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Encyclopedia > Ancient Egyptian royal titulary

The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. It symbolises worldly power and holy might and also acts as a sort of mission statement for the reign of a monarch (sometimes it even changed during the reign). Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Look up mission statement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The full titulary, consisting of five names, did not come into standard usage until the Middle Kingdom but remained in use as late as the Roman Empire. The Middle Kingdom is: a old name for China a period in the History of Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Roman Empire ca. ...

Contents

Horus name

Serekh containing the name of Djet, on display at the Louvre

This name was usually written in a serekh, a representation of a palace façade. The name of the pharaoh was written in hieroglyphs inside this representation of a palace. Typically an image of the falcon God Horus was perched on top or beside it. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (486x800, 119 KB) French: Miroir - Antiquité égyptienne du Musée du Louvre Guillaume Blanchard, July 2004, Fujifilm S6900 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Djet Ancient Egyptian... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (486x800, 119 KB) French: Miroir - Antiquité égyptienne du Musée du Louvre Guillaume Blanchard, July 2004, Fujifilm S6900 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Djet Ancient Egyptian... Djet (Serpent, c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Horus and the serekh The serekh is a stylised rectangle which contained the Horus name of ancient Egyptian Pharaohs (they had five regal names each). ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ...


This is the oldest form of the pharaoh's name, originating in the Predynastic Period. Many of the oldest-known Egyptian pharaohs were known only by this title. The king was thought to be the earthly embodiment of Horus. The Predynastic period of Egypt is the period that culminates in the rise of the Old Kingdom and the first of the thirty dynasties based on royal residences, by which Egyptologists divide the history of Pharaonic civilization, using a schedule laid out first by Manethos Aegyptaica. ...


At least one Egyptian ruler, the Second Dynasty Seth-Peribsen, used an image of the god Seth instead of Horus, perhaps signifying an internal religious division within the country. He was succeeded by Khasekhemwy, who placed the symbols of both Set and Horus above his name. Thereafter, the image of Horus always appeared alongside the name of the pharaoh. History of Ancient Egypt Second Dynasty The names of the actual rulers of the Second Dynasty are in dispute. ... Stelae from Abydos tomb Seth-Peribsen was a pharaoh during the Second dynasty of Egypt who ruled for seventeen years. ... In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ... Khasekhemwy (? -2686 BC; sometimes spelled Khasekhemui) was the 5th and final Pharaoh of the 2nd dynasty of Egypt. ...


By the time of the New Kingdom the Horus name was often written without the enclosing serekh. The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ...


Nebty ("two ladies") name

The nebty name (lit. "two ladies") was associated with the so-called "heraldic" goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt:

  • Nekhbet, patron deity of Upper Egypt, represented by a vulture, and
  • Wadjet, patron deity of Lower Egypt, represented by a cobra.

The name is first definitively used by the First Dynasty pharaoh Semerkhet, though it only became a fully independent title by the Twelfth Dynasty. In Egyptian mythology, Nekhbet (of Nekheb) was an early, predynastic, local vulture-goddess, patron of the city of Nekheb. ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... In Egyptian mythology, Buto (papyrus colored--referring to the color of the cobra) was a snake (especially cobra) goddess and patron of the oracle in the city of the same name. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The First and second Dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. ... Semerkhet was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts First Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twelfth Dynasty. ...


This particular name was not typically framed by a cartouche or serekh, but always begins with the hieroglyphs of a vulture and cobra resting upon two baskets, the dual noun "nebty". Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ...


Horus of Gold

Also known as the Golden Horus Name, this form of the pharaoh's name typically featured the image of a Horus falcon perched above or beside the hieroglyph for gold.


The meaning of this particular title has been disputed. One belief is that it represents the triumph of Horus over his uncle Seth, as the symbol for gold can be taken to mean that Horus was "superior to his foes". Gold was also strongly associated in the ancient Egyptian mind with eternity, so this may have been intended to convey the pharaoh's eternal Horus name. For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ...


Like the Nebty name, this particular name was not typically framed by a cartouche or serekh. It always begins with the depiction of the horus falcon perched above a representation of the sun.


Throne name (praenomen)

Praenomen of the Cartouche of Thutmose II preceded by Sedge and Bee symbols, Temple of Hatshepsut, Luxor


The pharaoh's throne name, the first of the two names written inside a cartouche, and usually accompanied the title nesu-bity, "King of Upper and Lower Egypt"; the epithet neb tawy, "Lord of the Two Lands", referring to valley and delta regions of Egypt, often occurs as well. In some literature it is often stated that nesu-bity literally means "He of the Sedge and Bee" (Allen 1999). Others think that the two words are related to other Afro-Asiatic words (in particular, Berber languages) meaning "strong man", "ruler", and the like (Schneider 1993). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x1280, 422 KB) Hieroglyphs on an obelisk on the last floor of the Temple of Hatshepsut, on Luxors west bank, Egypt. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x1280, 422 KB) Hieroglyphs on an obelisk on the last floor of the Temple of Hatshepsut, on Luxors west bank, Egypt. ... Ancient egyptian cartouche of Thutmose III, Karnak, Egypt. ... Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Aset Issues Thutmose III, Neferure, Meritre Father... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... Ancient egyptian cartouche of Thutmose III, Karnak, Egypt. ... Genera See text The family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...


This form of the name first came to prominence at the end of the Third Dynasty, and later would become the most important official title of the king. History of Egypt Third Dynasty While Manetho names one Necherophes, and the Turin King List names Nebka, as the first pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, some contemporary Egyptologists believe Djoser was the first king of this dynasty, pointing out that the order in which some predecessors of Khufu...


Personal name (nomen)

This was the name given to the crown prince at birth. The name itself was preceded by the title "Son of Ra", written with the hieroglyph of a duck (za), a homonym for the word meaning "son" (za), adjacent to an image of the sun, a hieroglyph for the chief solar deity Ra. It was first introduced to the set of royal titles in the Fourth Dynasty and emphasizes the king's role as a representative of the solar god Ra. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up homonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ...


Modern historians typically refer to the ancient kings of Egypt by this name, adding ordinals (e.g. "II", "III") to distinguish between different individuals bearing the same name.


Examples of the full titulary

In the Middle Kingdom, the full titulary was sometimes written in a single cartouche, as in this example from Senusret I, from Beni Hasan. The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises of 2 phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th... Kheperkare The Ka of Re is created Nomen Senusret Man of Wosret Horus name Ankh mesut Living of births Nebty name Ankh mesut Living of births Golden Horus Ankh mesut Living of births Consort(s) Neferu Issues Itakayt, Sebat Ameny, Amenemhat–ankh Father Amenemhat I Mother Neferitatenen[1] Burial Pyramid... Beni Hasan (or Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) is a village in Middle Egypt about 25 km south of al Minya, on the east bank of the Nile, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated. ...

Thutmose III in hieroglyphs
serekh or Horus name


Nebty name


Golden Horus name


praenomen or throne name
nomen or birth name

The full titulary of Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Thutmose III, providing a guide to pronunciation and its equivalent meaning, is as follows Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1201x78, 23 KB) Senusret five fold titulary from Beni Hassan. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Srxtail2. ... copied from http://fi. ... copied from http://fi. ... copied from http://fi. ... copied from http://fi. ... The Eighteenth Dynasty was founded by Ahmose, the brother of Kamose, the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty. ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu...

  • Horus name: Kanakht Khaemwaset (Horus Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes)
  • nebty name: Wahnesytmireempet (He of the Two Ladies, Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven)
  • Horus of Gold: Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw (Horus of Gold Powerful of strength, Sacred of appearance)
  • praenomen: Menkheperre (He of the Sedge and the Bee, Enduring of form is Re)
  • nomen: Thutmose Neferkheperu (Son of Ra, Thutmose, beautiful of forms)

Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome...

References

  • Allen, James P. (1999). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521774837. 
  • Dodson, Aidan Mark, and Dyan Hilton (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Cairo, London, and New York: The American University in Cairo Press and Thames and Hudson. ISBN 977-424-878-3. 
  • Gardiner, Alan Henderson (1957). Egyptian Grammar; Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, 3rd, Oxford: Griffith Institute. 
  • Quirke, Stephen G. J. (1990). Who Were the Pharaohs? A History of Their Names with a List of Cartouches. London: British Museum Publications Limited. 
  • Schneider, Thomas (1993). "Zur Etymologie der Bezeichnung ‘König von Ober- und Unterägypten’". Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 120: 166–181. 
  • von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, 2nd edition, Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern. 

Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. ...

External links


 
 

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