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Encyclopedia > Ancient History
The times before writing belong either to protohistory or to prehistory.
Ancient history by continent

Ancient history
For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... Write redirects here. ... Protohistory refers to a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing, but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 407 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 2036 pixels, file size: 1. ...

Asia | Africa | Americas | Europe | Australia

Ancient history is the study of the documented past from the beginning of recorded history until the Early Middle Ages.[1] The breadth of ancient history includes centuries of human activity on six continents (Asia, Africa, North and South America, Europe and Australia). For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... Six Continents is a large retail PLC in UK which split into Six Continents Retail known as Mitchells and Butlers plc. ...

Contents


Ancient chronology

Events before the Common Era. BCE redirects here. ...

Events in the Common Era.

Ancient events

Main article: Ancient history chronology

Ancient history chronology is the historical events in time of the documented ancient past. Ancient history is customarily indicated as beginning with the advent of writing in 3000 BC (see Sumerian cuneiform). Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Cuneiform redirects here. ...


The Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) included techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally-occurring outcroppings of copper ores, and then smelting those ores to cast bronze. These naturally-occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in western Asia before 3,000 B.C. In some parts of the world, a Copper Age follows the Neolithic and precedes the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period or Copper Age period (also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic)), is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ...


The Iron Age was the stage in the development of any people in which tools and weapons whose main ingredient was iron were prominent. The adoption of this material coincided with other changes in some past societies often including differing agricultural practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles, although this was not always the case. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. It refer to the timeframe of ancient Greece and ancient Rome.[2][3] Ancient history include the recorded Greek history beginning in about 776 BC (First Olympiad). This coincides roughly with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC and the beginning of the history of Rome.[4][5] Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Satiate is the first album released by Avail in 1992. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since 1821. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC Events and Trends 778 BC - Agamestor, King of Athens dies after a reign of 17 years and... An Olympiad is a period of four years, associated with the Olympic Games of Classical Greece. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... For other uses, see History of Rome (disambiguation). ...


Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world: generally from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century (c. AD 284) to the Islamic conquests and the re-organization of the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius. The Early Middle Ages are a period in the history of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 to 1000. Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...


Not all historians agree on the ending dates of ancient history, which frequently falls somewhere in the 5th, 6th, or 7th century.[6] Western scholars usually date the end of ancient history with the fall of Rome in 476 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, or the coming of Islam in 632 AD as the end of ancient European history.[1][6] Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ...


Ancient worldviews

Main articles: Ancient philosophy and History of religions

After the Bronze and Iron Age religions formed, the rise and spread of Christianity through the Roman world marked the end of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy. The ancient Indian philosophy is a fusion of two ancient traditions : Sramana tradition and Vedic tradition. Indian philosophy begins with the Vedas where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. Jainism and Buddhism are continuation of the Sramana school of thought. The Sramanas cultivated a pessimistic world view of the samsara as full of suffering and advocated renunciation and austerities. They laid stress on philosophical concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Jnana, Samsara and Moksa. While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view on the role of man in the universe. In China, Chinese philosophy placed less emphasis upon materialism as a basis for reflecting upon the world and more emphasis was put on conduct, manners and social behavior, as evidenced by Taoism and Confucianism. This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... For the academic study of religion in general, see Religious studies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... It has been suggested that shramana be merged into this article or section. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Veda redirects here. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Veda redirects here. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Taoism (or Daoism) refers to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...

Further information: religions of the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egyptian religion, historical Vedic religion, Ancient Roman religion, Ancient Greek religion, paganism

The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... Egyptian goddess Isis protecting a mummified pharaoh, a late Ptolemic relief from the Philae Temple, which was first built in the thirtieth dynasty, c. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...

Ancient science and technology

Main articles: History of technology and Ancient science
Ancient technology by period and location

During the growth of the ancient civilizations, Ancient technological advances were produced in engineering. These advances stimulated other societies to adopt new ways of living and governance. The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... The characteristics of Ancient Egyptian technology are indicated by a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for thousands of years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... Ancient Greek technology is a set of artifacts and customs, developed by ancient Greek and Hellenistic engineers who wrote in Greek, that lasted for more than one thousand years. ... The Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... Medieval treadwheel crane Reading Saint Peter with eyeglasses (1466) During the 12th and 13th centuries, medieval Europe saw a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous and most useful technologies. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ...


According to Thales of Miletus, writing at around 600 BC, a form of electricity was known to the Ancient Greeks who found that rubbing fur on various substances, such as amber, would cause a particular attraction between the two. The Greeks noted that the amber buttons could attract light objects such as hair and that if they rubbed the amber for long enough they could even get a spark to jump. An object found in Iraq in 1938, dated to about 250 BC and called the Baghdad Battery, resembles a galvanic cell and is believed by some to have been used for electroplating, although this is unproven and contoversial. For the Defense and Security Company, see Thales Group. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... Look up Attraction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the body feature. ... Look up Spark in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC... [1] Drawing of the 3 pieces. ... The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge or a porous disk between the individual half-cells. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ...

Further information: History of science, History of mathematics, and History of philosophy

Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... For a timeline of events in mathematics, see timeline of mathematics. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ...

Ancient warfare

Main article: Ancient warfare

Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. In Europe, the end of antiquity is often equated with the fall of Rome in 476. In China, it can also be seen as ending in the fifth century, with the growing role of mounted warriors needed to counter the ever-growing threat from the north. Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ...


The difference between prehistoric and ancient warfare is less one of technology than of organization. The development of first city-states, and then empires, allowed warfare to change dramatically. Beginning in Mesopotamia, states produced sufficient agricultural surplus that full-time ruling elites and military commanders could emerge. While the bulk of military forces were still farmers, the society could support having them campaigning rather than working the land for a portion of each year. Thus, organized armies developed for the first time. Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


These new armies could help states grow in size and became increasingly centralized, and the first empire, that of the Sumerians, formed in Mesopotamia. Early ancient armies continued to primarily use bows and spears, the same weapons that had been developed in prehistoric times for hunting. Early armies in Egypt and China followed a similar pattern of using massed infantry armed with bows and spears. Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... A bow is a weapon that shoots arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow and/or the string. ... Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ...


Ancient artwork and music

Main article: Ancient art history

Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music. Ancient music refers to the various musical systems that were developed across various geographical regions such as Persia, India, China, Greece, Rome, Egypt and Mesopotamia (see music of Mesopotamia, Greek music, Roman music). Ancient music is designated by the characterization of the basic audible tones and scales. It may have been transmitted through oral or written systems. Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music. ... This article treats the music of Ancient Mesopotamia (see music and Ancient Mesopotamia). ... Greek music is a mixture of influences from its own indigenous culture with Western and Middle Eastern cultures. ... Romans did not give a great place for music, and they did not invent it themselves. ... Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome // The earliest figurine the Venus of Tan-Tan discovered to date originated somewhere between 500,000 and 300...

Further information: Ancient music and Ancient art

Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music. ... Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome // The earliest figurine the Venus of Tan-Tan discovered to date originated somewhere between 500,000 and 300...

Historian resources

The fundamental difficulty of studying ancient history is the fact that only a fraction of it has been documented and only a fraction of those recorded histories have survived into the present day. Historian's two major resources to better understand the ancient world include archaeology and the study of secondary sources. For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Secondary sources are texts based on primary sources, and involve generalization, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation. ...


Regarding recorded histories, it is important to consider the reliability of the information obtained from these records and objects. Literacy was not widespread in almost any culture until long after the end of ancient history, so there were few people capable of writing histories. Even those written histories which were produced were not widely distributed; the ancients, not having the luxury of a printing press had to make copies of books by the hand of scribes. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... Children reading. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... This is about scribe, the profession. ...


The Roman Empire was one of the ancient world's most literate cultures, but many works by its most widely read historians are lost. For example, Livy, a Roman historian who lived in the 1st century BC, wrote a history of Rome called Ab Urbe Condite ("From the Founding of the City") in 142 volumes; only 35 volumes still exist, although summaries of the rest do exist. Other Roman historians, like Pompeius Trogus, have vanished completely. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Penguin Classics 1976 edition of Livys Ab Urbe condita, books XXXI-XLV Ab Urbe condita (literally, from the city, having been founded) is a monumental history of Rome, from its founding (ab Urbe condita, dated to 753 BC by Varro and most modern scholars). ... Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, 1st century BC Roman historian, of the Celtic tribe of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, flourished during the age of Augustus, nearly contemporary with Livy. ...


Archaeology

Main article: Archaeology

Archaeology is the excavation and study of artifacts in an effort to interpret and reconstruct past human behavior. In the study of ancient history, archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived. Some important discoveries by archaeologists studying ancient history include: For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...

A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... The Terracotta Army (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Shi Huang Di the First Emperor of China. ... Qin, Qín or Chin (Wade-Giles) can refer to. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...

Secondary sources

Perhaps most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. Although it is important to take into account the bias of each ancient author, their accounts, are the basis for our understanding of the ancient past. Some of the more notable ancient writers include: Valmiki, Vatsyayana, Vyasa, Kalidasa, Chanakya, Sun Tzu, Herodotus, Josephus, Livy, Polybius, Suetonius, Tacitus, Thucydides, and Sima Qian. Valmiki composes the Ramayana Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmÄ«ki) born as Ratnakar is a legendary Hindu sage (maharishi) traditionally regarded as the author of the epic, Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself[1]. He was the tenth child of Pracheta. ... Vatsyayana is a scholar (Rishi) from India. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chanakya- The Great Politics and Education Guru (Master) of India The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty. ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Polybius (c. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ...


See also

Prehistory
Prehistoric civilizations, Prehistoric man
Classics
Digital Classicist
Other
Human evolution, Historiography

Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... The notion of limiting historical study to a roughly 5000-year span, out of a possible few million years of human existence, and of only those few world cultures that left written records, can be challenged. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prehistory. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... Digital Classicist poster from DRH 2005 The Digital Classicist is a project and community for those interested in the application of Humanities Computing to the field of Classics and to ancient world studies more generally. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ...

References and notes

General information

  • Carr, E. H. (Edward Hallett). What is History?.  Thorndike 1923, Becker 1931, MacMullen 1966, MacMullen 1990, Thomas & Wick 1993, Loftus 1996.
  • Collingwood, R. G. (1946). The Idea of History. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  • Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Norton. 
  • Dodds, E. R. (1964). The Greeks and the Irrational. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. 
  • Kinzl, Konrad H. (1998). Directory of Ancient Historians in the USA, 2nd ed.. Claremont, Calif.: Regina Books. ISBN 0941690873.  Web edition is constantly updated.
  • Kristiansen, Kristian & Larsson, Thomas B. (2005), The Rise of Bronze Age Society, Cambridge University Press 
  • Libourel, Jan (1973). "A Battle of Uncertain Outcome in the Second Samnite War". American Journal of Philogy 94 (1): 71. Retrieved on September 2007. 
  • Livius. Articles on Ancient History.
  • Lobell, Jarrett (July/August 2002). "Etruscan Pompeii". Archaeological Institute of America 55 (4). Retrieved on September 2007. 
  • Loftus, Elizbeth (1996). Eyewitness Testimony. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674287770. 
  • MacMullen, Ramsay (1966). Enemies of the Roman Order: Treason, Unrest and Alienation in the Empire. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 
  • MacMullen, Ramsay (1993). Changes in the Roman Empire: Essays in the Ordinary. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691036012. 
  • Thomas, Carol G.; D.P. Wick (1994). Decoding Ancient History: A Toolkit for the Historian as Detective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0132002051. 
  • Thorndike, Lynn (1923–58). History of Magic and Experimental Science. New York: Macmillan.  Eight volumes.

September 2007 is the ninth month of that year. ... September 2007 is the ninth month of that year. ...

Citations

  1. ^ a b ancient-history, historyofworld.net
  2. ^ It is used to refer to various other periods of ancient history, like Ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamia (such as, Assyria, Babylonia and Sumer) or other early civilizations of the Near East. It is less commonly used in reference to civilizations of the Far East.
  3. ^ William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. J. Murray, 1891
  4. ^ Chris Scarre, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome (London: Penguin Books, 1995).
  5. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Roy Adkins (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512332-8. page 3.
  6. ^ a b John Jacob Anderson, A Manual of General History. Clark & Maynard, 1870. Page 10.
  7. ^ Template:Lobell

The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ...

Further reading

Listed by date of publication

Pre-20th Century works

20th century works Sir Henry James Sumner Maine (August 15, 1822 - February 3, 1888) was an English comparative jurist and historian, son of Dr James Maine, of Kelso, Borders, Scotland. ...

  • Allen, W. F., & Myers, P. V. N. (1901). Ancient history for colleges and high schools. Boston: Ginn & Company.
  • Maine, H. S., & Pollock, F. (1905). Ancient law, its connection with the early history of society and its relation to modern ideas. London: Murray.
  • Toffteen, O. A. (1907). Ancient chronology. Researches in Biblical archaeology, v.1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Botsford, G. W., & Botsford, L. M. S. (1912). A source-book of ancient history. New York: The Macmillan
  • Goodspeed, G. S., Ferguson, W. S., & Chadwick, S. P. R. (1912). A history of the ancient world. New York: C. Scribner's sons.
  • Webster, H. (1913). Ancient history. Boston: D.C. Heath.
  • West, W. M. (1913). The ancient world: from the earliest times to 800 A.D. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Botsford, G. W. (1914). A history of the ancient world. New York: The Macmillan.
  • Myers, P. V. N. (1916). Ancient history. New York [etc.]: Ginn and company
  • Breasted, J. H. (1916). Ancient times, a history of the early world: an introduction to the study of ancient history and the career of early man. Boston: Ginn.
  • Grant, E. (1920). The Orient in Bible times. Philadelphia and London: J.B. Lippincott.
  • Elson, H. W. (1921). Modern times and the living past. New York: American book company.
  • Robinson, C. A. (1951). Ancient history from prehistoric times to the death of Justinian. New York: Macmillan.
  • Starr, C. G. (1965). A history of the ancient world. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Kline, M. (1972). Mathematical thought, Vol. 1. Oxford Univ. Press.
  • Press, G. A. (1982). The development of the idea of history in antiquity. McGill-Queen's studies in the history of ideas, 2. Kingston [Ont.]: McGill-Queen's University Press.
  • Hodges, H. (1992). Technology in the ancient world. New York: Barnes & Noble
  • Finley, M. I. (1992). Ancient History: Evidence and Models. Penguin.
  • Patterson, G. M. (2000). The essentials of ancient history: 4,500 BC - 500 AD, the emergence of western civilization. Piscataway, N.J.: Research & Education Association.
  • Woods, M., & Woods, M. B. (2000). Ancient computing: from counting to calendars. Ancient technology. Minneapolis: Runestone Press.

21st century works

  • Alcock, S. E., D'Altroy, T. N., Morrison, K. D., & Sinopoli, C. M. (2001). Empires: perspectives from archaeology and history. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Davis, J. C. (2004). The human story: our history, from the Stone Age to today. New York: HarperCollins.
  • Bowman, A. K., Garnsey, P., & Cameron, A. (2005). The Cambridge ancient history. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. (ed., this is a multi-volume set; earlier editions are available)

External links

London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Ancient History @ Suite101: Ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, Persia, spanning the Bronze age to the Byzantine Empire and ... (261 words)
Ancient History @ Suite101: Ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, Persia, spanning the Bronze age to the Byzantine Empire and covering Minoan, Mycenaean and Etruscan Eras from Pompeii to the Parthenon.
The history of the ancient Greek city-state is a mystery.
The fullers were skilled and important tradesmen who had the task of regularly cleaning and dyeing all of the clothing worn by Romans.
Ancient history - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4070 words)
Ancient history is the study of significant cultural and political events from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages.
Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, currently most Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476 as the end of ancient European history.
Ancient India is usually taken to refer to the "golden age" of classical Hindu culture, as reflected in Sanskrit literature, beginning around 500 BCE with the sixteen monarchies and 'republics' known as the Mahajanapadas, stretched across the Indo-Gangetic plains from modern-day Afghanistan to Bangladesh.
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