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Encyclopedia > Ancient Greek cuisine
Kylix, the most common drinking vessel in ancient Greece, c. 500 BCE, British Museum

Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality, reflecting agricultural hardship[1]. It was founded on the "Mediterranean triad[2]": wheat, olive oil, and wine. Kylix by Euerdiges (circa 500 BC) in the British Museum, London Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kylix by Euerdiges (circa 500 BC) in the British Museum, London Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kylix by Euergides (circa 500 BC) in the British Museum, London. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and trends September 13, 509 BC - The temple of Jupiter on Romes Capitoline Hill is... The British Museum in London is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ...

Contents

Daily diet

Salt cellar in ceramic and black lacquer, 5th century BCE, Louvre

The Greeks had three meals a day: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x1575, 1748 KB) Description fr: Salière en céramique à vernis noir, Ve siècle av. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x1575, 1748 KB) Description fr: Salière en céramique à vernis noir, Ve siècle av. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... This article is about the museum. ...

  • breakfast (ἀκρατισμός / akratismós) consisting of barley bread dipped in wine (ἄκρατος / ákratos), sometimes complemented by figs or olives;
  • lunch (ἄριστον / ariston)[3] taken around noon or early afternoon.
  • dinner (δεῖπνον / deĩpnon), the most important meal of the day, generally taken at nightfall.

An additional meal (ἑσπέρισμα / hespérisma) was sometimes taken in the late afternoon. A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ...


The Greeks ate while seated, the use of benches being reserved for banquets. The tables, high for normal meals and low for banquets, were initially rectangular in shape. In the 4th century BCE, the usual table becomes round, often with legs shaped like animal legs (for example lion's claws). It was customary for the Greeks to place terra cotta miniatures of their furniture in children's graves, which gives us a good idea of the style for that period. (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ...


Loaves of flat bread could be used as plates, but terra cotta or metal bowls were more common. Dishes became more refined over time, and by the Roman period plates were sometimes made out of precious metals or glass. Use of the fork was unknown; people ate with their fingers. Knives were used to cut meat, and spoons similar to modern oriental spoons were used for soups and broths. Assorted forks. ...


Bread

Cereals (σῖτος / sĩtos) formed the staple diet. The two main grains were wheat and barley. These were softened by soaking, then either reduced into gruel, or ground into flour (ἀλείατα / aleíata) and kneaded and formed into loaves (ἄρτος / ártos) or flatbreads, either plain or mixed with cheese or honey. Leavening was known, but the stone oven did not appear until the Roman period. According to a direction from Solon, an Athenian lawmaker of the 6th century BCE, leavened bread was supposed to be reserved for feast days. However, during the classical period leavened bread was sold in bakeries, though it was very expensive. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1156, 132 KB) Summary Figurine de femme en train de pétrir de la pâte à pain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1156, 132 KB) Summary Figurine de femme en train de pétrir de la pâte à pain. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and trends September 13, 509 BC - The temple of Jupiter on Romes Capitoline Hill is... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC Years: 480 BC 479 BC 478 BC 477 BC 476 BC - 475 BC - 474 BC 473 BC... Façade of the National Archaeological museum of Athens. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Gruel is a type of preparation consisting of some type of cereal boiled in water or milk. ... A leavening agent is an organism or substance that when added to a dough of flour and water causes it to rise by evolving carbon dioxide or other gases that become trapped as bubbles within the dough. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were...


Barley was easier to produce but more difficult to make bread from. It provided a nourishing but very heavy bread. Because of this it was often grilled before milling, producing a flour (ἄλφιτα / álphita) which was used to make μᾶζα / mãza, the basic Greek dish. In Peace (v. 449), Aristophanes uses the expression ἔσθειν κριθὰς μόνας, literally "to eat only barley", with a meaning equivalent to the English "diet of bread and water". Many recipes for maza are known; it could be served cooked or raw, as a broth, or made into dumplings or flatbreads. Like wheat breads, it could also be augmented with cheese or honey. Peace is a comedy written and produced by the ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ...


Fruit and vegetables

The cereals were often served accompanied by what was generally referred to as ὄψον / ópson. The word initially referred to anything prepared on the fire, and, by extension, anything which accompanied bread. In the Iliad the term refers only to meat; in the Odyssey it is also used to refer to fish. In the classical period it came to refer to vegetables; (cabbage, onions, lentils, and beans) in soup, notably ἔτνος (étnos, "bean soup"), seasoned with olive oil, vinegar, γάρον/gáron — a fish sauce similar to Vietnamese nuoc mam — and herbs. According to Aristophanes (The Frogs, v. 62–63), bean soup was one of the favourite dishes of Heracles, who was always represented as a glutton in comedies. Raw or preserved olives were a common garnish. It has been suggested that Deception of Zeus be merged into this article or section. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Many plants in the genus Allium are known by the common name onion but, used without qualifiers, it usually refers to Allium cepa. ... Lens culinaris. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Soup is usually a savoury liquid food that is made by combining ingredients, such as meat, vegetables and beans in stock or hot water, until the flavor is extracted, forming a broth. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Fish sauce is a condiment derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Frogs in Greek Frogs (Βάτραχοι (Bátrachoi)) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... Greek comedy is the name given to a wide genre of theatrical plays written, and performed, in Ancient Greece. ... For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ...


In the cities, fresh vegetables were expensive and rarely eaten: the poorer city dwellers had to make do with dried. As for onions, these were symbolic of military life. In Peace (v. 529), Aristophanes uses the smell of onions as typically representing soldiers; in verses 1127-1129, the chorus, celebrating the end of war, sings Oh! joy, joy! no more helmet, no more cheese nor onions![4] Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water, which is required for decay and the growth of microorganisms. ...


Fruits, fresh or dried, and nuts, were eaten as dessert. Important fruits were figs, raisins and pomegranates. Dried figs were also eaten as an appetizer or when drinking wine. In the latter case, they were often accompanied by grilled chestnuts, chick peas, and beechnuts. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut A nut can be either a seed or a fruit. ... A selection of desserts Dessert is not a meal that can be withstanding by itself. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Raisins Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Punica granatum L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut (Castanea), including... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. The chickpea, garbanzo bean or bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) is an edible pulse of the Leguminosae or Fabaceae family, subfamily India. ... Species Fagus crenata- Japanese Beech Fagus engleriana- Chinese Beech Fagus grandifolia- American Beech Fagus hayatae- Taiwan Beech Fagus japonica- Japanese Blue Beech Fagus longipetiolata- South Chinese Beech Fagus lucida- Shining Beech Fagus mexicana- Mexican Beechor Haya Fagus orientalis- Oriental Beech Fagus sylvatica- European Beech Beech (Fagus) is a genus of...


Meat and fish

Sacrifice; principal source of meat for city dwellers — here a goat; a Python krater, c. 360-350 BCE, Louvre

The consumption of fish and meat varied in accordance with the wealth and location of the household; in the country, hunting (primarily trapping by young men) allowed for consumption of birds and hares. Peasants also had farmyards to provide them with chickens and geese. Slightly wealthier landowners could raise some extra goats, pigs, or sheep. In the city, meat was expensive except for pork. In Aristophanes' day a piglet cost three drachma (Peace verse 374), which was three days wages for a public servant. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2095x1990, 2928 KB) Description Description: Hermes leading a goat to the sacrifice, side A of a red-figure bell crater by Python, ca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2095x1990, 2928 KB) Description Description: Hermes leading a goat to the sacrifice, side A of a red-figure bell crater by Python, ca. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... A krater (Greek κρατηρ, from the Greek verb κεραννυμι, to mix. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 365 BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC - 350 BC - 349 BC 348 BC 347... This article is about the museum. ... “Hunter” redirects here. ... Jack rabbit and Jackrabbit redirect here. ...


In the 8th century BCE Hesiod describes the ideal country feast in Works and Days: "But at that time let me have a shady rock and Bibline wine, a clot of curds and milk of drained goats with the flesh of a heifer fed in the woods, that has never calved, and of firstling kids; then also let me drink bright wine..."[5](v. 588-593). Meat is much less prominent in texts of the 5th century BC onwards than in the earliest poetry, but this may be a matter of genre rather than real evidence of changes in farming and food customs. The eating of fresh meat was accompanied by a religious ritual in which the gods' share (fat and bones) was burnt while the human share (meat) was grilled and distributed to the participants; there was however a lively trade in cooked and salted meats, which demanded no ritual. (9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC - other centuries) (800s BC - 790s BC - 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Golden age in Armenia Assyria... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived...


For their part, the Spartans primarily ate pork stew, the famous black gruel (μέλας ζωμός / mélas zômós). Dicaearchus, quoted by Athenaeus gives us its composition: pork, salt, vinegar and blood. The dish was served with figs and cheese. The 2nd and 3rd century author Aelian, in his Miscellany (XIV, 7), claims that Spartan cooks were prohibited from cooking anything other than meat. Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... Dicaearchus (also Dicearchos, Dicearchus or Dikæarchus, Greek Δικαιαρχος; circa 350 BC – circa 285 BC) was a Greek philosopher, cartographer, geographer, mathematician and author. ... Athenaeus (ca. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Claudius Aelianus (c. ...


In the Greek islands and on the coast, fresh fish and seafood (squid, octopus, and shellfish) were common. They were eaten locally and also transported inland. Sardines and anchovies were regular fare for the citizens of Athens. They were sometimes sold fresh, but more frequently salted. Larger fish, particularly prized by gourmets, were very expensive, such as tuna and eels from lake Copais in Boeotia, whose absence from Athens during the Peloponnesian War is alluded to in The Acharnians. Suborders Myopsina Oegopsina Squid are a large, diverse group of marine cephalopods. ... Suborders †Pohlsepia (incertae sedis) †Proteroctopus (incertae sedis) †Palaeoctopus (incertae sedis) Cirrina Incirrina Synonyms Octopoida Leach, 1817 The octopus (Greek , eight-legs) is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Sardines can refer to: The plural of sardine, a species of fish. ... The anchovies are a family (Engraulidae) of small but common fish. ... A shoal of skipjack tuna Tuna are several species of ocean-dwelling fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Acharnians in Greek The Acharnians (Ancient Greek: / Akharneĩs) is a comedic play by the ancient Greek satirist Aristophanes. ...


Beverages

The most widespread drink was evidently water. Fetching water was a daily task for women. Though wells were common, spring water was preferred: it was recognized as nutritious — it caused plants and trees to grow — and also as a desirable beverage. Pindar called spring water "as agreeable as honey" (fragment 198 B4). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x887, 282 KB) Summary Rhyton à figures rouges en forme de tête de bélier portant la représentation dun homme poursuivant une femme. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x887, 282 KB) Summary Rhyton à figures rouges en forme de tête de bélier portant la représentation dun homme poursuivant une femme. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... A Rhyton (Greek ῥυτόν rutón) is a ceremonial drinking cup shaped like an animal head or horn. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 465 BC 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC - 460 BC - 459 BC 458 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC... Façade of the National Archaeological museum of Athens. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ...


The Greeks would classify water as heavy, dry, acidic, sweet, sour, and wine-like, etc. One of the comic poet Antiphanes' characters claimed that his taste buds were so good he could identify all of the waters of Attica (fr. 179 Kock). Athenaeus (II, 44) states that a number of philosophers had a reputation for drinking nothing but water, a habit combined with a vegetarian diet (cf. below). Milk, usually goats' milk, was also drunk. Antiphanes, the most important writer of the Middle Attic comedy with the exception of Alexis, lived from about 408 to 334 BC. He was apparently a foreigner who settled in Athens, where he began to write about 387. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming the flesh of any animal (including sea animals) with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs[1]. Some vegetarians choose to also refrain from wearing clothing that has involved the death of animals, such as leather, silk... For other uses of the term, see goat (disambiguation). ...


The usual drinking vessel was the skyphos, made out of wood, terra cotta, or metal. Critias, cited in Plutarch (Life of Lycurgus, IX, 7-8) also mentions the kothon, a Spartan goblet which had the military advantage of hiding the colour of the water from view and trapping mud in its edge. They also used a drinking vessel called a kylix (a shallow footed bowl), and for banquets the kantharos (a deep cup with handles) or the rhyton, a drinking horn often moulded into the form of a human or animal head. Corinthian skyphos with birds, ca. ... Critias (Greek , 460-403 BC), was born in Athens, son of Callaeschrus, was the uncle of Plato, leading member of the Thirty Tyrants, and one of the most violent. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Kylix by Euergides (circa 500 BC) in the British Museum, London. ... Attic kantharos, ca. ... A Rhyton (Greek ῥυτόν rutón) is a ceremonial drinking cup shaped like an animal head or horn. ...


Wine

Banqueter reaches into a krater with an oenochoe to replenish his kylix with wine, c. 490-480 BCE, Louvre

The Greeks are thought to have made red as well as rosé and white wines. As at the present time, many qualities of production were to be found, from common table wine to vintage qualities. The best wines, in general opinion, came from Thásos, Lesbos and Chios. Cretan wine came to prominence later. A secondary wine made from water and pomace (the residue from squeezed grapes), mixed with lees, was made by country people for their own use. The Greeks sometimes sweetened their wine (but with honey, not sugar) and made medicinal wines by adding thyme, pennyroyal and other herbs. By the first century AD, if not before, they were familiar with wine flavoured with pine resin (modern retsina). Aelian also mentions a wine mixed with perfume (Various History, XII, 31). Finally, Athenaeus (I, 31d) mentions a cooked wine and a sweet wine similar to port from Thásos. A krater (Greek κρατηρ, from the Greek verb κεραννυμι, to mix. ... Trifoil oenochoe, wild-goat style, ca. ... Kylix by Euergides (circa 500 BC) in the British Museum, London. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Events King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece. ... This article is about the museum. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Rosé is a type of wine that is neither purely red wine nor purely white wine. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Lesbos may refer to: Lesbos Island, a large Greek island in the Aegean Sea Lesbos Prefecture, the Greek prefecture that contains the island Slang word for Lesbians. ... Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios, see also List of traditional Greek place names; Ottoman Turkish: صاقيز Sakız; Genoese: Scio) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea five miles off the Turkish coasts. ... Cretan wine has a long history. ... Pomace is a substance prepared by pressing or grinding various fruits, for example in the manufacture of olive oil (from olives), wine (from grapes), or cider (from apples). ... Lees refers to deposits of dead yeast or residual yeast and other particles that precipitate, or are carried by the action of fining, to the bottom of a vat of wine after fermentation and aging. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus herba-barona Thymus hirsutus Thymus hyemalis Thymus integer Thymus lanuginosus... Binomial name Mentha pulegium L. The herb Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium, family Lamiaceae), is a member of the mint genus; an essential oil extracted from it is used in aromatherapy. ... Retsina is a Greek resinated white (or rosé) wine dating back at least 2700 years. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ... A glass of tawny port. ...


Wine was generally cut with water. The drinking of akraton or "unmixed wine", though known to be practised by northern barbarians, was thought likely to lead to madness and death.[6] Wine was mixed in a krater, from which the slaves would fill the drinker's kylix with an oinochoe (jugs). Wine was also used as a generic medication, being taken to have medicinal virtue. Aelian mentions that the wine from Heraia in Arcadia rendered men foolish but women fertile; conversely, Achaean wine was thought to induce abortion (XIII, 6). Outside of these therapeutic uses, Greek society did not approve of women drinking wine; according to Aelian, a Massalian law prohibited this and restricted women to drinking water (II, 38). Sparta was the only city where women routinely drank wine. A krater (Greek κρατηρ, from the Greek verb κεραννυμι, to mix. ... Funerary stele: the slave represented as a shorter person, beside the mistress, Munich Glyptothek Slavery was an essential component throughout the development of Ancient Greece. ... Trifoil oenochoe, wild-goat style, ca. ... Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. ... City motto: Actibus immensis urbs fulget Massiliensis. ...


Wine reserved for local usage was kept in skins. That destined for sale was poured into πίθοι / píthoi, (large terra cotta jugs). From here they were decanted into amphoras sealed with pitch for retail sale. Vintage wines carried stamps from the producers and/or city magistrates who guaranteed their origin. This is one of the first instances of indicating the geographical or qualitative provenance of a product, and is the basis of the modern appellations d'origine contrôlées certification. Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... Appellation dOrigine Contrôlée (AOC), which roughly translates as term of origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, by the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ...


Kykeon

The Greeks also consumed kykeon (κυκεών, from κυκάω / kykáô, "to shake, to mix"), which functioned as a cross between a beverage and a meal. It was a barley gruel, to which water and herbs were added. In the Iliad (XV, 638-641), the beverage also contained grated goat cheese. In the Odyssey (X, 234), Circe adds honey and a magic potion to it. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter (v. 208), the goddess refuses red wine but accepts a kykeon made of water, flour, and pennyroyal. Used as a ritual beverage in the Eleusinian Mysteries, it was also a popular beverage, especially in the countryside: Theophrastus, in his Characters (IV, 2-3), describes a boorish peasant as having drunk much kykeon and inconveniencing the Assembly with his bad breath. It also had a reputation for good digestive properties, and as such, in Peace (v. 712), Hermes recommends it to heroes who have eaten too much dried fruit. Kykeon (Gr. ... Goats Cheese Chèvre cheese is cheese made from goats milk (chèvre is French for goat). ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70. ... Binomial name Mentha pulegium L. The herb Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium, family Lamiaceae), is a member of the mint genus; an essential oil extracted from it is used in aromatherapy. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries were initiation ceremonies held every five years for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... The ecclesia or ekklesia (Greek έκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens. ... Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles, found at the Heraion, Olympia, 1877 Hermes (Greek, , IPA: ), in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators and wit, of literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures...


Social Dining

Banqueter and musician, red-figure cup by the Colmar Painter, 5th century BCE, Louvre

As with modern dinner parties, the host could simply invite friends or family; but two other forms of social dining were central in ancient Greece: the entertainment of the all-male Symposium, and the obligatory, regimental Syssitia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1550, 1722 KB) Description See also: detail. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1550, 1722 KB) Description See also: detail. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... This article is about the museum. ...


Symposium

Main article: Symposium

The symposium (συμπόσιον / symposion) — traditionally translated as "banquet", but more literally "gathering of drinkers" — was one of the preferred pastimes for the Greeks. It consisted of two stages: the first dedicated to food, generally rather simple, and a second stage dedicated to drink. In reality, wine was consumed with the food, and the beverages were accompanied by snacks (τραγήματα / tragếmata) such as chestnuts, beans, toasted wheat, or honey cakes; all designed to absorb alcohol and extend the drinking spree. Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut (Castanea), including... This article is on the plant. ...


The second stage was inaugurated with a libation, most often in honour of Dionysus. This was followed by debate or table games, such as kottabos. The guests would stretch out on wall seats (κλίναι / klínai), with low tables serving to hold the food or game boards. Dancers, acrobats, and musicians might augment the evening. A "King of the Banquet" was drawn by lots, and had the task of directing the slaves as to how strong to mix the wine. Libation scene, Greek red figure cup, c. ... Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos (from the Ancient Greek Διώνυσος or Διόνυσος, associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficial influences. ... Kottabos (Gr. ...


With the exception of dancers and courtesans, the banquet was strictly reserved for men, and served as an essential element of Greek social life. The great feasts were very much the domain of the very rich; in most Greek homes, religious feasts or family events were the occasion of more modest banquets. Courtesan and her client, Attican Pelike with red figures by Polygnotus, c. ...


The banquet served as the backdrop for a veritable genre of literature, for example: Plato's Symposium, Xenophon's work of the same name, the Table Talk of Plutarch's Moralia, and the Deipnosophists (Banquet of the Learned) of Athenaeus. PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... The Symposium is a dialogue by Plato, written soon after 385 BCE. It is a philosophical discussion on the nature of love, taking the form of a series of speeches, both satirical and serious, given by a group of men at a symposion or drinking party at the house of... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... Athenaeus (ca. ...


Syssitia

Main article: Syssitia

The syssitia (τὰ συσσίτια / ta sussitia) was, in ancient Greece, a common meal for men and youths in social or religious groups, especially in Crete and Sparta. An obligatrory meal, it was referred to variously as a hetairia, pheiditia , or andreia (literally, "belonging to men"), they formed a central part of life in many towns, filling a role as a type of aristocratic club as well as matching the functions of a military mess. Like the Symposium, the Syssitia was the exclusive domain of men - although some references have been found to all-female Syssitia. Unlike the Symposium, these meals were hallmarked by simplicity and sobriety. The syssitia (in Classical Greek / ta sussitia) was, in Ancient Greece, a common meal for men and youths in social or religious groups, especially in Crete and Sparta, though also in Megara in the time of Theognis (6th century BCE) and Corinth in the time of Periander (7th century BCE). ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... This article may not give enough verifiable information about the subject, or may not sufficiently explain its importance. ... The most comprehensive statement we possess as to the various kinds of clubs which might exist in a single Greek state appears in a law of Solon quoted incidentally in the Digest of Justinian I (47. ... For other uses, see Mess (disambiguation). ... The syssitia (in Classical Greek / ta sussitia) was, in Ancient Greece, a common meal for men and youths in social or religious groups, especially in Crete and Sparta, though also in Megara in the time of Theognis (6th century BCE) and Corinth in the time of Periander (7th century BCE). ...


Gluttons, gourmets and chefs

Fresh fish, one of the favourite dishes of the Greeks, platter with red figures, c. 350-325 BCE, Louvre

Up to the 3rd century BCE, the frugality imposed by the physical and climatic conditions of the country was held as virtuous. The Greeks did not ignore the pleasures of eating, but valued simplicity. The rural writer Hesiod, as cited above, spoke of his "flesh of a heifer fed in the woods, that has never calved, and of firstling kids" as being the perfect closing to a day. Nonetheless, Chrysippus is quoted as saying by Athenaeus (I, 8c) that the best meal was a free one. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC - 350 BC - 349 BC 348 BC 347... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC - 325 BC - 324 BC 323 BC 322... This article is about the museum. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... Chrysippus of Soli (279-207 BC) was Cleanthess pupil and eventual successor to the head of the stoic philosophy (232-204 BC). ...


Culinary and gastronomical research was rejected as a sign of oriental flabbiness: the Persian Empire was considered as decadent due to their luxurious taste, which manifested itself in their cuisine[7]. The Greek authors took pleasure in describing the table of Great King Achaemenid and his court: Herodotus (I, 133), Clearchus of Soli (cited by Athenaeus, XII, 539b), Strabo (XV, 3, 22) and Ctesias (cited by Athenaeus, II, 67a) were unanimous in their descriptions. Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... Gastronomy is the study of relationship between culture and food. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Clearchus of Soli (), one of Aris­totles pupils, was the author of a number of works, none of which are extant. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ...


In contrast, the Greeks took pleasure in underscoring the austerity of their diet. Plutarch, in Life of Lycurgus (XII, 13) tells how the king of Pontus, eager to try the famous Spartan "black gruel", bought a Laconian cook. "but had no sooner tasted it than he found it extremely bad, which the cook observing, told him, "Sir, to make this broth relish, you should have bathed yourself first in the river Evrotas."[8]". According to Polyaenus (Stratagems, IV, 3, 32), On discovering the dining hall of the Persian royal palace, Alexander the Great mocked their taste and blamed it for their defeat. Pausanias, on discovering the dining habits of the Persian commander Mardonius, equally ridiculed the Persians, "who having so much came to rob the Greeks of their miserable living" (IX, 82). Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Laconia (; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a prefecture in Greece. ... Polyaenus (died 278 BC), born in Macedonia, was a Greek rhetorician who served as military commander in the Roman army. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Pausanias (Greek = Παυσανίας) was a Spartan general of the 5th century BCE. He was the nephew of Leonidas I and served as regent after his uncles death, as Leonidas son, Pleistarchus was still under-age. ... Mardonius was a Persian commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the 5th century BC. He was the son of Gobryas and the son-in-law of Darius I of Persia, whose daughter Artozostra he had married. ...


In consequence of this cult of frugality, and the diminished regard for cuisine it inspired, the kitchen long remained the domain of women, free or enslaved. In the classical period, however, culinary specialists begin to enter the written record. Both Claudius Aelianus (XII, 24) and Athenaeus mention the thousand cooks who accompanied Smindyride of Sybaris on his voyage to Athens at the time of Cleisthenes, if only disapprovingly. Plato, in Gorgias (518b), mentions "Thearion the cook, Mithaecos the author of a treatise on Sicilian cooking, and Sarambos the wine merchant; three eminent connoisseurs of cake, kitchen and wine." Some chefs also wrote treatises on cuisine. Coin from Sybaris, c. ... View of part of central Athens and some of the citys southern suburbs from Lykavittos Hill. ... Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the accursed Alcmeonidate family. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Gorgias is an important dialogue in which Plato sets the rhetorician, whose specialty is persuasion, in opposition to the philosopher, whose specialty is dissuasion, or refutation. ...


Over time, more and more Greeks presented themselves as gourmets. From the Hellenistic to the Roman period, the Greeks — at least the rich — no longer appeared to be any more austere than others. The cultivated guests of the feast hosted by Atheneaus in the 2nd or 3rd century devote a large part of their conversation to wine and gastronomy. They discuss the merits of various wines, vegetables, and meats, mentioning renowned dishes (stuffed cuttlefish, red tuna belly, prawns, lettuce watered with mead) and great cooks such as Soterides, chef to king Nicomedes I of Bithynia(who reigned from the 279 to 250 BCE). When his master was inland, he pined for anchovies; Soterides simulated them from carefully carved turnips, oiled, salted and sprinkled with poppy seeds. The Suda (an encyclopaedia from the Byzantine period) mistakenly attributes this exploit to the celebrated Roman gourmet Apicius (1st century BCE — which may be taken as evidence that the Greeks had more impressive culinary anecdotes, in spite of later assumptions to the contrary. The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... A shoal of skipjack tuna Tuna are several species of ocean-dwelling fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. ... Superfamilies Penaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Prawns are shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata [1]. Prawns are distinguished from the superficially similar shrimp by the gill structure which is branching in prawns (hence the name, dendro=tree; branchia=gill), but is lamellar in... Binomial name Lactuca sativa L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Nicomedes I (in Greek Nικoμηδης; 279–c. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... (Redirected from 279 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC - 279 BC - 278... (Redirected from 250 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC... {{Taxobox classis = Actinopterygii | ordo = Clupeiformes | familia = Engraulidae | subdivision_ranks = Genera | subdivision = Amazonsprattus Anchoa Anchovia Anchiovella Cetengraulis Coilia Encrasicholina Engraulis Jurengraulis Lycengraulis Lycothrissa Papuengraulis Pterengraulis Setipinna Stolephorus Thryssa }} The anchovies are a family large but uncommon schooling saltwater plankton-feeding fish. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Apicius was a name applied to three celebrated Roman epicures, the first of whom lived during the Republic; the second of whom, Marcus Gavius (or Gabius) Apicius—the most famous in his own time—lived under the early Empire; a third lived in the late 4th or early 5th century. ... (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st...


Specific diets

Vegetarianism

Triptolemus received wheat sheaves from Demeter and blessings from Persephone, 5th century BCE relief, National Archaeological Museum of Athens

Orphicism and Pythagoreanism, two common ancient Greek religions, suggested a different way of life, based on a concept of purity and thus purification (κάθαρσις/katharsis) — a form of asceticism in the original sense: ἄσκησις/áskêsis initially signifies a ritual, then a specific way of life. Vegetarianism was a central element of Orphicism and of several variants of Pythagoreanism. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1653, 508 KB) Summary Relief votif en marbre pentélique trouvé à Éleusis, dédié au sanctuaire de Déméter et de Korè. Il représente les deux déesses éleusiniennes dans une scène du rituel des mystères. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1653, 508 KB) Summary Relief votif en marbre pentélique trouvé à Éleusis, dédié au sanctuaire de Déméter et de Korè. Il représente les deux déesses éleusiniennes dans une scène du rituel des mystères. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70. ... Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, PersephónÄ“) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... Façade of the National Archaeological museum of Athens. ... Orphism or Orphicism is a secret religious movement in the classical Greek world. ... Bust of Pythagoras Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspirational source for Plato and platonism. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming the flesh of any animal (including sea animals) with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs[1]. Some vegetarians choose to also refrain from wearing clothing that has involved the death of animals, such as leather, silk...


Empedocles (5th century BCE) justified vegetarianism by a belief in the transmigration of souls: who could guarantee that an animal about to be slaughtered did not house the soul of a human being? (Though the philologist E. R. Dodds[9] observes that Empedocles also included plants in this transmigration, thus the same logic should have applied to eating them.) Dodds also cites vegetarianism as a consequence of a dislike for killing, as expressed in Aristophanes' Frogs v. 1032 — "For Orpheus taught us rites and to refrain from killing".[10] For the volcano, see Empedocles (volcano). ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ...


The information from Pythagoras (6th century BCE) is more difficult to define. The Comedic authors such as Aristophon and Alexis described Pythagoreans as strictly vegetarian, with some of them living on bread and water alone. Other traditions contented themselves with prohibiting the consumption of certain sacred animals such as the white cock or selected animal parts. Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 BC and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... Greek comedy is the name given to a wide genre of theatrical plays written, and performed, in Ancient Greece. ... ... The Pythagoreans were a Hellenic organization of astronomers, musicians, mathematicians, and philosophers who believed that all things are, essentially, numeric. ... Rooster crowing during daylight A Barred Plymouth Rock cockerel crowing A rooster or cock is a male chicken, (Gallus gallus) the female being a hen. ...


It follows that vegetarianism and the idea of ascetic purity were closely associated, and often accompanied by sexual abstinence. In his On the eating of flesh (Moralia book XII, 68), Plutarch (1st - 2nd century) reprises the theme of the barbarism of blood and, breaking with the usual formalities of debate, commands the meat-eater to justify his choice. Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


The Neoplatonic Porphyrius (3rd century), in his On Abstinence, associates vegetarianism with the Cretan mystery cults, and gives a census of past vegetarians, starting with the semi-mythical Epimenides. For him, the origin of vegetarianism was Demeter's gift of wheat to Triptolemus so that he could teach agriculture to humanity. His three commandments were: Honour your parents, Honour the gods with fruit, and save the animals (IV, 22). Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Porphyry (Greek: , c. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Epimenides of Knossos Epimenides of Knossos (Crete) (Greek: Επιμενίδης) was a semi-mythical 6th century BC Greek seer and philosopher-poet, who is said to have fallen asleep for fifty-seven years in a Cretian cave sacred to Zeus, after which he reportedly awoke with the gift of prophecy. ... Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ...


Athlete diets

Claudius Aelianus claimed that the first athlete to submit to a formal diet was Iccus de Taranto, an athlete of the 5th century BCE (XI, 3). Plato (Laws, VIII, 839e-840a) confirms that he followed a very strict regime, apparently accompanied by abstinence: "...during all the period of his training (as the story goes) he never touched a woman, nor yet a boy?" The phrase "Meal of Iccus" was apparently proverbial. For his part, Athenaeus (XI, 205) refers to ξηροφαγία / xêrophagía a diet based on dry foods, which he indicates was observed by athletes of late ancient Greece. Diogenes Laertius confirms this: according to him, a Pythagoras (either the philosopher or a gymnastics master) was the first to direct athletes to eat meat, while formerly they had been eating only dry figs, cheese and bread. The choice of meats was made based on a sort of doctrine of signatures based on similarity: eating goat to be able to spring like a goat, beef to be strong as an ox, etc. Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ... The doctrine of signatures refers to two separate concepts. ...


Notes

  1. ^ This article was initially translated from the French wiki article fr:Alimentation en Grèce antique on 26 May 2006.
  2. ^ The expression originates in Sir Colin Renfrew's The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and the Aegean in The Third Millennium BC, 1972.
  3. ^ At the time of Homer and the early tragedies, the term signified the first meal of the day, which was not necessarily frugal: in canto XXIV v. 124 of the Iliad, Achilles's companions slaughter a sheep for breakfast
  4. ^ Aristophanes. Peace. trans. Eugene O'Neill, Jr. 1938. accessed 23 May 2006
  5. ^ Hesiod. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica Trans. Hugh G. Evelyn-White 1914. accessed 23 May 2006
  6. ^ E.g. Menander, Samia 394.
  7. ^ For a comparison of Persian and Greek cuisine, see P. Briant's, Histoire de l'Empire perse de Cyrus à Alexandre, Fayard, 1996, p. 297-306.
  8. ^ Plutarch, Life of Lycurgus XII, 13. trans. John Dryden. accessed 26 May 2006.
  9. ^ E. R. Dodds, "The Greek Shamans and the Origins of Puritanism ", in The Greek and the Irrational (Sather Classical Lectures), University of California Press, 1962 (1st edn 1959), p. 154-155.
  10. ^ Aristophanes. Frogs trans Matthew Dillon. accessed 2 June 2006

Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ... Homer (Greek: , ) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... It has been suggested that Deception of Zeus be merged into this article or section. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... Bust of Menander Menander (342–291 BC) (Greek ), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New Comedy, was born in Athens. ...

Bibliography

  • (French) Marie-Claire Amouretti, Le Pain et l'huile dans la Grèce antique. De l'araire au moulin, Belles Lettres, Paris, 1989
  • Andrew Dalby, Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece, Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-15657-2
  • (French) Armand Delatte, Le Cycéon, breuvage rituel des mystères d'Éleusis, Belles Lettres, Paris, 1955
  • (French) Marcel Détienne et Jean-Louis Vernant, La Cuisine du sacrifice en pays grec, Gallimard, "Bibliothèque des histoires" collection, Paris, 1979
  • Robert Flacelière, Daily Life in Greece at the Time of Pericles, Phoenix Press, 2002 (1st edn 1959). ISBN 1-84212-507-9
  • (French) Léopold Migeotte, L'Économie des cités greques, Ellipses, "Antiquité : une histoire" collection, 2002. ISBN 2-7298-0849-3, p. 62–63.

External links

  • (French) "Végétarisme, au commencement... " (French language article on origin of vegetarianism)
  • A Taste of the Ancient World (University of Michigan)

Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... An Egyptian couple harvesting from a painting in the tomb from the early Ramessid period. ... Still life with fruit basket and vases (Pompeii, ca. ... Ancient Maya cuisine was varied and extensive. ... Pachamanca, a traditional dish consisting of food prepared in a huatia. ... The most important staple of Aztec cuisine was maize (corn), a crop that was so important to Aztec society that it played a central part in their mythology. ... Byzantine cuisine was marked by a merger of Greek and Roman gastronomy. ... Peasants threshing siligo, a type of wheat. ... The Ottoman Cuisine, is the cuisine of the Capital - Istanbul, and the regional capital cities of the Ottoman Empire, where the melting pot of cultures created a common cuisine that all the populations enjoyed. ... Beans were among the most important staples for the early modern Tuscans; The Beaneater by Annibale Caracci, 1580-90. ... The history of Chinese cuisine is, in China, traced back to the Peking Man and his use of fire, and the invention of cuisine some 400,000 years ago. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east[1... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Thebes (in Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva, Katharevousa: — Thēbai or Thíve) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... For the famous battle, see Battle of Thermopylae. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... Acropolis of Pergamon as seen from above Temple of Trajan at the Acropolis of Pergamon The Asklepeion of Pergamon was the worlds first hospital Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now the Aydin Province of Turkey... Delphi (Greek Δελφοί, [ðe̞lˈfi]) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum. ... TRENT IS SOOOOOOOOO HOT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Ancient Greek law is a branch of comparative jurisprudence relating to the laws and legal institutions of Ancient Greece. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... To the ancient Greeks, Paideia (παιδεία) was the process of educating man into his true form, the real and genuine human nature. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... Courtesan and her client, Attican Pelike with red figures by Polygnotus, c. ... Funerary stele: the slave represented as a shorter person, beside the mistress, Munich Glyptothek Slavery was an essential component throughout the development of Ancient Greece. ... Ancient Greek technology is a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for more than one thousand years. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 BC and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... For the volcano, see Empedocles (volcano). ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace around 460 BC). ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ... Roman marble bust of Epicurus Epicurus (Epikouros or in Greek) (341 BC, Samos – 270 BC, Athens) was an ancient Greek philosopher, the founder of Epicureanism, one of the most popular schools of thought in Hellenistic Philosophy. ... Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD. // This period of Greek literature stretches from Homer until the 4th century and the rise of Alexander the Great. ... Homer (Greek: , ) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ... Ancient Greek bust. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC - 406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ... Bust of Menander Menander (342–291 BC) (Greek ), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New Comedy, was born in Athens. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Lucian. ... Polybius (c. ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, defined as building executed to an aesthetically considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis (high city, The Sacred Rock) in the world. ... Remains of the agora built in Athens in the Roman period (east of the classical agora). ... [Image:http://www. ... A fanciful reconstruction of Phidias statue of Zeus, in an engraving made by Philippe Galle in 1572, from a drawing by Maarten van Heemskerck The Statue of Zeus at Olympia is one of the classical Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. ... This drawing of Colossus of Rhodes, which illustrated The Grolier Societys 1911 Book of Knowledge, is probably fanciful, as it is unlikely that the statue stood astride the harbour mouth. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) Temple of Hephaestus, Athens: eastern face The Temple of Hephaestus in central ancient Athens, Greece, is the best-preserved ancient Greek temple in the world, but is far less well... General location of Samothrace The Samothrace Temple Complex, known as the Sanctuary of the Great Gods is one of the principal Pan-Hellenic religious sanctuaries, located on the island of Samothrace within the larger Thrace. ... Insert non-formatted text here This is a timeline of ancient Greece. ... Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... The Minoan Civilisation was a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization which arose on Crete, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... This article is about the Greek archaeological site. ... The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... This article describes the ancient classical period: for the classical period in music (second half of the 18th century): see Classical music era. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Roman Greece is the period of Greek history following the Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC until the reestablishment of the city of Byzantium and the naming of the city by Emperor Constantine I as the capital of the Roman Empire (as Nova... This an alphabetical list of ancient Greeks. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... // Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BC?–630 BC) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum. ... The great kouros of Samos, the largest surviving kouros in Greece (Samos Archaeological Museum) The Ancient Greek word kouros meant a male youth, and is used by Homer to refer to young soldiers. ... The Lady of Auxerre, an example of a kore Kore (Greek - maiden), plural korai, is the name given to a type of ancient Greek sculpture of the archaic period, the female equivalent of a kouros. ... The Kritios boy belongs to the Late Archaic period and is considered the precursor to the later classical sculptures of athletes. ... The Doryphoros of Polykleitos The Doryphoros (Greek δορυφόρος, lit. ... Statue of Zeus The Greek sculptor Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall Statue of Zeus in about 435 bc. ... Townley Discobolus, London, British Museum, with incorrectly restored head defying the balance of the figure The Discobolus of Myron (discus thrower Greek Δισκοβόλος του Μύρωνα) is a famous Roman marble copy of a lost Greek bronze original, completed during the zenith of the classical period between 460-450 BC. Myrons Discobolus was... -1... The statue of Laocoön and His Sons, also called the Laocoön Group, is a monumental marble sculpture, now in the Vatican Museums, Rome. ... Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ... Death of Sarpedon, painted by Euphronios Euphronios was a Greek painter and potter of red-figure vases, active in Athens between 520 and 470 BC, the time of the Persian Wars. ... Polykleitos (or Polycletus, Polyklitos, Polycleitus, Polyclitus) the Elder was a Greek sculptor of the 5th century BC and the early 4th century BC. Next to famous Phidias, Myron and Kresilas he is the most important sculptor of the Classical antiquity. ... Minotaur, from a fountain in Athens, reflecting Myrons lost group of Theseus and the Minotaur (National Archeological Museum, Athens) Myron of Eleutherae (Greek Μύρων) working 480-444 BCE, was an Athenian sculptor from the mid-fifth century BCE.[1] He was born in Eleutherae on the borders of Boeotia and...


 
 

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