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Encyclopedia > Ancient Olympic Games
Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia

The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. They began in 776 BC in Olympia, Greece, and celebrated until 393 AD.[1] The prizes were olive wreaths, palm branches and woollen ribbons. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (901x603, 166 KB)Large version, by mdoege@compuserve. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (901x603, 166 KB)Large version, by mdoege@compuserve. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving dominance. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC Events and trends 778 BC - Agamestor, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 17 years and... BCE redirects here. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... Events Gao Zu succeeds Tai Zu as Emperor of the Later Qin Empire in China. ... BCE redirects here. ...

Contents

Legendary origin

The origins of the Ancient Olympic Games are unknown, but several legends and myths have survived. One of these involved Pelops, king of Olympia and eponymous hero of the Peloponnesus, to whom offerings were made during the games. The Christian Clement of Alexandria asserted, "[The] Olympian games are nothing else than the funeral sacrifices of Pelops."[2] That myth tells of how Pelops' overcame the King and won the hand of his daughter Hippodamia with the help of Poseidon, his old lover, a myth linked to the later fall of the house of Atreus and the sufferings of Oedipus. In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye) was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, land of Pelops, but for all Hellenes. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Hippodamia, also Hippodamea, was a daughter of King Oenomaus and mother of Thyestes, Atreus, and Pittheus, Alacathous by Pelops. ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... In Greek mythology, King Atreus (Greek: Ατρεύς, Atreús) (fearless) of Mycenae was the son of Pelops and Hippodamia and father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ...


Another myth tells of the hero Herakles, or Heracles, who won a race at Olympia and then decreed that the race should be re-enacted every four years, while another claims that Zeus had instated the festival after his defeat of the Titan Cronus. Yet another tells of King Iphitos of Elis, who consulted the Pythia Oracle at Delphi – to try and save his people from war in the 9th century BC. The prophetess advised him to organize games in honour of the gods. The Spartan adversary of Iphitos then decided to stop fighting during these games, which were called Olympic, after the sanctuary of Olympia where they were held. Had they been named after Mount Olympus, the mountain on which the Greek gods were said to live, they would have been called Olympian games rather than Olympic. The favorite story is that Heracles celebrated cleaning the Augean Stables by building Olympia with help from Athena. Alcides redirects here. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... Not to be confused with Chronos, the personification of time. ... Son of Eurytus and a descendant of Oxylus, Iphitos, asked the Oracle at Delphi what should be done to save Greece from civil war and the diseases that were killing the population. ... Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... This article is about prophetic oracles in various cultures. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... This article is about the Greek mountain. ...


Whatever the origin, the games were held to be one of the two central rituals in Ancient Greece, the other being the Eleusinian Mysteries.[3] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ...


Another possibility for the actual origin of the Games is that they essentially 'evolved' from Funeral Games.


History

The Games first started in Olympia, Greece, a sanctuary site for the Greek gods near the towns of Elis and Pisa (both in Elis on the peninsula of Peloponnesos). The Sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia housed a 12 meter high statue in ivory and gold of Zeus, the father of the Greek gods, sculpted by Phidias. This statue was one of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World. This list of deities aims to give information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... Pisa, or Pisatis, was the name of an ancient Greek town in Elis. ... Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, Pelops Island, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... A fanciful reconstruction of Phidias statue of Zeus, in an engraving made by Philippe Galle in 1572, from a drawing by Maarten van Heemskerck. ... Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ...


The Olympic Games were held in four year intervals, and later the Greek method of counting the years even referred to these Games, using the term Olympiad for the period between two Games. The historian Ephorus who lived in the 4th century BC is believed to have invented the use of Olympiads to count years, much as we today use AD and BC. Previously every Greek state used its own dating system, something that continued for local events, which led to confusion when trying to determine dates. "Diodorus states that there was a solar eclipse in the third year of the 113th Olympiad, which must be the eclipse of 316 BC. This gives us a date of (mid-summer) 786 BC for the first year of the first Olympiad".[4] Nevertheless, there is disagreement among scholars whether the games truly began at this time or not.[5] An Olympiad is a period of four years, associated with the Olympic Games of Classical Greece. ... Ephorus (c. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... AD redirects here. ...

The "Extra" reserved for the judges at Olympia on the north embankment of the stadium

The only competition held then was, according to the Greek traveller Pausanias, the stadion race, a race over about 190 meters, measured after the feet of Hercules. The word stadium is derived from this foot race. Image File history File linksMetadata StoneSeats. ... Image File history File linksMetadata StoneSeats. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Map of downtown Rome during the Roman Empire showing the Stadion on the right The stadion (or stade) was an ancient foot race, part of the Olympic Games and the other Panhellenic Games. ...


The early Olympics were also held to be the place where the Greek tradition of athletic nudity was first introduced in 720 BC, either by the Spartans (and Acanthus in particular) or by the Megarian Orsippus. Pompeii gymnasium, seen from the top of the stadium wall. ... Acanthus the Lacedaemonian, was victor in the diaulos and dolixos in the Olympic games of 720 BC and accord­ing to some accounts was the first who ran naked in these games. ... Orsippus, from Megara, was a runner who was famed as the first to run the footrace naked at the Olympic games and first of all Greeks to be crowned victor naked. ...


Several groups fought over control of the sanctuary, and hence the Games, for prestige and political advantage. Pausanias writes that in 668 BC, Pheidon of Argos was commissioned by the town of Pisa to capture the sanctuary from the town of Elis, which he did and then personally controlled the Games for that year. The next year Elis regained control. This article is about the city in Greece. ...


The Athenian writer Xenophon in 364 BC gives a contemporary record of an Elean attack during the Pentathlon final of the Games themselves, as the Pisans were again in control. The Eleans pushed the defenders almost to the altar before retreating due to missiles being thrown at them from the porticos. During that night the defending Arcadians constructed defensive palisades, and the next morning on seeing the strength of the defence the Elians retreated. Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Related to the Elis/Pisa conflict, is the Heraea Games, the first sanctioned competition for women, held in Olympic Stadium. It originally consisted of foot races only, as did the men's competition. Some texts, including Pausanias's Description of Greece, c. AD 175, state that Hippodameia gathered a group known as the "Sixteen Women" and made them administrators of the Heraea Games, out of gratitude for her marriage to Pelops. Other texts indicate that the "Sixteen Women" were peace-makers from Pisa and Elis and, because of their political competence, became administrators of the Heraea Games. The ancient Heraea Games (also spelled Heraia) is the first sanctioned (and recorded) womens athletic competition to be held in Olympic Stadium [1], possibly in the Olympic year, prior to the mens events. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... In Greek mythology, Hippodamia was the bride of King Pirithous of the Lapiths. ... In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye) was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, land of Pelops, but for all Hellenes. ... Pausanias, in his Description of Greece (c. ...


The Olympic Games were part of the Panhellenic Games, four separate games held at two- or four-year intervals but arranged so that there was at least one set of games every year. The Olympic Games were more important and more prestigious than the Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian Games. Panhellenic Games is the collective term for four separate sports festivals held in ancient Greece. ...


Finally, the Olympic Games were suppressed by either Theodosius I in AD 393 or his grandson Theodosius II in AD 435,[6] as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as a state religion. The site of Olympia remained until an earthquake destroyed it in the 6th century AD. An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church...


Events

Athletes running the hoplitodromos
Athletes running the hoplitodromos

Unlike the Modern Olympic Games, only free men who spoke Greek were allowed to participate in the Ancient Games. They were to some extent "international", though, in the sense that they included athletes from the various Greek city-states. Additionally, participants eventually came from Greek colonies as well, extending the range of the games to far shores of the Mediterranean and of the Black Sea. Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


In order to be in the games one had to qualify and the athlete had to have one's name written down in the lists. It seems that only young people were allowed to participate, as the Greek writer Plutarch relates that one young man was rejected for seeming too mature, and only after his lover interceded with the king of Sparta, who presumably vouched for his youth, was he permitted to participate. Before being able to participate, every participant had to take an oath in front of the statue of Zeus saying that he had been in training for 10 months. Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


The Olympic games originally contained one event: the stadion (or "stade") race, a short sprint measuring between 180 and 240 metres, or the length of the stadium. The actual length of the race is unknown, since tracks found at archeological sites, as well as literary evidence, provide conflicting answers. Runners had to pass five stakes that divided the lanes: one stake at the start, another at the finish, and three stakes in-between. Since time was not pertinent to winning the stadion, merely passing the finish stake first was enough to earn the victory. Map of downtown Rome during the Roman Empire showing the Stadion on the right The stadion (or stade) was an ancient foot race, part of the Olympic Games and the other Panhellenic Games. ...

A section of the stone starting line at Olympia, which has a groove for each foot

The diaulos, or 2-stade race, was introduced in 724 BC, during the 14th Olympic games. The race was a single lap of the stadium, approximately 400 metres, and scholars debate whether or not the runners had individual "turning" posts for the return leg of the race, or whether all the runners approached a common post, turned, and then raced back to the starting line. off portions of the courts of law. ...


A third foot race, the dolichos, was introduced in 720 BC. Separate accounts of the race present conflicting evidence as to the actual length of the dolichos. However, the average stated length of the race was approximately 18-24 laps, or about three miles. The event was run similarly to modern marathons- the runners would begin and end their event in the stadium proper, but the race course would wind its way through the Olympic grounds. The course would often flank important shrines and statues in the sanctuary, passing by the Nike statue by the temple of Zeus before returning to the stadium.


The last running event added to the Olympic program was the hoplitodromos, or "Hoplite race," introduced in 520 BC and traditionally run as the last race of the day. The runners would run either a single or double diaulos (approximately 400 or 800 yards) in full or partial armour, carrying a shield and additionally equipped either with greaves or a helmet.[7][8] As the armour weighed between 50 and 60 lbs, the hoplitodromos emulated the speed and stamina needed for warfare. Due to the weight of the armour, it was easy for runners to drop their shields or trip over fallen competitors. In a vase painting depicting the event, some runners are shown leaping over fallen shields. The course they used for these runs were made out of clay with sand over the clay. The hoplitodromos (or hoplitodromia) was an ancient foot race, part of the Olympic Games and the other Panhellenic Games. ... off portions of the courts of law. ...


Over the years, more events were added: boxing (pygme/pygmachia), wrestling (pale), pankration (regulated full-contact fighting, similar to today's mixed martial arts), chariot racing, several other running events (the diaulos, hippios, dolichos, and hoplitodromos), as well as a pentathlon, consisting of wrestling, stadion, long jump, javelin throw and discus throw (the latter three were not separate events). For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... FILA Greatest Wrestler of 20th Century (Greco-Roman) Alexander Karelin throws Olympian Jeff Blatnick with his Karelin Lift. Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... A modern recreation of chariot racing in Romano-Gaul Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ... off portions of the courts of law. ... A running sport in Ancient Grece Categories: Sports stubs ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Long jumper at the GE Money Grand Prix in Helsinki, July 2005. ... Javelin throw An athlete throwing the javelin. ... Discus redirects here. ...


Boxing became increasingly brutal over the centuries. Initially soft leather covered their fingers but eventually hard leather weighted with metal was sometimes used.[9]


In the chariot racing event, it was not the rider but the owner of the chariot and team who was considered to be the competitor, so one man could win more than one of the top spots. The addition of events meant the festival grew from 1 day to 5 days, 3 of which were used for competition. The other two days were dedicated to religious rituals. On the final day, there was a banquet for all of the participants, consisting of 100 oxen that had been sacrificed to Zeus on the first day. For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


The winner of an Olympic event was awarded an olive branch, and was often received with much honour throughout Greece and especially in his home town, where he was often granted large sums of money (in Athens, 500 drachma, a small fortune). (See Milo of Croton.) Sculptors would create statues of Olympic victors[10] and poets would sing odes in their praise for money. Milo or Milon of Croton (late 6th century BC) was the most famous of Greek athletes in Antiquity. ...


Archaeologists believe that wars were halted between the city-states of Greece so that the athletes as well as the spectators of the Olympics could get there safely. However, some archaeologists argue that the wars were not halted, but that the athletes who were in the army were allowed to leave and participate in the Olympics.


Participation in the games was limited to male athletes; the only way women were allowed to take part was to enter horses in the equestrian events. In 396 BC and again in 392 BC, the horses of a Spartan princess named Cynisca won her the four-horse race. It is thought that single women (not betrothed or married) were allowed to watch the races. Also priestesses in the temple of Zeus who lit the candles were permitted. For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Cynisca (Kyniska - meaning puppy) was a Spartan princess who was born around 440 BC. She was the sister of Spartan king Agesilaus II. She became the first woman in history to win at the ancient Olympic Games. ...


The athletes usually competed naked, not only as the weather was appropriate but also as the festival was meant to celebrate, in part, the achievements of the human body. Olive oil was occasionally used by the competitors, not only to keep skin smooth but also to provide an appealing look for the participants. Competitors may have worn a kynodesme to restrain the penis. Look up Naked in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Picture of a classical Greek athlete wearing the Kynodesme. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ...


Famous athletes

Bases of Zanes, paid for by fines from those who cheated at the Games
  • from Athens:
    • Aurelios Zopyros (Junior fist-fight)
  • from Sparta:
  • from Rhodes:
    • Diagoras of Rhodes (Boxing 79th Olympiad, 464 BC) and his sons Akusilaos and Damagetos (Boxing and Pankration)
    • Leonidas of Rhodes (Running: stadium, diaulos and hoplitodromos)
  • from Croton:
  • from other cities:
    • Koroibos of Elis (Stadion)
    • Orsippus of Megara (Runner: diaulos)
    • Theagenes of Thasos (Pankration)
  • non-Greek:
    • Tiberius (steerer of a four-horse chariot)[11]
    • Nero (steerer of a ten-horse chariot)
    • Varastades, Prince and future King of Armenia, (last known Ancient Olympic victor (boxing) during the 291st Olympic Games in the fourth century. [12]

Image File history File linksMetadata Bases_of_Zanes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bases_of_Zanes. ... Acanthus the Lacedaemonian, was victor in the diaulos and dolixos in the Olympic games of 720 BC and accord­ing to some accounts was the first who ran naked in these games. ... Chionis of Sparta was an athlete of ancient Greece who was most notable for his jumping records in the ancient Olympics. ... Cynisca (Kyniska - meaning puppy) was a Spartan princess who was born around 440 BC. She was the sister of Spartan king Agesilaus II. She became the first woman in history to win at the ancient Olympic Games. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... Leonidas of Rhodes (in Greek: ; born 188 BCE) was one of the most famous Olympic runners of antiquity. ... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ... Astylos of Croton was an athlete from ancient Greece that starred in the ancient Olympics of the 5th century BC. He was mentioned in records from General Pausanias that claim he excelled in three successive Olympic games from 488 to 480 BC, in the running events of stade and diaulos. ... Milo or Milon of Croton (late 6th century BC) was the most famous of Greek athletes in Antiquity. ... Orsippus, from Megara, was a runner who was famed as the first to run the footrace naked at the Olympic games and first of all Greeks to be crowned victor naked. ... Bold text For other uses, see Megara (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Varasdates (Armenian: , Varazdat) was an Armenian prince who succeeded his uncle King Papes as King of Armenia in 374. ...

See also

The ancient Heraea Games (also spelled Heraia) is the first sanctioned (and recorded) womens athletic competition to be held in Olympic Stadium [1], possibly in the Olympic year, prior to the mens events. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The Isthmian Games were one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, and were held at Corinth every two years. ... The Olympia Archaeological Museum is one of the great museums of Greece and houses artifacts found in the archaeological place of Ancient Olympia. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ancient Olympic Games. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Microsoft Corporation (1997-2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  2. ^ St. Clement Of Alexandria. Chapter 2. The Absurdity and Impiety of the Heathen Mysteries and Fables About the Birth and Death of Their Gods.. Exhortation to the Heathen. New Advent. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  3. ^ The Ancient Olympic Games. HickokSports (2005-02-04). Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  4. ^ "The Athletics of the Ancient Olympics: A Summary and Research Tool" by Kotynski, p.3 (Quote used with permission). For the calculation of the date, see Kotynski footnote 6.
  5. ^ See, for example, Alfred Mallwitz's article "Cult and Competition Locations at Olympia" p.101 in which he argues that the games may not have started until about 704 BC. Hugh Lee, on the other hand, in his article "The 'First' Olympic Games of 776 B.C." p.112, follows an ancient source that claims that there were twenty-seven Olympiads before the first one was recorded in 776. There are no records of the Olympic victors extant from earlier than the 5th century BC.
  6. ^ Kotynski, p.3. For more information about the question of this date, see Kotynski.
  7. ^ Gilman, David (1993). Athletics and Mathematics in Archaic Corinth: The Origins of the Greek Stadion. ISBN 0871692066. 
  8. ^ Perrottet, Tony. "Let the Games Begin". Smithsonian Magazine. 
  9. ^ "Boxing gets Brutal", Encarta, March 23, 2006. .
  10. ^ Ageladas
  11. ^ Tiberius, AD 1 or earlier - cf. Ehrenberg & Jones, Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius [Oxford 1955] p. 73 (n.78)
  12. ^ 369 according to Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece by Nigel Wilson, 2006, Routledge (UK) or 385 according to Classical Weekly by Classical Association of the Atlantic States

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References

External links

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The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Kylix, the most common drinking vessel in ancient Greece, c. ... Ancient Greek law is a branch of comparative jurisprudence relating to the laws and legal institutions of Ancient Greece. ... Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD. // Wikisource has original text related to this article: an essay on the transition to written literature in Greece This period of Greek literature stretches from Homer until the 4th century BC and the rise... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... From the 1500s, a detail from Piero di Cosimos version of Perseus rescuing Andromeda. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... Courtesan and her client, Attican Pelike with red figures by Polygnotus, c. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Funerary stele: the slave represented as a shorter person, beside the mistress, Munich Glyptothek Slavery was an essential component of the development of Ancient Greece throughout its history. ... Ancient Greek technology is a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for more than one thousand years. ... For other uses of Greek Theatre, see Greek theatre (disambiguation). ... Modern reconstruction of a hoplite phalanx formation. ... This an alphabetical list of ancient Greeks. ... Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (Greek: Αναξαγόρας, c. ... This article is about the Pre-Socratic philosopher. ... Anaximenes (in Greek: Άναξιμένης) of Miletus (585 BC - 525 BC) was a Greek philosopher from the latter half of the 6th century, probably a younger contemporary of Anaximander, whose pupil or friend he is said to have been. ... Portrait bust of Antisthenes Antisthenes (Greek: , c. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... Diogenes (Greek: Diogenes o Sinopeus) the Cynic, Greek philosopher, was born in Sinope (modern day Sinop, Turkey) about 412 BC (according to other sources 399 BC), and died in 323 BC at Corinth. ... Epicure redirects here. ... Empedocles (Greek: , ca. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Gorgias (in Greek Γοργἰας, circa 483-376 BC) // Introduction Due to his ushering in of rhetorical innovations involving structure and ornamentation and his introduction of paradoxologia – the idea of paradoxical thought and paradoxical expression – Gorgias of Leontini has been labeled the ‘father of sophistry’ (Wardy 6). ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; born between 580 and 572 BC, died between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian Greek mathematician[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... For the Defense and Security Company, see Thales Group. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ... Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD. // Wikisource has original text related to this article: an essay on the transition to written literature in Greece This period of Greek literature stretches from Homer until the 4th century BC and the rise... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Nofootnotes|date=February 2008}} Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... For other uses, see Aristophanes (disambiguation). ... Euripides (c. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... Bust of Menander Menander (342–291 BC) (Greek ), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New Comedy, was born in Athens. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Polybius (c. ... For other uses, see Sappho (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... In common usage, leadership generally refers to: the position or office of an authority figure, such as a President [1] a group of influential people, such as a union leadership [2] guidance or direction, as in the phrase the emperor is not providing much leadership capacity or ability to lead... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... // Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BC?–630 BC) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... For other uses, see Leonidas (disambiguation). ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... Themistocles (Greek: ; c. ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, executed to considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... The Parthenon west façade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis (high city, The Sacred Rock) in the world. ... Remains of the agora built in Athens in the Roman period (east of the classical agora). ... A 1908 illustration of the temple as it might have looked in the 5th century BCE Ruins of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Greece Metope showing Hercules and the Cretan Bull The Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Greece was built between 470 BCE and completed by 456 BCE to... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) Temple of Hephaestus, Athens: eastern face The Temple of Hephaestus in central ancient Athens, Greece, is the best-preserved ancient Greek temple in the world, but is far less well... General location of Samothrace The Samothrace Temple Complex, known as the Sanctuary of the Great Gods is one of the principal Pan-Hellenic religious sanctuaries, located on the island of Samothrace within the larger Thrace. ... The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. ... This is a suggested outline for the article, please amend. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, executed to considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Proto-Greek language is the common ancestor of the Greek dialects, including the Mycenean language, the classical Greek dialects Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and North-Western Greek, and ultimately the Koine and Modern Greek. ... Homeric Greek is the form of Ancient Greek that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey. ... Ancient Greek, in classical antiquity before the development of the Koiné as the lingua franca of Hellenism, was divided into several dialects. ... Aeolic Greek is a linguistic term used to describe a set of rather archaic Greek sub-dialects, spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece), in Lesbos (an island close to Asia Minor) and in other Greek colonies. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Koine redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE - OLYMPIC GAMES (460 words)
The oldest myth which concerns the beginning of the Olympic Games is that of Idaios Daktylos Herakles.
Through the 12 centuries of the Olympic Games, many wonderful athletes competed in the stadium and the hippodrome of ancient Olympia's sacred area, moving the crowds with their great achievements.
Some women, who were prohibited from attending the Games, did not accept this segregation and dressed up as men, at the risk of being thrown from the mountain of Typaion, as stipulated in the rules.
Greek Olympics - Crystalinks (2209 words)
The Ancient Olympic Games were an athletic and religious celebration held in the Greek town of Olympia from (historically) as early as 776 BC to 393 AD.
The Olympic Games were held in four year intervals, and later the Greek method of counting the years even referred to these Games, using the term Olympiad for the period between two Games.
Finally, in AD 394 the Olympic Games - one of the foundations of Greek religion, with their polytheistic observances - fell victim to the religious campaign of the Christian Roman emperor Theodosius I, which consisted of the violent obliteration of all surviving Pagan institutions.
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