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Encyclopedia > Ancient Near East
Overview map of the ancient Near East

The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise of Sumer and Gerzeh in the 4th millennium BCE to the expansion of the Persian Empire in the 6th century BCE. As such, it is a term widely employed in the fields of Near Eastern archaeology, ancient History and Egyptology. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Central New York City. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Gerzeh ( or Girza, Jirzah ) was a predynastic Egyptian cemetery (29°27N, 31°12E) located along the west bank of the Nile and today named after al-Girza, the nearby present day town in Egypt [1]. Gerzeh is situated only several miles due east of the lake of the... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Persia redirects here. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... Near Eastern Archaeology (sometimes known as Middle Eastern archaeology) is a regional branch of the wider, global discipline of Archaeology. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ...


The ancient Near East is generally understood as encompassing Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and Syria), Persia (Iran), Armenia, Egypt, the Levant (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestinian Authority), and Anatolia (Turkey). Some users of the term would extend its application into the Caucasus region, into modern Afghanistan (see Bactria), Minoan and Mycenaean Greece and other peripheral areas. Still, others would exclude Egypt from the ancient Near East as a geographically and culturally distinct area. However, because of Egypt's intimate involvement with the region, especially from the 2nd millennium BCE, this exclusion is rare. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) Events Second dynasty of Babylon First Bantu migrations from west Africa The Cushites drive the original inhabitants from Ethiopia, and establish trade relations with Egypt. ...

Contents

Regions

Examples of Near Eastern people from a drawing by E. Wallcousins
Examples of Near Eastern people from a drawing by E. Wallcousins

Major regions during ancient times include: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Persia redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...

Cultures

Cultures, peoples and empires of the Ancient Near East, in roughly chronological order.


5th millennium BCE

The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ...

4th millennium BCE

The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Narmer. ... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Linear-Elamite inscription on it. ... Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ...

3rd millennium BCE

The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods which mark the high points of civilisation in the Nile Valley (the... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Lagash (Akkadian lagaš) or Sirpurla (Sumerian ŠIR.BUR.LAKI; modern Tell al-Hiba), northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ...

2nd millennium BCE

Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.
Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.

Bronze Age collapse Image File history File links Download high resolution version (602x619, 23 KB) Summary Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (602x619, 23 KB) Summary Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). ... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... Hatti is the reconstructed ancient name of a region in Anatolia inhabited by the Hattians between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, and later by the Hittites, who were at the height of their power ca 1400 BC–1200 BC. The capital city of both peoples was Hattusa (modern... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa was a confederation formed between the Kingdoms of Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located North of the Euphrates and to the South of Hayasa. ... Arzawa is a region or kingdom in what was later to be known as Lydia in Western Anatolia. ... The Lukka lands are often mentioned in Hittite texts from the second millennium BC. It denotes a region in the southwestern part of Asia Minor, modern Turkey. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... This article is about Kadesh in Syria, see also Kadesh (South of Israel) or Kedesh Kadesh (the most popular spelling; more accurately Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on the Orontes River, probably identical to the remains at Tell Nebi Mend,[1] about 24 km southwest of... Megiddo (Hebrew: ) is a hill in Israel near the modern settlement of Megiddo, known for theological, historical and geographical reasons. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... The New Kingdom period of Egyptian history is the period between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Ishuwa was an ancient kingdom in Anatolia, Turkey. ... Kizzuwatna is the name of an ancient kingdom of the second millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of Anatolia, Turkey. ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luwiyan) is an Anatolian language known in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Yamhad (also written Jamhad or Yamkhad) was an ancient Amorite kingdom centered at Halab, Aleppo, in northern Syria. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the...


1st millennium BCE

  • Neo-Assyrian Empire
  • Neo-Hittite kingdoms
  • Urartu

Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... The states that are called Neo-Hittite, or more recently Syro-Hittite, were Luwian, Aramaic and Phoenician-speaking political entities of Iron Age northern Syria and southern Anatolia that arose following the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC. The term Neo-Hittite... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ...

Periodization

Stone age
(2,000,000 BP - 3300 BCE)
Paleolithic
(2,000,000 BP - 8300 BCE)
Lower Paleolithic 2,000,000 BP - 300,000 BP
Middle Paleolithic 300,000 BP - 30,000 BP
Upper Paleolithic 30,000 BP - 12,000 BP
Epipaleolithic 12,000 BP - 8300 BCE
Neolithic
(8300 BCE - 4500 BCE)
Pre-pottery Neolithic 8300 BCE - 5500 BCE
Pottery Neolithic 5500 BCE - 4500 BCE
Chalcolithic
(4500 BCE - 3300 BCE)
Early Chalcolithic 4500 BCE - 4000 BCE
Late Chalcolithic (Ghassulian) 4000 BCE - 3300 BCE
Bronze Age
(3300 BCE - 1200 BCE)
Early Bronze Age
(3300 BCE - 2000 BCE)
Early Bronze Age I 3300 BCE - 3000 BCE
Early Bronze Age II 3000 BCE - 2700 BCE
Early Bronze Age III 2700 BCE - 2200 BCE
Early Bronze Age IV 2200 BCE - 2000 BCE
Middle Bronze Age
(2000 BCE - 1550 BCE)
Middle Bronze Age I 2000 BCE - 1750 BCE
Middle Bronze Age II 1750 BCE - 1650 BCE
Middle Bronze Age III 1650 BCE - 1550 BCE
Late Bronze Age
(1550 BCE - 1200 BCE)
Late Bronze Age I 1550 BCE - 1400 BCE
Late Bronze Age II A 1400 BCE - 1300 BCE
Late Bronze Age II B 1300 BCE - 1200 BCE
Iron Age
(1200 BCE - 586 BCE)
Iron Age I
(1200 BCE - 1000 BCE)
Iron Age I A 1200 BCE - 1150 BCE
Iron Age I B 1150 BCE - 1000 BCE
Iron Age II
(1000 BCE - 586 BCE)
Iron Age II A 1000 BCE - 900 BCE
Iron Age II B 900 BCE - 700 BCE
Iron Age II C 700 BCE - 586 BCE

Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ... The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ... // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... The Ghassulian was an archaeological stage dating to the Middle Chalcolithic Period in southern Palestine (c. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... (Redirected from 1200 BCE) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... (Redirected from 2000 BCE) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the... (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the... (23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - 21st century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2217 - 2193 BC -- Nomadic invasions of Akkad. ... (23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - 21st century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2217 - 2193 BC -- Nomadic invasions of Akkad. ... (Redirected from 2000 BCE) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... (Redirected from 2000 BCE) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC Events and trends The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest... (Redirected from 2000 BCE) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766 BC -- Shang conquest of... (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766 BC -- Shang conquest of... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1690s BC 1680s BC 1670s BC 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC Events and trends Egypt: Start of Seventeenth Dynasty Significant people Categories: 1650s BC ... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1690s BC 1680s BC 1670s BC 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC Events and trends Egypt: Start of Seventeenth Dynasty Significant people Categories: 1650s BC ... Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC Events and trends The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC Events and trends The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest... (Redirected from 1200 BCE) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC Events and trends The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest... (Redirected from 1400 BCE) (15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC - other centuries) (1400s BC - 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC - 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC - 1300s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1344... (Redirected from 1400 BCE) (15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC - other centuries) (1400s BC - 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC - 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC - 1300s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1344... (Redirected from 1300 BCE) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... (Redirected from 1300 BCE) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign... (Redirected from 1200 BCE) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... (Redirected from 1200 BCE) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 588s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC - Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... (Redirected from 1200 BCE) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... -1... (Redirected from 1200 BCE) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC Events and trends 1159 BC - Global tree ring event (period of arrested tree growth) lasting for 18... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC Events and trends 1159 BC - Global tree ring event (period of arrested tree growth) lasting for 18... -1... -1... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 588s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC - Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon... -1... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 950s BC 940s BC 930s BC 920s BC 910s BC - 900s BC - 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC Events and trends 909 BC - Zhou xiao wang becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 950s BC 940s BC 930s BC 920s BC 910s BC - 900s BC - 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC Events and trends 909 BC - Zhou xiao wang becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... ... ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 588s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC - Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon...

Religions

Ancient civilizations in the Near East were deeply influenced by their spiritual beliefs, which generally did not distinguish between heaven and Earth.[1] They believed that divine action influenced all mundane matters, and also believed in divination (ability to predict the future).[1] Omens were often inscribed in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, as were records of major events.[1] The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Examples of omens from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493): natural phenomena and strange births. ...


See also

This timeline tries to compile dates of important historical events that happened in or that lead to the rise of the Middle East. ... The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... The history of pottery in the Southern Levant describes the discovery and cultural development of pottery in the archaeological area of the Southern Levant, which includes the modern day polities of Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority administered areas of the West Bank of the Jordan and the Gaza strip. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. and Jeremy A. Sabloff (1979). Ancient Civilizations: The Near East and Mesoamerica. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing, p. 4. 

Further reading

  • Jack Sasson, The Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, New York, 1995
  • Marc Van de Mieroop, History of the Ancient Near East: Ca. 3000-323 B.C., Blackwell Publishers, 2003

External links

  • Ancient Near East.net — an information and content portal for the archaeology, ancient history, and culture of the ancient Near East and Egypt
  • Archaeowiki.org—a wiki for the research and documentation of the ancient Near East and Egypt
  • ETANA — website hosted by a consortium of universities in the interests of providing digitized resources and relevant web links
  • Resources on Biblical Archaeology
  • Ancient Near East Photographs This collection, created by Professor Scott Noegel, documents artifacts and archaeological sites of the ancient Near East; from the University of Washington Libraries Digital Image Collection
  • Near East Images A directory of archaeological images of the ancient Near East

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ancient Near East - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (248 words)
As such, it is a term widely employed in the fields of Near Eastern archaeology, Ancient History and Egyptology.
The Ancient Near East is generally understood as encompassing Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and Syria), Persia (Iran), Egypt, the Levant (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestinian Authority), and Anatolia (Turkey).
Ancient Near East.net — an information and content portal for the archaeology, ancient history and culture of the Ancient Near East and Egypt
Product detail for Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (667 words)
While earlier peoples left signs—at Stonehenge, on the walls of caves in France—it is in the Near East that we first find messages, evidence of the transmission of knowledge from one generation to another, and the organization of nomadic tribes into societies with distinctive class structures, religions, and governments.
Ancient Near Eastern civilizations took a great many forms, from the city-states of Mesopotamia to the centralized monarchy of Egypt, and they generated vital traditions in art, architecture, and literature.
It describes the physical world of the ancient Near East, evaluates the impact of ancient Near Eastern civilizations on succeeding cultures, and reconstructs its cultural contexts based on archaeological findings and the deciphering of documents.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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