate in these activities. For the wealthy, dinner parties presented an opportunity for enterntainment, sometimes featuring music, dancing, and poetry readings.[100] Plebeians sometimes enjoyed such parties through clubs or associations, although recreational dining usually meant patronizing taverns.[100] Children entertained themselves with toys and such games as leapfrog.[98][100] Jumping bottlenose dolphin A person jumping on a trampoline Two participants in a game of leapfrog A handballplayer jumping towards the goal Jumping is an ability that most humans and many animals share to some degree. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two competitors competing for a physical advantage. ... Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left, throwing a left uppercut) versus Rafael Ortiz Boxing, also called prizefighting or pugilism is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with their fists in a series of one to three-minute intervals called... A race is a competition of speed. ... American (or court) handball, usually referred to simply as handball, is an American form of fives played against one or more walls. ... ... A board game is any game played with a premarked surface, with counters or pieces that are moved across the board. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... A poetry reading is a performance of poetry, normally given on a small stage in a café or bookstore, although poetry readings given by notable poets frequently are booked into larger venues (amphitheaters, college auditoriums, etc. ... A tavern is, loosely, a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and, more than likely, also be served food, though not licenced to put up guests. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Children playing leapfrog in a Harlem street, ca. ...


A popular form of entertainment were gladiatorial combats. Gladiators fought either to the death, or to "first blood" with a variety of weapons and in a variety of different scenarios. These fights achieved their height of popularity under the emperor Claudius, who placed the final outcome of the combat firmly in the hands of the emperor with a hand gesture. Contrary to popular representations in film, several experts believe the gesture for death was not "thumbs down". Although no one is certain as to what the gestures were, some experts conclude that the emperor would signify "death" by holding a raised fist to the winning combatant and then extending his thumb upwards, while "mercy" was indicated by a raised fist with no extended thumb.[101] Animal shows were also popular with the Romans, where foreign animals were either displayed for the public or combined with gladiatorial combat. A prisoner or gladiator, armed or unarmed, was thrown into the arena and an animal was released. Gladiators fought in games held only ten days per year, and could earn the ancient Roman equivalent of 500,000 EUR for competing in a single fight to the death.[citation needed] Pollice Verso (With a Turned Thumb), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painters researched conception of a gladiatorial combat. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ...


The Circus Maximus, another popular site in Rome, was primarily used for horse and chariot racing, although it was also used in many other events.[102] It could hold up to 385,000 people;[103] people all over Rome would visit it. Two temples, one with seven large eggs and one with seven dolphins, laid in the middle of the track of Circus Maximus, and whenever the racers made a lap, one of each would be removed. This was done to keep the spectators and the racers informed on the race statistics. Other than sports, the Circus Maximus was also an area of marketing and gambling. Higher authorities, like the emperor, also attended games in the Circus Maximus, as it was rude not to. They, knights, and many other people who were involved with the race sat in reserved seats located above everyone else. It was also found rude for emperors to root for a team. The Circus Maximus was created in 600 BC and hosted the last horse racing game in 549, lasting for over a millennium. For other uses, see Circus Maximus (disambiguation). ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up marketing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term gambling has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ...


Technology

The Roman abacus, the first portable calculating device, helped speed up the use of Roman arithmetic.
The Roman abacus, the first portable calculating device, helped speed up the use of Roman arithmetic.

Ancient Rome boasted the most impressive technological feats of its day, utilizing many advancements that would be lost in the Middle Ages and not be rivaled again until the 19th and 20th centuries. However, though adept at adopting and synthesizing other cultures' technologies, the Roman civilization was not especially innovative or progressive. Many practical Roman innovations were adopted from earlier Greek designs. The development of new ideas was rarely encouraged; Roman society considered the articulate soldier who could wisely govern a large household the ideal, and Roman law made no provisions for intellectual property or the promotion of invention. The concept of "scientists" and "engineers" did not yet exist, and advancements were often divided based on craft, with groups of artisans jealously guarding new technologies as trade secrets. Nevertheless, a number of vital technological breakthroughs were spread and thoroughly utilized by Rome, contributing to an enormous degree to Rome's dominance and lasting influence in Europe. The Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. ... Reconstruction of a Roman Abacus, made by the RGZ Museum in Mainz, 1977. ... The Romans developed the so-called fucken Roman abacus, or rather a portable counting board, based on previous Greek counting boards. ... In Rome, merchants used Roman numerals to perform basic arithmetic operations. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... It has been suggested that Artisan#Artisan guilds be merged into this article or section. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information used by a business to obtain an advantage over competitors within the same industry or profession. ...


Engineering and architecture

Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. 19 BC. It is one of France's top tourist attractions and a World Heritage Site.
Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. 19 BC. It is one of France's top tourist attractions and a World Heritage Site.

Roman engineering constituted a large portion of Rome's technological superiority and legacy, and contributed to the construction of hundreds of roads, bridges, aqueducts, baths, theaters and arenas. Many monuments, such as the Colosseum, Pont du Gard, and Pantheon, still remain as testaments to Roman engineering and culture. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Roman military engineering is that Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... Pont du Gard, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pont du Gard, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the south of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located near Remoulins, in the Gard département. ... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions at over 1. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the south of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located near Remoulins, in the Gard département. ... Facade of the Pantheon The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning Temple of all the Gods) is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. ...


The Romans were particularly renowned for their architecture, which is grouped with Greek traditions into "Classical architecture". However, for the course of the Roman Republic, Roman architecture remained stylistically almost identical to Greek architecture. Although there were many differences between Roman and Greek building types, Rome borrowed heavily from Greece in adhering to strict, formulaic building designs and proportions. Aside from two new orders of columns, composite and Tuscan, and from the dome, which was derived from the Etruscan arch, Rome had relatively few architectural innovations until the end of the Roman Republic. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, defined as building executed to an aesthetically considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A capital of the Composite order The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian order. ... The Tuscan order in Andrea Palladio, Quattro Libri di Architettura, 1570 Among the classical orders of architecture, the Tuscan order is the newcomer, a stocky simplified variant of the Doric order that was introduced into the canon of classical architecture by Italian architectural theorists of the 16th century. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Map showing the extent of the Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... It has been suggested that Voussoir, Keystone (architecture) be merged into this article or section. ...


It was at this time, in the 1st century BC, that Romans started to widely use concrete (which was invented in the late 3rd century BC), a powerful cement derived from pozzolana which soon supplanted marble as the chief Roman building material and allowed for numerous daring architectural schemata. Also in the 1st century BC, Vitruvius wrote De architectura, possibly the first complete treatise on architecture in history. In the late 1st century BC, Rome also began to make use of glassblowing soon after its invention in Syria, which occurred about 50 BC, and mosaics took the Empire by storm after samples were retrieved during Sulla's campaigns in Greece. Article on history of Roman concrete (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Concrete being poured, raked and vibrated into place in residential construction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... Pozzolana is a fine sandy volcanic ash, originally discovered and dug at Pozzuoli in the region around Vesuvius, but later at a number of other sites. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... De architectūra (Latin: On architecture) was a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Sculpting hot blown glass. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC), usually known simply as Sulla,[2] was a Roman general and dictator. ...

The Appian Way (Via Appia), a road connecting the city of Rome to the southern parts of Italy, remains usable even today.
The Appian Way (Via Appia), a road connecting the city of Rome to the southern parts of Italy, remains usable even today.

Concrete made possible the paved, durable Roman roads, many of which were still in use a thousand years after the fall of Rome. The construction of a vast and efficient travel network throughout the Roman Empire dramatically increased Rome's power and influence. Originally constructed for military purposes, to allow Roman legions to be rapidly deployed, these highways had enormous economic significance, solidifying Rome's role as a trading crossroads—the origin of the phrase "all roads lead to Rome". The Roman government maintained way stations which provided refreshments to travelers at regular intervals along the roads, constructed bridges where necessary, and established a system of horse relays for couriers that allowed a dispatch to travel up to 800 km (500 miles) in 24 hours. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 436 KB) Description: Via Appia Antica in Rome Author: MM, Foto taken himself Source:Italian wikipedia, 02. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 436 KB) Description: Via Appia Antica in Rome Author: MM, Foto taken himself Source:Italian wikipedia, 02. ... The path of the Via Appia and of the Via Appia Traiana. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For the one-off TV Drama, see Roman Road (TV Drama) A Roman road in Pompeii. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... A courier is a person or company employed to deliver messages, packages and mail. ...


The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts to supply water to cities and industrial sites and to assist in their agriculture. The city of Rome itself was supplied by eleven aqueducts with a combined length of 350 km (260 miles).[104] Most aqueducts were constructed below the surface, with only small portions above ground supported by arches. Powered entirely by gravity, the aqueducts transported very large amounts of water with an efficiency that remained unsurpassed for two thousand years. Sometimes, where depressions deeper than 50 metres had to be crossed, inverted siphons were used to force water uphill.[1] Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions at over 1. ... The percentages and figures displayed below represent possible theoretical values. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Inverted siphons are pressurized piplines that force water uphill. ...


The Romans also made major advancements in sanitation. Romans were particularly famous for their public baths, called thermae, which were used for both hygienic and social purposes. Many Roman houses came to have flush toilets and indoor plumbing, and a complex sewer system, the Cloaca Maxima, was used to drain the local marshes and carry waste into the Tiber river. Some historians have speculated that the use of lead pipes in the sewer and plumbing systems led to widespread lead poisoning which contributed to the decline in birth rate and general decay of Roman society leading up to the fall of Rome. However, lead content would have been minimized because the flow of water from aqueducts could not be shut off; it ran continuously through public and private outlets into the drains, and only a small number of taps were in use.[105] E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... Roman public baths in Bath, England. ... Close coupled cistern type flushing toilet. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... The Cloaca Maxima was one of the worlds earliest sewage systems. ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, cat tails, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painters colic, caused by increased blood lead levels. ... Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ...


Military

Roman soldiers on the cast of Trajan's Column in the Victoria and Albert museum, London.
Roman soldiers on the cast of Trajan's Column in the Victoria and Albert museum, London.

The early Roman army (circa 500 BCE) was, like those of other contemporary city-states influenced by Greek civilization, a citizen militia which practiced hoplite tactics. It was small (the population of free males of military age was then about 9,000) and organized in five classes (in parallel to the comitia centuriata, the body of citizens organized politically), with three providing hoplites and two providing light infantry. The early Roman army was tactically limited and its stance during this period was essentially defensive. [106] By the third century BCE, the Romans abandoned the hoplite formation in favor of a more flexible system in which smaller groups of 120 to 160 men soldiers, called "maniples," could maneuver more independently on the battlefield. A group of 30 maniples fighting in three mutually supporting lines of ten maniples each, with supporting troops, constituted a legion. An early Republican legion consisted of five sections, each of which was equipped differently and had different places in formation -- the three lines of manipular heavy infantry (hastati, principes and triarii), a force of light infantry (velites) and the cavalry (equites). With the new organization came a new orientation toward the offensive and a much more aggressive posture toward a joining city-states.[107] See: Structural history of the Roman military The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... A modern reconstruction of a Roman centurion around 70 A modern reconstruction of a Roman miles, (10-240) The Roman legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The Roman army is the set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... Image File history File links Cornicen_on_Trajans_column. ... Image File history File links Cornicen_on_Trajans_column. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker. ... Hoplites depicted on an Attic vase dated to 510-500 BC The Hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Maniple (Latin: manipulus) was a tactical unit of the Roman Legion, consisting of two centuriae within a single cohort. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The plural of the Latin word princeps. ... The Triarii (Latin singular triarius) was the third standard line of infantry of the Roman Republics army. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ...


At nominal full strength, an early Republican legion would have included 3,600 to 4,800 heavy infantry, several hundred light infantry and several hundred cavalrymen, for a total of 4,000 to 5,000 men.[108] Legions were often significantly understrength from recruitment failures or following periods of active service due to accidents, battle casualties, disease and desertion. During the Civil War, Pompey's legions in the east were at full strength because recently recruited, while Caesar's legions were in many cases well below nominal strength after long active service in Gaul. This pattern also held true for auxiliary forces.[109]


As described by Goldsworthy, both the Greek and Roman phalanx and the early Republican legions were intended to fight large scale battles involving a single quick, decisive clash with the enemy. At this they were generally very successful.[110] At the time of the Marian reforms in the late Republic (circa 100 BCE), further organizational change created a more flexible, resilient and versatile force. The legion was now divided into ten cohorts of 480 men each, comprised of three of the old maniples (now called centuriae or "centuries" commanded by a centurion).[111] Moreover, the velites (light infantry) and (probably) the equites were eliminated and replaced by auxilia (auxiliary units of cavalry, archers and slingers, and light infantry, usually recruited from non-citizens). There were no other subdivisions within a legion, but many men with specialized skills -- medics, engineers, technicians, artillerymen -- were included among the legionaries.[112] The centuries in a cohort had a unified command structure and were experienced at working with the other centuries in the cohort as a unit. A legion organized in cohorts was easier to control, and cohorts could easily be detached and act independently where that was useful on the battlefield or a separate smaller force was needed. Accordingly, legions organized in cohorts could conduct operations of almost any scale.[113] The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman republic. ... Centuria (Latin plural Centuriae) is a Latin substantive rooting in centum a hundred, denoting units consisting of (originally, approximatively) a 100 men. ... Centurion can mean: In the military: Centurion (Roman army), a professional officer of the Roman army who commanded a large amount of men. ... Auxiliaries (Latin: auxilia, help) were troops in the Roman army of the late Republican and Imperial periods who provided specialist support to the legions. ...


Three long-term trends characterized the development of the Roman army over its history: increasing professionalization, a widening of the base for recruitment, and an increase in the variety and flexibility of military units. Until the late Republican period, the typical legionary was a property-owning citizen farmer from a rural areas (an adsiduus) who served for particular (often annual) campaigns,[114] and who supplied his own equipment and, in the case of equites, his own mount. Harris suggests that down to 200 BCE, the average rural farmer (who survived) might participate in six or seven campaigns. Freedmen and slaves (wherever resident) and urban citizens did not serve except in rare emergencies.[115] After 200 BCE, economic conditions in rural areas deteriorated as manpower needs increased, so that the property qualifications for service were gradually reduced. Beginning with Gaius Marius in 107 BCE, citizens without property and some urban-dwelling citizens (proletarii) were enlisted and provided with equipment, although most legionaries continued to come from rural areas. Terms of service became continuous and long -- up to twenty years if emergencies required it although Brunt argues that six or seven years was more typical.[116] Beginning in the third century BCE, legionaries were paid stipendium (amounts are disputed but Caesar famously "doubled" payments to his troops to 225 denarii a year), could anticipate booty and donatives (distributions of plunder by commanders) from successful campaigns and, beginning at the time of Marius, often were granted allotments of land upon retirement.[117] Cavalry and light infantry attached to a legion (the auxilia) were often recruited in the areas where the legion served. These troops were familiar with local conditions and fought in a style adapted to the local terrain.[118] Caesar formed a legion, the Fifth Alaudae, from non-citizens in Transalpine Gaul to serve in his campaigns in Gaul.[119] During the Civil War when large armies were required, both sides raised legions from non-citizens, as Goldsworthy notes, "without bothering with the formality of granting citizenship to the men on enlistment."[120] By the time of Caesar Augustus, the ideal of the citizen-soldier had been abandoned and the legions had become fully professional. Legionaries were paid 900 sesterces a year and could expect a payment of 12,000 sesterces on retirement.[121] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... First row : c. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ...


At the end of the Civil War, Augustus reorganized Roman military forces, discharging soldiers and disbanding legions. He retained 28 legions, which were now based in permanent camps on the frontier along the Rhine and Danube Rivers and in Syria. Comprised of about 150,000 citizen legionaries, an approximately equal number of auxilia and a navy of unknown size, this establishment remained the standard until late in the history of the Empire.[122] During the Principate, with a few exceptions,[123] warfare was conducted on a smaller scale. The auxilia were not organized into larger units but remained independent cohorts, and legionary troops themselves often operated as groups of cohorts rather than as full legions. A new versatile type of unit, the cohortes equitatae, combining cavalry and legionaries in a single formation could be stationed at garrisons or outposts, could fight on their own as balanced small forces or could combine with other similar units as a larger legion-sized force. This increase in organizational flexibility over time helped ensure the long-term success of Roman military forces.[124] Combatants Octavian Mark Antony and Cleopatra Commanders Octavian, Marcus Agrippa Mark Antony†, Cleopatra VII of Egypt† Strength 198,000 Roman legionaries [1] 260 Roman warships 193,000 mixed Roman and Egyptian soldiers [2] 300 Roman and Egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Unknown All of Antony’s Roman troops either changed loyalty... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ...


The Emperor Gallienus (253-268 CE) began yet another reorganization that created the final military structure of the late Empire. Withdrawing some legionaries from the fixed bases on the border, Gallienus created mobile forces (the Comitatenses or field armies) and stationed them behind and at some distance from the borders as a strategic reserve. This reduced the need to move troops from one province to another to reinforce the border in case of attacks. The border troops (limitanei) stationed at fixed bases continued to be the first line of defense. The Emperor Diocletian (284-305 CE) reversed this reorganization but it became the norm by the middle of the fourth century CE. Diocletian also introduced the so-called Tetrarchy under which the Eastern and Western halves of the Empire were each governed by an "Augustus" (Emperor) and a "Caesar" (junior Emperor), who resided at different locations near the borders and commanded troops within their respective regions.[125] The basic unit of the field army was the "regiment," legiones or auxilia for infantry and vexellationes for cavalry. Evidence suggests that nominal strengths may have been 1,200 men for infantry regiments and 600 for cavalry, although many records show lower actual troop levels (800 and 400). Many infantry and cavalry regiments operated in pairs under the command of a comes. In addition to Roman troops, the field armies included regiments of "barbarians" recruited from allied tribes and known as foederati. By 400 CE, foederati regiments had become permanently established units of the Roman army, paid and equipped by the Empire, led by a Roman tribune and used just as Roman units were used. In addition to the foederati, the Empire also used groups of barbarians to fight along with the legions as "allies" without integration into the field armies. Under the command of the senior Roman general present, they were led at lower levels by their own officers.[126] Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... Comitatenses is the Latin plural of comitatensis, originally the adjective derived from comitatus (company, party, suite; in this military context it came to the novel meaning of the field army), itself rooting in Comes (companion, but hence specific historical meanings, military and civilian). ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Comes (genitive: comitis) is the Latin word for companion, either individually or as a member of a collective known as comitatus (compare comitatenses), especially the suite of a magnate, in some cases large and/or formal enough to have a specific name, such as a cohors amicorum. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ...


The nature of military leadership evolved greatly over the course of the history of Rome. Under the monarchy, the hoplite armies would have been led by the kings of Rome. During the early and middle Roman Republic, military forces were under the command of one of the two elected consuls for the year. During the later Republic, members of the Roman Senatorial elite, as part of the normal sequence of elected public offices known as the cursus honorum, would have served first as quaestor (often posted as deputies to field commanders), then as praetor (sometimes posted as provincial governors in charge of military forces in the relevant province), then as consul (supreme command of all military forces). Following the end of a term as praetor or consul, a Senator might be appointed by the Senate as a propraetor or proconsul (depending on the highest office previously held) to govern a foreign province. More junior officers (down to but not including the level of centurion) were selected by their commanders from their own clientelae or those recommended by political allies among the Senatorial elite.[127] Under Augustus, whose most important political priority was to place the military under a permanent and unitary command, the Emperor was the legal commander of each legion but exercised that command through a legatus (legate) he appointed from the Senatorial elite. In a province with a single legion, the legate would command the legion (legatus legionis) and also serve as provincial governor, while in a province with more than one legion, each legion would be commanded by a legate and the legates would be commanded by the provincial governor (also a legate but of higher rank).[128] During the later stages of the Imperial period (beginning perhaps with Diocletian), the Augustan model was abandoned. Provincial governors were stripped of military authority, and command of the armies in a group of provinces was given to generals (duces) appointed by the Emperor. These were no longer members of the Roman elite but men who came up through the ranks and had seen much practical soldiering. With increasing frequency, these men attempted (sometimes successfully) to usurp the positions of the Emperors who had appointed them. Decreased resources, increasing political chaos and civil war eventually left the Western Empire vulnerable to attack and takeover by neighboring barbarian peoples.[129] This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honour) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... In Ancient Roman society, a client (Latin, cliens) was a plebeian who was attached to a patron benefactor (patronus, a predecessor to the Italian padrino, godfather). ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ...


Comparatively less is known about the Roman navy than the Roman army. Prior to the middle of the third century BCE, officials known as duumviri navales commanded a fleet of twenty ships used mainly to control piracy. This fleet was given up in 278 CE and replaced by allied forces. The First Punic War required that Rome build large fleets, and it did so largely with the assistance of and financing from allies. This reliance on allies continued to the end of the Roman Republic. The quinquireme was the main warship on both sides of the Punic Wars and remained the mainstay of Roman naval forces until replaced by the time of Caesar Augustus by lighter and more maneuverable vessels. As compared with a trireme, the quinquireme permitted the use of a mix of experienced and inexperienced crewmen (an advantage for a primarily land-based power), and its lesser maneuverability permitted the Romans to adopt and perfect boarding tactics using a troop of approximately 40 marines in lieu of the ram. Ships were commanded by a navarch, a rank equivalent to a centurion, who were usually not citizens. Potter suggests that because the fleet was dominated by non-Romans, the navy was considered non-Roman and allowed to atrophy in times of peace.[130] The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... A quinquireme was a galley, a warship propelled by oars, developed from the earlier trireme. ... A Greek trireme. ... A corvus (meaning raven in Latin) was a Roman military boarding device used in naval warfare during the First Punic War against Carthage. ... An explanation of naval tactics in the age of galleys, from antiquity to the early 17th century when sailing ships replaced oared galleys. ... Navarch is a Greek word meaning leader of the ships, which in some states became the title of an office equivalent to that of a modern admiral. ...


Available information suggests that by the time of the late Empire (350 CE), the Roman navy comprised a number of fleets including both warships and merchant vessels for transportation and supply. Warships were oared sailing galleys with three to five banks of oarsmen. Fleet bases included such ports as Ravenna, Arles, Aquilea, Misenum and the mouth of the Somme River in the West and Alexandria and Rhodes in the East. Flotillas of small river craft (classes) were part of the limitanei (border troops) during this period, based at fortified river harbors along the Rhine and the Danube. The fact that prominent generals commanded both armies and fleets suggests that naval forces were treated as auxiliaries to the army and not as an independent service. The details of command structure and fleet strengths during this period are not well known although it is known that fleets were commanded by prefects.[131]


Ancient Rome in popular culture

Spartacus is a 1960 film directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast about the historical life of Spartacus and the Third Servile War. ... Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an influential and acclaimed American film director and producer. ... Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch Demsky December 9, 1916) is an American actor and film producer known for his gravelly voice and his recurring roles as the kinds of characters Douglas himself once described as sons of bitches. He is also father to Hollywood actor and producer Michael Douglas. ... This article is about the film. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Roma Sub Rosa is a series of mystery novels by Steven Saylor set in, and populated by noteworthy denizens of, Ancient Rome. ... Steven Saylor (born March 23, 1956) is an American writer of historical novels. ... I, Claudius is a novel by Robert Graves, (ISBN 067972477X) first published in 1934, dealing sympathetically with the life of the Roman Emperor Claudius and the history of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty and Roman Empire, from Julius Caesars assassination in 44 BC to Caligulas assassination in 41 AD... I, Claudius is a novel by Robert Graves, (ISBN 067972477X) first published in 1934, dealing sympathetically with the life of the Roman Emperor Claudius and the history of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty and Roman Empire, from Julius Caesars assassination in 44 BC to Caligulas assassination in 41 AD... Portrait of Robert Graves (circa 1974) by Rab Shiell Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 5 November 1955) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... I, Claudius, 1976 was a BBC Television adaptation of Robert Gravess I Claudius and Claudius the God. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, England) is an influential Academy Award-nominated English film director and producer. ... Russell Ira Crowe (born April 7, 1964) is an Oscar-winning New Zealand/Australian[1] film actor. ... Rome: Total War is a grand strategy computer game where players fight historical and fictious battles during the era of the Roman Republic, from 270 BCE to 14 CE. The game was developed by Creative Assembly and released on September 22, 2004. ... Namcos Pac-Man was a hit, and became a universal phenomenon. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Jeremy Robinson (born 1974) is the author of two novels, Raising the Past (2006) and The Didymus Contingency (2005). ... Mary Sean Young (born in Louisville, Kentucky on November 20, 1959) is an American actress. ... Rome is a multiple Emmy Award-winning historical drama, produced in Italy for television by the BBC (UK), HBO (USA), and RAI (Italy). ... HBO (Home Box Office) is an American premium cable television network. ... John Milius (born April 11, 1944 in St. ... William J. MacDonald is an American film and television writer and producer. ... Bruno Heller is a British television and film writer. ...

Scholarly studies

The interest in studying ancient Rome arose presumably during the Age of Enlightenment in France. Charles Montesquieu wrote a work Reflections on the Causes of the Grandeur and Declension of the Romans. The first major work was The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, which encompassed the period from the end of 2nd century to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. Like Montesquieu Gibbon paid high tribute to the virtue of Roman citizens. Barthold Georg Niebuhr was a founder of the criticism and wrote The Roman History, carried until the First Punic war. Niebuhr has made an attempt to determine the way the Roman tradition appeared. According to him, Romans, like other people, had a historical ethos which was preserved mainly in the noble families. During the Napoleonic period the work titled The History of Romans by Victor Duruy appeared. It highlighted the Caesarean period popular at the time. History of Rome, Roman constitutional law and Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, all by Theodor Mommsen, became very important milestones. Later the work Greatness and Decline of Rome by Guglielmo Ferrero was published. The Russian work Очерки по истории римского землевладения, преимущественно в эпоху Империи (The Outlines on Roman Landownership History, Mainly During the Empire) by Ivan Grevs contained information on the economy of Pomponius Atticus, one of the greatest landowners during the end of the Republic. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (January 18, 1689 - February 10, French political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment and is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many... // The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of the 18th century published in six volumes, was written by the celebrated English historian Edward Gibbon. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Barthold Georg Niebuhr. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Marcus Atilius Regulus Gaius Lutatius Catulus Gaius Duilius Hamilcar Barca Hanno the Great Hasdrubal Xanthippus The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. ... Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... ... Victor Duruy Jean Victor Duruy (September 11, 1811 - November 25, 1894) was a French historian and statesman. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... History of Rome (Ger. ... The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. ... Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (November 30, 1817–November 1, 1903) was a German classical scholar, jurist and historian, generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... Guglielmo Ferrero (IPA guˈʎʎelmo feˈrrero, July 21, 1871, Portica, Piedmont—August 3, 1942, Mont-Pelerin-sur-Vevey, France) was an Italian historian, journalist and novelist, author of the Greatness and Decline of Rome (6 vols. ... Titus Pomponius Atticus (110 BC/109 BC – 32 BC). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... The percentages and figures displayed below represent possible theoretical values. ... This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Roman Empire of the East to conquer Rome. ... Sino-Roman relations started first on an indirect basis during the 2nd century BCE. China and Rome progressively inched closer with the embassies of Zhang Qian in 130 BCE and the military expeditions of China to Central Asia, until general Ban Chao attempted to send an envoy to Rome around...

Notes

  1. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 3.
  2. ^ The Founding of Rome. Accessed 2007-3-8.
  3. ^ a b Livy, 1998. page 8.
  4. ^ a b Durant, 1944. Pages 12-14.
  5. ^ Livy, 1998. pages 9-10.
  6. ^ Livy, 1998. pages 10-11.
  7. ^ Myths and Legends- Rome, the Wolf, and Mars. Accessed 2007-3-8.
  8. ^ [Matyszak, 2003. page 19.
  9. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 129.
  10. ^ Ancient Rome and the Roman Empire by Michael Kerrigan. Dorling Kindersley, London: 2001. ISBN 0-7894-8153-7. page 12.
  11. ^ Matyszak, 2003. pages 43-44.
  12. ^ Adkins, 1998. pages 41-42.
  13. ^ Rome: The Roman Republic by Richard Hooker. Washington State University. Written 1999-6-6. Accessed 2007-3-24.
  14. ^ a b Magistratus by George Long, M.A. Appearing on pages 723-724 of A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities by William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D. Published by John Murray, London, 1875. Website written 2006-12-8. Accessed 2007-3-24.
  15. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 39.
  16. ^ Haywood, 1971. pages 350-358.
  17. ^ Pyrrhus of Epirus (2) and Pyrrhus of Epirus (3) by Jona Lendering. Livius.org. Accessed 2007-3-21.
  18. ^ Haywood, 1971. pages 357-358.
  19. ^ Haywood, 1971. page 351.
  20. ^ Haywood, 1971. pages 376-393.
  21. ^ Rome: The Punic Wars by Richard Hooker. Washington State University. Written 1999-6-6. Accessed 2007-3-22.
  22. ^ Bagnall 1990
  23. ^ Rome: The Conquest of the Hellenistic Empires by Richard Hooker. Washington State University. Written 1999-6-6. Accessed 2007-3-22.
  24. ^ Duiker, 2001. pages 136-137.
  25. ^ Fall of the Roman Republic, 133-27 BC. Purdue University. Accessed 2007-3-24.
  26. ^ a b Eques (Knight) by Jona Lendering. Livius.org. Accessed 2007-3-24.
  27. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 38.
  28. ^ Durant, 1944. pages 120-122.
  29. ^ Long-lasting Effects of Removal of Land Requirement. Accessed 2007-3-23.
  30. ^ Scullard 1982, chapters I-IV
  31. ^ Scullard 1982, chapters VI-VII
  32. ^ Julius Caesar (100BC - 44BC). bbc.co.uk. Accessed 2007-3-21.
  33. ^ Augustus (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.) by Garrett G. Fagan. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 2004-7-5. Accessed 2007-3-21.
  34. ^ Scullard 1982, chapter VIII
  35. ^ Augustus (63 BC. - AD 14) from bbc.co.uk. Accessed 2007-3-12
  36. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 140.
  37. ^ The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 B.C.-68 A.D.). by the Department of Greek and Roman Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Written October, 2000. Accessed 2007-3-18.
  38. ^ Nero (54-68 A.D.) by Herbert W. Benario. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 2006-11-10. Accessed 2007-3-18
  39. ^ Suetonius
  40. ^ Five Good Emperors from UNRV History. Accessed 2007-3-12.
  41. ^ O'Connell, 1989. page 81.
  42. ^ Lecture 12: Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana by Steven Kreis. The History Guide. Written 2006-2-28. Accessed 2007-3-21.
  43. ^ a b c Scarre 1995
  44. ^ Haywood, 1971. pages 589-592.
  45. ^ Crisis of the Third Century (235-285) History of Western Civilization, by E.L. Skip Knox, Boise State University. Accessed 2007-3-20.
  46. ^ Haywood, 1971. pages 592-596.
  47. ^ Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.) by Ralph W. Mathisen. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 1997-3-17. Accessed 2007-3-20.
  48. ^ Constantine I (306 - 337 A.D.) by Hans A. Pohlsander. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 2004-1-8. Accessed 2007-3-20.
  49. ^ Honorius (395-423 A.D.) by Ralph W. Mathisen. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 1999-6-2. Accessed 2007-3-21.
  50. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 155.
  51. ^ The Germanic Invasions of Western Europe The University of Calgary. Written August 1996. Accessed 2007-3-22.
  52. ^ Lapham, Lewis (1997). The End of the World. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 0-312-25264-1. pages 47-50.
  53. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 157.
  54. ^ Romulus Augustulus (475-476 A.D.)--Two Views by Ralph W. Mathisen and Geoffrey S. Nathan. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 1997-8-26. Accessed 2007-3-22.
  55. ^ Durant, 1944. page 670.
  56. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 347.
  57. ^ a b c The Byzantine Empire by Richard Hooker. Washington State University. Written 1999-6-6. Accessed 2007-4-8.
  58. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 349.
  59. ^ Basil II (A.D. 976-1025) by Catherine Holmes. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 2003-4-1. Accessed 2007-3-22.
  60. ^ Gibbon, Edward. History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Chapter 61. Accessed 2007-4-11.
  61. ^ Mehmet II by Korkut Ozgen. Theottomans.org. Accessed 2007-4-3.
  62. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 149.
  63. ^ Abstrat of The population of ancient Rome. by Glenn R. Storey. HighBeam Research. Written 1997-12-1. Accessed 2007-4-22.
  64. ^ The Population of Rome by Whitney J. Oates. Originally published in Classical Philology. Vol. 29, No. 2 (Apr. 1934), pp101‑116. Accessed 2007-4-22.
  65. ^ N.Morley, Metropolis and Hinterland (Cambridge, 1996) 174-83
  66. ^ Matyszak, 2003. pages 16-42.
  67. ^
  68. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 46.
  69. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 146.
  70. ^ a b Duiker, 2001. page 146.
  71. ^ a b Casson, 1998. pages 10-11.
  72. ^ Family Values in Ancient Rome by Richard Saller. The University of Chicago Library Digital Collections: Fathom Archive. Written 2001. Visited 2007-4-14.
  73. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 339.
  74. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 340.
  75. ^ a b Lecture 13: A Brief Social History of the Roman Empire by Steven Kreis. Written 2006-10-11. Accessed 2007-4-2.
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h Adkins, 1998. page 211.
  77. ^ a b Werner, 1978. page 31.
  78. ^ Duiker, 2001. page 143.
  79. ^ a b c Roman Education. Latin ExCET Preparation. Texas Classical Association. Written by Ginny Lindzey, September 1998. Accessed 2007-3-27.
  80. ^ "Latin alphabet." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Accessed 2007-4-19.
  81. ^ Latin Online: Series Introduction by Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum. Linguistics Research Center. The University of Texas at Austin. Written 2007-2-15. Accessed 2007-4-1.
  82. ^ The Latin Alphabet by J. B. Calvert. University of Denver. Written 1999-8-8. Accessed 2007-4-1.
  83. ^ Classical Latin Supplement. page 2. Accessed 2007-4-2.
  84. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 203.
  85. ^ Matyszak, 2003. page 24.
  86. ^ Willis, 2000. page 168.
  87. ^ Willis, 2000. page 166.
  88. ^ Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.) by Walter Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 2002-2-19. Accessed 2007-4-4.
  89. ^ Theodosius I (379-395 A.D.) by David Woods. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Written 1999-2-2. Accessed 2007-4-4.
  90. ^ a b Adkins, 1998. pages 350-352.
  91. ^ a b Roman Painting from Timeline of Art History. Department of Greek and Roman Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Written 2004-10. Accessed 2007-4-22.
  92. ^ a b c Chronology: Ancient and Medieval: Ancient Rome. iClassics. Excerpt from A History of Western Music, Fifth Edition by Donald Jay Grout and Claude V. Palisca. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.: 1960. Accessed 2007-4-22.
  93. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 89.
  94. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 349-350.
  95. ^ Adkins, 1998. page 300.
  96. ^ Grant, 2005. pages 130-134.
  97. ^ a b Casson, 1998. pages 98-108.
  98. ^ a b Daily Life: Entertainment. SPQR Online. Written 1998. Accessed 2007-4-22.
  99. ^
  100. ^ a b c Adkins, 1998. page 350.
  101. ^ The Gladiator and the Thumb. Encyclopedia Romana. University of Chicago. Accessed 2007-4-24.
  102. ^ Circus Maximus. Encyclopedia Romana. University of Chicago. Accessed 2007-4-19.
  103. ^ Athena Review I,4: Romans on the Rhône: Arles
  104. ^ Frontinus
  105. ^ Roman Aqueducts and Water Supply by A.T. Hodge (1992)
  106. ^ John Keegan, A History of Warfare, Alfred A. Knopf (New York 1993) [ISBN 0-394-58801-0], p.263; David Potter, "The Roman Army and Navy," in Harriet I. Flower, editor, The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge U.K. 2004) [ISBN 0-521-00390-3], pp. 67-69. For a discussion of hoplite tactics and their sociocultural setting, see Victor Davis Hanson, The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in Classical Greece, Alfred A. Knopf (New York 1989) [ISBN 0-394-57188-6].
  107. ^ Keegan, p. 264; Potter, pp. 69-70.
  108. ^ Keegan, p.264; Adrian Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War 100 BC - AD 200, Oxford University Press (Oxford 1996) [ISBN 0-19-815057-1], p. 33; Jo-Ann Shelton, ed., As the Romans Did: A Sourcebook in Roman Social History, Oxford University Press (New York 1998)[ISBN 0-19-508974-X], pp. 245-249.
  109. ^ Goldsworthy, The Roman Army, pp. 22-24, 37-38; Adrian Goldsworthy, Caesar: Life of a Colossus, Yale University Press (New Haven 2006) [ISBN-10: 0300120486, ISBN-13: 978-0-300-12048-6], pp. 384, 410-411, 425-427. Another important factor discussed by Goldsworthy was absence of legionaries on detached duty.
  110. ^ Goldsworthy, The Roman Army, pp. 33, 37.
  111. ^ Later in the Imperial period, the first cohort grew to a nominal strength of 800 men organized in five centuriae commanded by the primi ordines, the senior centurions of the legion. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army, p.14.
  112. ^ Goldsworthy, The Roman Army, pp. 16-17.
  113. ^ Goldsworthy, The Roman Army, pp.33-35.
  114. ^ Between 343 BCE and 241 BCE, the Roman army fought every year except for five. Stephen P. Oakley, "The Early Republic," in Harriet I. Flower, editor, The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge U.K. 2004) [ISBN 0-521-00390-3], p. 27.
  115. ^ P. A. Brunt, "Army and Land in the Roman Republic," in The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays, Oxford University Press (Oxford 1988) [ISBN 0-19-814849-6], p.253; William V. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome 327-70 B.C., Oxford University Press (Oxford 1979) [ISBN 0-19-814866-6], p. 44.
  116. ^ Keegan, pp. 273-274; Brunt, pp. 253-259; Harris, pp. 44-50.
  117. ^ Keegan, p. 264; Brunt, pp. 259-265; Potter, pp. 80-83.
  118. ^ Goldsworthy, The Roman Army, pp. 35-36.
  119. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, pp. 391.
  120. ^ Goldsworthy, The Roman Army, pp. 35-36.
  121. ^ Karl Christ, The Romans, University of California Press (Berkeley, 1984)[ISBN 0-520-04566-1], pp. 74-76 .
  122. ^ Christopher S. Mackay, Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History, Cambridge University Press, (Cambridge, U.K. 2004), pp. 249-250. Mackay points out that the number of legions (not necessarily the number of legionaries) grew to 30 by 125 CE and 33 during the Severan period (200-235 CE).
  123. ^ For example, the Pannonian Revolt (CE 6-9), periodic wars against the Parthians, and campaigns by Domitian and Trajan against the Dacians.
  124. ^ Goldsworthy, ‘’The Roman Army’’, p.36-37.
  125. ^ Mackay, pp. 275, 279-281.
  126. ^ Hugh Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe AD 350-425, Oxford University Press (Oxford 1996)[ISBN 0-19-815241-8] pp. 89-96.
  127. ^ T. Correy Brennan, "Power and Process Under the Republican 'Constitution'," in Harriet I. Flower, editor, The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge U.K. 2004) [ISBN 0-521-00390-3], Chapter 2; Potter, pp. 66-88; Goldsworthy, The Roman Army, pp. 121-125. Julius Caesar's most talented, effective and reliable subordinate in Gaul, Titus Labienus, was recommended to him by Pompey. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army, p. 124.
  128. ^ Mackay, pp. 245-252.
  129. ^ MacKay, pp. 295-296 and Chapters 23-24.
  130. ^ This paragraph is based upon Potter, pp. 76-78.
  131. ^ This discussion is based upon Elton, pp. 97-99 and 100-101.

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The URL bbc. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... The URL bbc. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Look up September in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Titus Labienus (ca. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ...

References

  • Adkins, Lesley; Roy Adkins (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512332-8. 
  • Casson, Lionel (1998). Everyday Life in Ancient Rome. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5992-1. 
  • Duiker, William; Jackson Spielvogel (2001). World History, Third edition, Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-57168-9. 
  • Durant, Will (1944). The Story of Civilization, Volume III: Caesar and Christ. Simon and Schuster, Inc.. 
  • Elton, Hugh (1996). Warfare in Roman Europe AD350-425. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 0-19-815241-8. 
  • Flower (editor), Harriet I. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 0-521-00390-3. 
  • Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (2003). The Complete Roman Army. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd.. 0-500-05124-0. 
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (1996). The Roman Army at War 100BC-AD200. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 0-19-815057-1. 
  • Grant, Michael (2005). Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. London: Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-89880-045-6. 
  • Haywood, Richard (1971). The Ancient World. David McKay Company, Inc.. 
  • Keegan, John (1993). A History of Warfare. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 0-394-58801-0. 
  • Livy. The Rise of Rome, Books 1-5, translated from Latin by T.J. Luce, 1998. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-282296-9.
  • Mackay, Christopher S. (2004). Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80918-5. 
  • Matyszak, Philip (2003). Chronicle of the Roman Republic. London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd.. ISBN 0-500-05121-6. 
  • O'Connell, Robert (1989). Of Arms and Men: A History of War, Weapons, and Aggression. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505359-1. 
  • Scarre, Chris (September 1995). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051329-9. 
  • Scullard, H. H. (1982). From the Gracchi to Nero, (5th edition), Routledge. ISBN 0-415-02527-3. 
  • Werner, Paul (1978). Life in Rome in Ancient Times, translated by David Macrae, Geneva: Editions Minerva S.A.. 
  • Willis, Roy (2000). World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide. Collingwood, Victoria: Ken Fin Books. ISBN 1-86458-089-5. 
  • Cassius Dio. Dio's Rome, Volume V., Books 61-76 (A.D. 54-211). Retrieved on 2006-12-17.

Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... // The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of the 18th century published in six volumes, was written by the celebrated English historian Edward Gibbon. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Howard Hayes Scullard (1903-1983) was a British historian specializing in ancient history, notable for editing the Oxford Classical Dictionary and for his many books. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Cowell, Frank Richard. Life in Ancient Rome. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1961 (paperback, ISBN 0-399-50328-5).
  • Gabucci, Ada. Rome (Dictionaries of Civilizations; 2). Berkekely: University of California Press, 2007 (paperback, ISBN 0520252659).
  • Wyke, Maria. Projecting the Past: Ancient Rome, Cinema, and History. New York; London: Routledge, 1997 (hardcover, ISBN 0-415-90613-X, paperback, ISBN 0-415-91614-8).

External links

Harold Whetstone Johnston (1859-1912) was a classical historian and Professor of Latin at Indiana University who is most famous for writing The Private Life of the Romans Work 1897 A collection of examples illustrating the metrical licenses of vergil ASIN B0008AO3VE 1903 The Private Life of the Romans, Publisher...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ancient Rome (2664 words)
Ancient Rome succumbed to cardiac arrest in the year 473AD under the weight of repeated barbarian invasions and a flagging economy.
Ancient Rome had become its own worst enemy and the invading barbarians minted coinage with the words "Invicta Roma" -Rome unconquered- as if they were there to save it from itself and bring back its ancient valour.
The Piramid in Rome is obviously an Egyptian memento as are the large number of obelisks (some dating several thousand years before the Roman Empire) which were often used to add magnificence to the circuses (stadiums for chariot races such as the Circus Maximus).
Ancient Rome - MSN Encarta (1709 words)
Ancient Rome, the period between the 8th and 1st centuries bc in which Rome grew from a tiny settlement to an emerging empire while developing from monarchy to a republican form of government.
Rome was part of a region near the Tiber River in central Italy that was called Latium (now part of Lazio).
Many of Rome’s religious traditions were later attributed to Numa, including the selection of virgins to be priestesses of the goddess Vesta.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m