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Encyclopedia > Ancient Egypt
The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.

Ancient Egypt was a civilization in eastern North Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern nation of Egypt. The civilization began around 3150 BC[1] with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and it developed over the next three millennia.[2] Its history occurred in a series of stable periods, known as kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods. After the end of the last kingdom, known as the New Kingdom, the civilization of ancient Egypt entered a period of slow, steady decline, during which Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers. The rule of the pharaohs officially ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered Egypt and made it a province.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (4372 × 2906 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (4372 × 2906 pixel, file size: 4. ... Central New York City. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332 BC, with its conquest... The maximum territorial extent of Egypt (XVth century BC) The New Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria...


The civilization of ancient Egypt thrived from its adaptation to the conditions of the Nile River Valley. Controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which fueled social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military that defeated foreign enemies and asserted Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a divine pharaoh who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people through an elaborate system of religious beliefs.[4][5] Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... For most parts of its long history, Ancient Egypt was unified under one government. ... Egyptian goddess Isis protecting a mummified pharaoh, a late Ptolemic relief from the Philae Temple, which was first built in the thirtieth dynasty, c. ...

Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)

The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians included a system of mathematics, quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that facilitated the building of monumental pyramids, temples, obelisks, faience and glass technology, a practical and effective system of medicine, new forms of literature, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, and the earliest known peace treaty.[6] Egypt left a lasting legacy: art and architecture were copied and antiquities paraded around the world, and monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of tourists and writers for centuries. A newfound respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy for Egypt and the world.[7] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ... Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The literature of Ancient Egypt developed from enscriptions, associated with kingship, labels and tags for items found in royal tombs, etc. ... Ancient Egyptian art refers to the style of painting, sculpture, crafts and architecture developed by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from c. ... The well preserved temple of Horus at Edfu is an exemplar of Egyptian architecture The Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations which developed a vast array of diverse structures encompassing ancient Egyptian architecture. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ...

Contents

History

History of Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Egypt
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
Old Kingdom
First Intermediate Period
Middle Kingdom
Second Intermediate Period
New Kingdom
Third Intermediate Period
First Persian Period
Late Period
Second Persian Period
Ptolemaic Dynasty
Main articles: History of ancient Egypt and History of Egypt

By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of northern Africa had become increasingly hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the Nile valley, and since nomadic hunter-gatherers began living in the region during the Pleistocene some 1.8 million years ago, the Nile has been the lifeline of Egypt.[8] The fertile floodplain of the Nile gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agricultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized society that became a cornerstone in the history of human civilization.[9] Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332 BC, with its conquest... The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Narmer. ... The Protodynastic Period of Egypt refers to the period of time at the very end of the Predynastic Period. ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... The maximum territorial extent of Egypt (XVth century BC) The New Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Rameses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... The history of Achaemenid Egypt is divided into three era: the first period of Persian occupation when Egypt became a satrapy, followed by an interval of independence, and the second and final period of occupation. ... ôľĎÚ The Late Period of Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period, and before the Persian conquests. ... The history of Achaemenid Egypt is divided into three era: the first period of Persian occupation when Egypt became a satrapy, followed by an interval of independence, and the second and final period of occupation. ...  Kingdom of Ptolemy Other diadochi  Kingdom of Cassander  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Seleucus  Epirus Other  Carthage  Rome  Greek colonies The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Hellenistic royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Ptolemy, a somatophylax, one of... Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332 BC, with its conquest... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ...

A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. (Predynastic Period)
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. (Predynastic Period)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x716, 128 KB) Description French: Antiquité égyptienne du Musée du Louvre Source Guillaume Blanchard, July 2004, Fujifilm S6900 License File links The following pages link to this file: Ancient Egypt ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x716, 128 KB) Description French: Antiquité égyptienne du Musée du Louvre Source Guillaume Blanchard, July 2004, Fujifilm S6900 License File links The following pages link to this file: Ancient Egypt ...

Predynastic Period

By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of unique cultures demonstrating firm control of agriculture and animal husbandry. The earliest were established in Lower Egypt at el-Omari, Merimda, and in the Faiyum. At the intersection of routes from the Sahara, the Nile valley, and the Near East, the Faiyum Neolithic culture displayed characteristics of each and was noted for advanced stone tools which shaped the prehistoric lithic industry in Egypt.[10][11] Merimda was one of the largest northern communities, and was unique for its sophisticated forms of vases and pottery ring-stands and ladles, and the stone maceheads that became popular during the Old Kingdom.[12] Shepherd with his sheep in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... Helwan, also spelled Hilwan or Hulwan is a city in Egypt on the bank of the Nile river, opposite the ruins of Memphis, with a population of about 230,000 (1989). ... Egypt: Site of Al Fayyum oasis (top center). ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The earliest cultures in southern Egypt, the Badari, were established a few centuries after their northern counterparts. Contemporaneous with the Maadi, Buto and Heliopolitan cultures to the north,[13] the Badari culture was known for its high quality ceramics, stone tools, and its use of copper.[14] Badarian burials, simple pit graves with signs of social stratification, suggest that the culture was coming under the control of more powerful leaders.[15] In the north, Maadian pottery was occasionally decorated with birds and serekhs bearing the first Horus names, a sign of increasing cultural sophistication.[16] Maadi was also the main source of basalt vessels, whose distribution becomes more widespread in the south after northern Egypt falls under the control of the Upper Egyptian rulers.[17] The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt. ... Maadi (Arabic: el-Ma‛adi) is a suburb south of Cairo, Egypt. ... Buto This article is about the Egyptian city Buto. ... For other uses, see Heliopolis. ... The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt. ... Horus and the serekh The serekh is a stylised rectangle which contained the Horus name of ancient Egyptian Pharaohs (they had five regal names each). ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ...


In the south, the Naqada culture gradually developed into a civilization along the Nile by about 4000 BC. It had power centers at Nekhen and Abydos and it expanded its control of Egypt northwards.[18] The people of Naqada manufactured painted pottery, high quality decorative stone vases, cosmetic palettes, and jewelry made of gold, lapis, and ivory. They also engaged in trade with Nubia, the oases of the western desert, and the Levant.[19] Naqada developed a ceramic glaze known as faience, which was used well into the Roman Period to decorate cups, amulets, and figurines.[20] During the last phase of the predynastic, the Naqada culture began using written symbols that evolved into a full system of hieroglyphs for writing the Egyptian language.[21] Naqada or Naquada is a district and town about 30km north of Luxor on the west bank of the Nile in southern Egypt, (Upper Egypt),includes some villages such as Toukh,khatara ,Danfiq and zawayda. ... Nekhen (Greek: Hierakonpolis, Arabic: Kom El-Ahmar) was the religious and political capital of Upper Egypt at the end of the Predynastic period ( 3200- 3100 BC.) and probably also during the Early Dynastic Period ( 3100 - 2686 BC). ... Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس, Greek Αβυδος), one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, is about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Egyptian faience is an extension of the term faience. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ...


Early Dynastic Period

The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.
The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.[22]

The ancient Egyptians chose to begin their official history with a king named "Meni" (or Menes in Greek) who they believed had united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.[23] The transition to a unified state actually happened more gradually than the ancient Egyptian writers would have us believe, and there is no contemporary record of Menes. Scholars now believe, however, that the mythical Menes may have actually been the pharaoh Narmer, who is depicted wearing royal regalia on the ceremonial Narmer Palette in a symbolic act of unification.[24] The third century BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of pharaohs following Menes into 30 dynasties, a system still in use today.[25] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2761x1953, 1870 KB) Image:NarmerPalette ROM.jpg by Captmondo, gamma adjusted to bring out more detail at lower resolutions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Narmer Narmer... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2761x1953, 1870 KB) Image:NarmerPalette ROM.jpg by Captmondo, gamma adjusted to bring out more detail at lower resolutions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Narmer Narmer... Reverse and Obverse Sides of Narmer Palette, this facsimile on display at the Royal Ontario Museum, in Toronto, Canada The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC, containing some of... This article is about the Pharaoh. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... Narmer was an Egyptian Pharaoh who ruled in the 31st century BC. Thought to be the successor to the predynastic Scorpion and/or Ka, he is considered by some to be the founder of the First dynasty, and therefore the first king of all Egypt. ... Reverse and Obverse Sides of Narmer Palette, this facsimile on display at the Royal Ontario Museum, in Toronto, Canada The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC, containing some of... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ...


In the Early Dynastic Period about 3150 BC, the first pharaohs solidified their control over lower Egypt by establishing a capital at Memphis, from which they could control the labor force and agriculture of the fertile delta region as well as the lucrative and critical trade routes to the Levant. The increasing power and wealth of the pharaohs during the early dynastic period was reflected in their elaborate mastaba tombs and mortuary cult structures at Abydos, which were used to celebrate the deified pharaoh after his death.[26] The strong institution of kingship developed by the pharaohs served to legitimize state control over the land, labor, and resources that were essential to the survival and growth of ancient Egyptian civilization.[27] For other uses, see Memphis. ... A mastaba was a flat-roofed, mud brick, rectangular building with inward sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypts ancient period. ...


Old Kingdom

Menkaura and his consort Queen Khamerernebty II
Menkaura and his consort Queen Khamerernebty II

Stunning advances in architecture, art, and technology were made during the Old Kingdom, fueled by the increased agricultural productivity made possible by a well developed central administration.[28] Under the direction of the vizier, state officials collected taxes, coordinated irrigation projects to improve crop yield, drafted peasants to work on construction projects, and established a justice system to maintain peace and order.[29] With the surplus resources made available by a productive and stable economy, the state was able to sponsor construction of colossal monuments and to commission exceptional works of art from the royal workshops. The pyramids built by Djoser, Khufu, and their descendants are the most memorable symbols of ancient Egyptian civilization, and power of the pharaohs that controlled it. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 288 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (945 × 1966 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 288 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (945 × 1966 pixel, file size: 2. ... Men-kau-re[1] Eternal like the Souls of Re Nomen Consort(s) Khamerernebty II Issues Khuenre, Shepseskaf, Khentkawes Father Khafre Mother Khamaerernebty I Died 2504 BC Burial Pyramid at Giza Major Monuments Pyramid at Giza Menkaura (or Men-Kau-Re; Mycerinus in Latin; Mykerinos in Greek) was a pharaoh... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... For other uses, see Khufu (disambiguation). ...


Along with the rising importance of a central administration arose a new class of educated scribes and officials who were granted estates by the pharaoh in payment for their services. Pharaohs also made land grants to their mortuary cults and local temples to ensure that these institutions would have the necessary resources to worship the pharaoh after his death. By the end of the Old Kingdom, five centuries of these feudal practices had slowly eroded the economic power of the pharaoh, who could no longer afford to support a large centralized administration.[30] As the power of the pharaoh diminished, regional governors called nomarchs began to challenge the supremacy of the pharaoh. This, coupled with severe droughts between 2200 and 2150 BC,[31] ultimately caused the country to enter a 140-year period of famine and strife known as the First Intermediate Period.[32] A nomarch in ancient Egypt was a provincial governor, the regional authority over one of the 40 or so nomes (Egyptian: sepat) into which the country was divided. ... The 22nd century BC drought was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene period. ...


First Intermediate Period

After Egypt's central government collapsed at the end of the Old Kingdom, the administration could no longer support or stabilize the country's economy. Regional governors could not rely on the king for help in times of crisis, and the ensuing food shortages and political disputes escalated into famines and small-scale civil wars. Yet despite difficult problems, local leaders, owing no tribute to the pharaoh, used their newfound independence to establish a thriving culture in the provinces. Once in control of their own resources, the provinces became economically richer—a fact demonstrated by larger and better burials among all social classes.[33] In bursts of creativity, provincial artisans adopted and adapted cultural motifs formerly restricted to the royalty of the Old Kingdom, and scribes developed literary styles that expressed the optimism and originality of the period.[34]


Free from their loyalties to the pharaoh, local rulers began competing with each other for territorial control and political power. By 2160 BC, rulers in Hierakonpolis controlled Lower Egypt, while a rival clan based in Thebes, the Intef family, took control of Upper Egypt. As the Intefs grew in power and expanded their control northward, a clash between the two rival dynasties became inevitable. Around 2055 BC the Theban forces under Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II finally defeated the Herakleopolitan rulers, reuniting the Two Lands and inaugurating a period of economic and cultural renaissance known as the Middle Kingdom.[35] Thebes Thebes (, ThÄ“bai) was a city in Ancient Egypt located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). It was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. ... Intef I was a local Egyptian ruler at Thebes, and a member of the Eleventh dynasty during the First Intermediate Period. ... nomen or birth name Nebhotepre Mentuhotep II (2046-1995 BCE) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. ...


Middle Kingdom

Mentuhotep II, the founder of the Middle Kingdom
Mentuhotep II, the founder of the Middle Kingdom

The pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom restored the country's prosperity and stability, thereby stimulating a resurgence of art, literature, and monumental building projects.[36] Mentuhotep II and his 11th Dynasty successors ruled from Thebes, but the vizier Amenemhet I, upon assuming kingship at the beginning of the 12th Dynasty around 1985 BC, shifted the nation's capital to the city of Itjtawy located in Faiyum.[37] From Itjtawy, the pharaohs of the 12th Dynasty undertook a far-sighted land reclamation and irrigation scheme to increase agricultural output in the region. Moreover, the military reconquered territory in Nubia rich in quarries and gold mines, while laborers built a defensive structure in the Eastern Delta, called the "Walls-of-the-Ruler", to defend against foreign attack.[38] First ruler of the twelth dynasty (the dynasty debated to be the beginning of the middle kingdom of egpyt) Amenemhet I was not of royal lineage, and hence took measures to assure his authority of kingship. ... Itjtawy is the as yet unidentified location of the royal city founded during the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt. ... Site of Faiyum Oasis on the map of Egypt Survey of the Moeris Basin from the late 19th century The Faiyum Oasis is a distinctive region with character between the main Nile Valley and other desert oases. ... The Walls-of-the-Ruler is a structure that was built by Amenemhat I to protect the eastern approaches to Egypt. ...


Having secured military and political security and vast agricultural and mineral wealth, the nation's population, arts, and religion flourished. In contrast to elitist Old Kingdom attitudes towards the gods, the Middle Kingdom experienced an increase in expressions of personal piety and what could be called a democratization of the afterlife, in which all people possessed a soul and could be welcomed into the company of the gods after death.[39] Middle Kingdom literature featured sophisticated themes and characters written in a confident, eloquent style,[34] and the relief and portrait sculpture of the period captured subtle, individual details that reached new heights of technical perfection.[40] Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ...


The last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhat III, allowed Asiatic settlers into the delta region to provide a sufficient labor force for his especially active mining and building campaigns. These ambitious building and mining activities, however, combined with inadequate Nile floods later in his reign, strained the economy and precipitated the slow decline into the Second Intermediate Period during the later 13th and 14th dynasties. During this decline, the foreign Asiatic settlers began to seize control of the delta region, eventually coming to power in Egypt as the Hyksos.[41] ny m3ˁt rˁ (Nimaatre)[1] Belonging to the truth of Re Nomen Amenemhat[1] Amun is in front Horus name Wahankh[1] Long of life Nebty name Itjijautawy[1] Who comes to the inheritance of the two lands Golden Horus ˁ3 ba(u) (Aabaw)[1] Great of power Issues... Flooding of the Nile was an important cycle in Ancient Egypt. ... An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ...


Second Intermediate Period and the Hyksos

Around 1650 BC, as the power of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs weakened, Asiatic immigrants living in the Eastern Delta town of Avaris seized control of the region and forced the central government to retreat to Thebes, where the pharaoh was treated as a vassal and expected to pay tribute.[42] The Hyksos ("foreign rulers") imitated Egyptian models of government and portrayed themselves as pharaohs, thus integrating Egyptian elements into their Middle Bronze Age culture.[43] Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ...


After their retreat, the Theban kings found themselves trapped between the Hyksos to the north and the Hyksos' Nubian allies, the Kushites, to the south. Nearly 100 years of tenuous inaction followed, and it was not until 1555 BC that the Theban forces gathered enough strength to challenge the Hyksos in a conflict that would last more than 30 years.[42] The pharaohs Seqenenre Tao II and Kamose were ultimately able to defeat the Nubians, but it was Kamose's successor, Ahmose I, who successfully waged a series of campaigns that permanently eradicated the Hyksos' presence in Egypt. In the New Kingdom that followed, the military became a central priority for the pharaohs seeking to expand Egypt’s borders and secure her complete dominance of the Near East.[44] For the son of Rama and Sita from Indian epic of Ramayana, go to Kush (hindu). ... nomen or birth name Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ...

The maximum territorial extent of Ancient Egypt (15th century BC)

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom pharaohs established a period of unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbors. Military campaigns waged under Tuthmosis I and his grandson Tuthmosis III extended the influence of the pharaohs into Syria and Nubia, cementing loyalties and opening access to critical imports such as bronze and wood.[45] The New Kingdom pharaohs began a large-scale building campaign to promote the god Amun, whose growing cult was based in Karnak. They also constructed monuments to glorify their own achievements, both real and imagined. The female pharaoh Hatshepsut used such propaganda to legitimize her claim to the throne.[46] Her successful reign was marked by trading expeditions to Punt, an elegant mortuary temple, a colossal pair of obelisks and a chapel at Karnak. Despite her achievements, Hatshepsut's nephew-stepson Tuthmosis III sought to erase her legacy near the end of his reign, possibly in retaliation for usurping his throne.[47] nomen or birth name Aakheperkare Thutmose I ( ? – 1492 BC; sometimes spelled Thutmosis) was the 3rd Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. ... Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (? - 1426 BC), was Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet[1] by the ancient Egyptians, at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the land of the god [2], was a fabled site in the Horn of Africa and was the source of many exotic products, such as gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood, ebony, ivory...

Four colossal statues of Ramesses II flank the entrance of his temple Abu Simbel.
Four colossal statues of Ramesses II flank the entrance of his temple Abu Simbel.

Around 1350 BC, the stability of the New Kingdom was threatened when Amenhotep IV unexpectedly ascended the throne and instituted a series of radical and chaotic reforms. Changing his name to Akhenaten, he touted the previously obscure sun god Aten as the supreme deity, suppressed the worship of other deities, and attacked the power of the priestly establishment.[48] Moving the capital to the new city of Akhetaten (modern-day Amarna), Akhenaten turned a deaf ear to foreign affairs and absorbed himself in his new religion and artistic style. After his death, the cult of the Aten was quickly abandoned, and the subsequent pharaohs Tutankhamun, Aye, and Horemheb quietly erased all mention of Akhenaten's heresy, now known as the Amarna Period.[49] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1664x2496, 814 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ramesses II Abu Simbel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1664x2496, 814 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ramesses II Abu Simbel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... King Tut redirects here. ... Aye is a tiny village located near Marche-en-Famenne in Belgium. ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re[1] Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet, Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ...


The 18th Dynasty ended when its last three kings—Tutankhamun, Aye, and Horemheb—all died without an heir. Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great, ascended the throne around 1279 BC at the age of 18 and built more temples, erected more statues and obelisks, and sired more children than any other pharaoh in history.[50] A bold military leader, Ramesses II led his army against the Hittites in the Battle of Kadesh and, after fighting to a stalemate, finally agreed to the first recorded peace treaty around 1258 BC.[51] Egypt's wealth, however, made it a tempting target for invasion, particularly by the Libyans and the Sea Peoples. Initially, the military was able to repel these invasions, but Egypt eventually lost control of Syria and Palestine. The impact of external threats was exacerbated by internal problems such as corruption, tomb robbery and civil unrest. The high priests at the temple of Amun in Thebes accumulated vast tracts of land and wealth, and their growing power splintered the country during the Third Intermediate Period.[52] Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Belligerents New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[3] and ca. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... First pylon of Karnak Map of the Amun-Re Temple The Precinct of Amun-Re, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main enclosed areas that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex. ...

Around 730 BC Libyans from the west fractured the political unity of the country.
Around 730 BC Libyans from the west fractured the political unity of the country.

Third Intermediate Period

Following the death of Ramesses XI in 1078 BC, Smendes assumed authority over the northern part of Egypt, ruling from the city of Tanis. The south was effectively controlled by the High Priests of Amun at Thebes, who recognized Smendes in name only.[53] During this time, Libyans had been settling in the western delta, and chieftains of these settlers began increasing their autonomy. Libyan princes took control of the delta under Shoshenq I in 945, founding the so-called Libyan or Bubastite dynasty that would rule for some 200 years. Sheshonq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions. Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in Leontopolis, and Kushites threatened from the south. Around 727 BC the Kushite king Piye invaded northward, seizing control of Thebes and eventually the Delta.[54] Menmare Ramesses XI (also written Ramses and Rameses) reigned 1102 BC – 1073 BC or 1069 BC) was the tenth and final king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Hedjkheperre Setepenre Smendes was the founder of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt and succeeded to the throne after burying Ramesses XI in Lower Egypt – territory which he controlled. ... Tanis or The ruins of Tanis in 2004 Tanis (Τάνις), the Greek name of ancient Djanet (modern صان الحجر Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar), is a city in the north-eastern Nile delta of Egypt. ... While not regarded as a dynasty per se, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to 945 BC, after this period their influence declined. ... Nomen: Shoshenq Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian Å¡Å¡nq), also known as Shishak, Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Leontopolis is the Greek name for the Ancient Egyptian city known as Taremu in ancient times and as Tell al Muqdam today. ... For the son of Rama and Sita from Indian epic of Ramayana, go to Kush (hindu). ... Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Py(ankh)i. ...


Egypt's far-reaching prestige declined considerably toward the end of the Third Intermediate Period. Its foreign allies had fallen under the Assyrian sphere of influence, and by 700 BC war between the two states became inevitable. Between 671 and 667 BC the Assyrians began their attack on Egypt. The reigns of both Taharqa and his successor, Tanutamun, were filled with constant conflict with the Assyrians, against whom Egypt enjoyed several victories. Ultimately, the Assyrians pushed the Kushites back into Nubia, occupied Memphis, and sacked the temples of Thebes.[55] For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Taharqa (also spelled Tirhakah, Taharka, Manethos Tarakos) was king of Egypt, and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, whose reign is usually dated 690 BC to 664 BC. He was also the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered... Tanutamani (died 653 BC) was king of Egypt (664 BC to 656 BC), and a member of the Nubian or 25th dynasty. ...


Late Period

With no permanent plans for conquest, the Assyrians left control of Egypt to a series of vassals who became known as the Saite kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. By 653 BC, the Saite king Psamtik I was able to oust the Assyrians with the help of Greek mercenaries, who were recruited to form Egypt's first navy. Greek influence expanded greatly as the city of Naukratis became the home of Greeks in the delta. The Saite kings based in the new capital of Sais witnessed a brief but spirited resurgence in the economy and culture, but in 525 BC, the powerful Persians, led by Cambyses II, began their conquest of Egypt, eventually capturing the pharaoh Psamtik III at the battle of Pelusium. Cambyses II then assumed the formal title of pharaoh, but ruled Egypt from his home of Susa, leaving Egypt under the control of a satrapy. A few successful revolts against the Persians marked the 5th century BC, but Egypt was never able to permanently overthrow the Persians.[56] The Saite or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest (although others followed), and had its capital at Sais. ... Psammetichus, or Psamtik I, was the first of three kings of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (664 - 610 BC). ... Naucratis (nŏk´retĬs), was an ancient city of Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile, 45 mi (72 km) SE of Alexandria. ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ... nomen or birth name Ankhkaenre Psammetichus III (Psamtik III) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, 526 BC–525 BC. He was defeated by King Cambyses II of Persia at Pelusium, carried to Susa in chains, and executed. ... Pelusium is a city in the eastern extremes of Egypts Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of Port Said. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ...


Following its annexation by Persia, Egypt was joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. This first period of Persian rule over Egypt, also known as the Twenty-Seventh dynasty, ended in 402 BC, and from 380–343 BC the Thirtieth Dynasty ruled as the last native royal house of dynastic Egypt, which ended with the kingship of Nectanebo II. A brief restoration of Persian rule, sometimes known as the Thirty-First Dynasty, began in 343 BC, but shortly after, in 332 BC, the Persian ruler Mazaces handed Egypt over to Alexander the Great without a fight.[57] Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : PhoiníkÄ“, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt followed Nectanebo Is deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. ... Nectanebo II (ruled 360 - 343 BC), also known by the name Nakhthoreb, was the third and last king of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt and the last native ruler of the country. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Pakistan, Jordan, Israel... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Ptolemaic Dynasty

Cleopatra VII adopted the ancient traditions and language of Egypt.

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great conquered Egypt with little resistance from the Persians and was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. The Greek/Macedonian[58] government established by Alexander's successors, the Ptolemies, was based on an Egyptian model and based in the new capital city of Alexandria. The city was to showcase the power and prestige of Greek/Macedonian rule, and became a seat of learning and culture, centered at the famous Library of Alexandria.[59] The Lighthouse of Alexandria lit the way for the many ships, which kept trade flowing through the city, as the Ptolemies made commerce and revenue-generating enterprises, such as papyrus manufacturing, their top priority.[60] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 208 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (456 × 1310 pixel, file size: 361 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 208 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (456 × 1310 pixel, file size: 361 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... Graphic reconstruction of the lighthouse according to a comprehensive study of 2006. ...


Greek/Macedonian culture did not supplant native Egyptian culture, as the Ptolemies supported time-honored traditions in an effort to secure the loyalty of the populace. They built new temples in Egyptian style, supported traditional cults, and portrayed themselves as pharaohs. Some traditions merged, as Greek/Macedonian and Egyptian gods were syncretized into composite deities, such as Serapis, and classical Greek/Macedonian forms of sculpture influenced traditional Egyptian motifs. Despite their efforts to appease the Egyptians, the Ptolemies were challenged by native rebellion, bitter family rivalries, and the powerful mob of Alexandria which had formed following the death of Ptolemy IV.[61] In addition, as Rome relied more heavily on imports of grain from Egypt, the Romans took great interest in the political situation in the country. Continued Egyptian revolting, ambitious politicians, and powerful Syrian opponents made this situation unstable, leading Rome to send forces to secure the country as a province of its empire.[62] For the linguistic term, see syncretism (linguistics). ... Serapis can refer to: A series of British ships named HMS Serapis. ... Ptolemy IV Philopator Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator ( Greek: Πτολεμαίος Φιλοπάτωρ, reigned 221-204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...

The Fayum mummy portraits epitomize the meeting of Egyptian and Roman cultures.
The Fayum mummy portraits epitomize the meeting of Egyptian and Roman cultures.

Download high resolution version (722x1360, 330 KB)Large version of portrait for Gallery of Fayum mummy portraits. ... Download high resolution version (722x1360, 330 KB)Large version of portrait for Gallery of Fayum mummy portraits. ... Portrait of a young woman, A.D. 110–20 Encaustic on wood; 43. ...

Roman domination

Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire in 30 BC, following the defeat of Marc Antony and Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII by Octavian (later Emperor Augustus) in the Battle of Actium. The Romans relied heavily on grain shipments from Egypt, and the Roman army, under the control of a prefect appointed by the Emperor, quelled rebellions, strictly enforced the collection of heavy taxes, and prevented attacks by bandits, which had become a notorious problem during the period.[63] Alexandria became an increasingly important center on the trade route with the orient, as exotic luxuries were in high demand in Rome.[64] The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for the next 900 years. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Bust of Marcus Antonius Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (c. ... The history of Ptolemaic Egypt starts chronologically with the conquest by the king Alexander III of Macedon (Alexander the Great) in 332 BC and ends with the death of the queen Cleopatra of Egypt and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was founded when Ptolemy I Soter... Cleopatra redirects here. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between...


Although the Romans had a more hostile attitude than the Greeks towards the Egyptians, some traditions such as mummification and worship of the traditional gods continued.[65] The art of mummy portraiture flourished, and some of the Roman emperors had themselves depicted as pharaohs, though not to the extent that the Ptolemies had. The former lived outside Egypt and did not perform the ceremonial functions of Egyptian kingship. Local administration became Roman in style and closed to native Egyptians.[65] Portrait of a young woman, A.D. 110–20 Encaustic on wood; 43. ...


From the mid-first century AD, Christianity took root in Alexandria and spread. Incompatible with paganism, Christianity sought to win converts and threatened popular religious traditions. This led to persecution of converts to Christianity, culminating in the great purges of Diocletian starting in 303 AD, but eventually Christianity won out.[66] As a consequence, Egypt's pagan culture was continually in decline. While the native population continued to speak their language, the ability to read hieroglyphic writing slowly disappeared as the role of the Egyptian temple priests and priestesses diminished. The temples themselves were sometimes converted to churches or abandoned to the desert.[67] Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ...


Government and economy

Administration and commerce

The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty and power.
The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty and power.

The pharaoh was the absolute monarch of the country and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources. The king was also the supreme military commander, who relied on a bureaucracy of officials to manage his affairs. In charge of the administration was his second in command, the vizier, who acted as the king's representative and coordinated land surveys, the treasury, building projects, the legal system, and the archives.[68] At a local level, the country was divided into as many as 42 administrative regions called nomes each governed by a nomarch, who was accountable to the vizier for his jurisdiction. The temples formed the backbone of the economy. Not only were they houses of worship, but were also responsible for collecting and storing the nation's wealth in a system of granaries and treasuries administered by overseers, who distributed grain and goods to the populace.[69] For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... The nomes of Ancient Egypt A nome (Greek: district) is a subnational administrative division of Ancient Egypt. ... A nomarch in ancient Egypt was a provincial governor, the regional authority over one of the 40 or so nomes (Egyptian: sepat) into which the country was divided. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ...


Much of the economy was centrally organized and strictly controlled. Although the ancient Egyptians did not use coinage until the Late period, they did use a type of money-barter system,[70] with standard sacks of grain and the deben, a weight of roughly 91 grams (3 oz) of copper or silver, forming a common denominator.[71] Workers were paid in grain; a simple laborer might earn 5½ sacks (200 kg or 400 lb) of grain per month, while a foreman might earn 7½ sacks (250 kg or 550 lb). Prices were fixed across the country and recorded in lists to facilitate trading; for example a shirt cost five copper deben, while a cow cost 140 deben.[71] Grain could be traded for other goods, according to the fixed price list.[71] During the 5th century BC coined money was introduced into Egypt from abroad. At first the coins were used as standardized pieces of precious metal rather than true money, but in the following centuries international traders came to rely on coinage.[72] For current exchange rates, see exchange links. ... ôľĎÚ The Late Period of Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period, and before the Persian conquests. ...


Social status

Egyptian society was highly stratified, and social status was expressly displayed. Farmers made up the bulk of the population, but agricultural produce was owned directly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the land.[73] Farmers were also subject to a labor tax and were required to work on irrigation or construction projects in a corvée system.[74] Artists and craftsmen were of higher status than farmers, but they were also under state control, working in the shops attached to the temples and paid directly from the state treasury. Scribes and officials formed the upper class in ancient Egypt, the so-called "white kilt class" in reference to the bleached linen garments that served as a mark of their rank.[75] The upper class prominently displayed their social status in art and literature. Below the nobility were the priests, physicians, and engineers with specialized training in their field. Slavery was known in ancient Egypt, but the extent and prevalence of its practice are unclear.[76] Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ... Scribes is a text editor for GNOME that is simple, slim and sleek, and features no tabs, auto-completion and much more. ... Slave redirects here. ...


The ancient Egyptians viewed men and women, including people from all social classes except slaves, as essentially equal under the law, and even the lowliest peasant was entitled to petition the vizier and his court for redress.[77] Both men and women had the right to own and sell property, make contracts, marry and divorce, receive inheritance, and pursue legal disputes in court. Married couples could own property jointly and protect themselves from divorce by agreeing to marriage contracts, which stipulated the financial obligations of the husband to his wife and children should the marriage end. Compared with their counterparts in ancient Greece, Rome, and even more modern places around the world, ancient Egyptian women had a greater range of personal choices and opportunities for achievement. Women such as Hatshepsut and Cleopatra even became pharaohs, while others wielded power as Divine Wives of Amun. Despite these freedoms, ancient Egyptian women did not take part in official roles in the administration, served only secondary roles in the temples, and were not as likely to be as educated as men.[77] ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... The title of Gods Wife of Amun first appears during Ancient Egypts 10th and 12th Dynasties, when it was held by non-royal women serving Min, Amun and Ptah, but it was at the beginning of the New Kingdom, when the title started to be held by royal...

Scribes were elite and well educated. They assessed taxes, kept records, and were responsible for administration.
Scribes were elite and well educated. They assessed taxes, kept records, and were responsible for administration.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1218 × 1596 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1218 × 1596 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Legal system

The head of the legal system was officially the pharaoh, who was responsible for enacting laws, delivering justice, and maintaining law and order, a concept the ancient Egyptians referred to as Ma'at.[68] Although no legal codes from ancient Egypt survive, court documents show that Egyptian law was based on a common-sense view of right and wrong that emphasized reaching agreements and resolving conflicts rather than strictly adhering to a complicated set of statutes.[77] Local councils of elders, known as Kenbet in the New Kingdom, were responsible for ruling in court cases involving small claims and minor disputes.[68] More serious cases involving murder, major land transactions, and tomb robbery were referred to the Great Kenbet, over which the vizier or pharaoh presided. Plaintiffs and defendants were expected to represent themselves and were required to swear an oath that they had told the truth. In some cases, the state took on both the role of prosecutor and judge, and it could torture the accused with beatings to obtain a confession and the names of any co-conspirators. Whether the charges were trivial or serious, court scribes documented the complaint, testimony, and verdict of the case for future reference.[78] For other uses, see Maat (disambiguation). ...


Punishment for minor crimes involved either imposition of fines, beatings, facial mutilation, or exile, depending on the severity of the offense. Serious crimes such as murder and tomb robbery were punished by execution, carried out by decapitation, drowning, or impaling the criminal on a stake. Punishment could also be extended to the criminal's family.[68] Beginning in the New Kingdom, oracles played a major role in the legal system, dispensing justice in both civil and criminal cases. The procedure was to ask the god a "yes" or "no" question concerning the right or wrong of an issue. The god, carried by a number of priests, rendered judgment by choosing one or the other, moving forward or backward, or pointing to one of the answers written on a piece of papyrus or an ostracon.[79] This article is about prophetic oracles in various cultures. ... An ostracon with Pericles name written on it (c. ...


Agriculture

See also: Ancient Egyptian cuisine
A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer.
A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer.

A combination of favorable geographical features contributed to the success of ancient Egyptian culture, the most important of which was the rich fertile soil resulting from annual inundations of the Nile river. The ancient Egyptians were thus able to produce an abundance of food, allowing the population to devote more time and resources to cultural, technological, and artistic pursuits. Land management was crucial in ancient Egypt because taxes were assessed based on the amount of land a person owned.[80] An Egyptian couple harvesting from a painting in the tomb from the early Ramessid period. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (630 × 828 pixel, file size: 648 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (630 × 828 pixel, file size: 648 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


Farming in Egypt was dependent on the cycle of the Nile River. The Egyptians recognized three seasons: Akhet (flooding), Peret (planting), and Shemu (harvesting). The flooding season lasted from June to September, depositing on the river's banks a layer of mineral-rich silt ideal for growing crops. After the floodwaters had receded, the growing season lasted from October to February. Farmers plowed and planted seeds in the fields, which were irrigated with ditches and canals. Egypt received little rainfall, so farmers relied on the Nile to water their crops.[81] From March to May, farmers used sickles to harvest their crops, which were then threshed with a flail to separate the straw from the grain. Winnowing removed the chaff from the grain, and the grain was then ground into flour, brewed to make beer, or stored for later use.[82] For the fictional unit of money called a sickle, see Money in Harry Potter. ... Threshing is the process of beating cereal plants in order to separate the seeds or grains from the straw. ... A flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing, separating grains from their husks, or a similarly constructed weapon or punishing implement. ... Wind winnowing is a method developed by ancient cultures for agricultural purposes. ... Chaff is the seed casings and other inedible plant matter harvested with cereal grains such as wheat. ...


The ancient Egyptians cultivated emmer and barley, and several other cereal grains, all of which were used to make the two main food staples of bread and beer.[83] Flax plants, uprooted before they started flowering, were grown for the fibers of their stems. These fibers were split along their length and spun into thread, which was used to weave sheets of linen and to make clothing. Papyrus growing on the banks of the Nile River was used to make paper. Vegetables and fruits were grown in garden plots, close to habitations and on higher ground, and had to be watered by hand. Vegetables included leeks, garlic, melons, squashes, pulses, lettuce, and other crops, in addition to grapes that were made into wine.[84] Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat is a low yielding, awned wheat. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ...

Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of burden and a source of food.
Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of burden and a source of food.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1337, 268 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Controversy over racial characteristics of Ancient Egyptians ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1337, 268 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Controversy over racial characteristics of Ancient Egyptians ...

Animals

The Egyptians believed that a balanced relationship between people and animals was an essential element of the cosmic order; thus humans, animals and plants were believed to be members of a single whole.[85] Animals, both domesticated and wild, were therefore a critical source of spirituality, companionship, and sustenance to the ancient Egyptians. Cattle were the most important livestock; the administration collected taxes on livestock in regular censuses, and the size of a herd reflected the prestige and importance of the estate or temple that owned them. In addition to cattle, the ancient Egyptians kept sheep, goats, and pigs. Poultry such as ducks, geese, and pigeons were captured in nets and bred on farms, where they were force-fed with dough to fatten them.[86] The Nile provided a plentiful source of fish. Bees were also domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, and they provided both honey and wax.[87] Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ...


The ancient Egyptians used donkeys and oxen as beasts of burden, and they were responsible for plowing the fields and trampling seed into the soil. The slaughter of a fattened ox was also a central part of an offering ritual.[86] Horses were introduced by the Hyksos in the Second Intermediate Period, and the camel, although known from the New Kingdom, was not used as a beast of burden until the Late Period.[86] Dogs, cats and monkeys were common family pets, while more exotic pets imported from the heart of Africa, such as lions, were reserved for royalty. Herodotus observed that the Egyptians were the only people to keep their animals with them in their houses.[85] During the Predynastic and Late periods, the worship of the gods in their animal form was extremely popular, such as the cat goddess Bastet and the ibis god Thoth, and these animals were bred in large numbers on farms for the purpose of ritual sacrifice.[88] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... In Egyptian mythology, Bastet was a solar deity and a goddess of fertility and protector of pregnant women. ... Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth (his Greek name derived from the Egyptian *, written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon, often depicted with the head of an ibis. ...


Natural resources

Further information: Mining in Egypt

Egypt is rich in building and decorative stone, copper and lead ores, gold, and semiprecious stones. These natural resources allowed the ancient Egyptians to build monuments, sculpt statues, make tools, and fashion jewelry.[89] Embalmers used salts from the Wadi Natrun for mummification, which also provided the gypsum needed to make plaster.[90] Ore-bearing rock formations were found in distant, inhospitable wadis in the eastern desert and the Sinai, requiring large, state-controlled expeditions to obtain natural resources found there. There were extensive gold mines in Nubia, and one of the first maps known is of a gold mine in this region. The Wadi Hammamat was a notable source of granite, greywacke, and gold. Flint was the first mineral collected and used to make tools, and flint handaxes are the earliest pieces of evidence of habitation in the Nile valley. Nodules of the mineral were carefully flaked to make blades and arrowheads of moderate hardness and durability even after copper was adopted for this purpose.[91] Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Wadi Hammamat (Arabic: Valley of Many Baths) is a dry river bed in Egypts Eastern Desert, about halfway between Qusier and Qena. ... Greywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly-sorted, angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ...


The Egyptians worked deposits of the lead ore galena at Gebel Rosas to make net sinkers, plumb bobs, and small figurines. Copper was the most important metal for toolmaking in ancient Egypt and was smelted in furnaces from malachite ore mined in the Sinai.[92] Workers collected gold by washing the nuggets out of sediment in alluvial deposits, or by the more labor-intensive process of grinding and washing gold-bearing quartzite. Iron deposits found in upper Egypt were utilized in the Late Period.[93] High-quality building stones were abundant in Egypt; the ancient Egyptians quarried limestone all along the Nile valley, granite from Aswan, and basalt and sandstone from the wadis of the eastern desert. Deposits of decorative stones such as porphyry, greywacke, alabaster, and carnelian dotted the eastern desert and were collected even before the First Dynasty. In the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods, miners worked deposits of emeralds in Wadi Sikait and amethyst in Wadi el-Hudi.[94] For other uses, see Galena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Malachite (disambiguation). ... An alluvial deposit is an accumulation of alluvium (sediment), sometimes containing valuable ore and gemstones, or simply consisting of gravel, sand, or clay, in the bed or former bed of a river. ... A piece of porphyry Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... For other uses, see Carnelian (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation). ...


Language

Main article: Egyptian language

Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ...

Historical development

r n kmt
'Egyptian language'
in hieroglyphs


The Egyptian language is a northern Afro-Asiatic language closely related to Berber and Semitic.[95] It has the longest documented history of any language, having remained in written use from c. 3200 BC to the Middle Ages and as a spoken language for longer. Two major phases of the language are identified: Earlier Egyptian comprising Old and Middle Egyptian (Classical Egyptian), and Later Egyptian, which includes the Late, Demotic and Coptic stages of the language.[96] While pre-Coptic writing does not convey dialectal differences, it is likely that Egyptian was spoken in several regional dialects centered around Memphis and later Thebes.[97] A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct (not spoken as a day-to-day language) by the 17th century. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... This article is about the Berber language called Tamazight. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Old Egyptian is one diachronic part of Egyptian language and Egyptians spoke it from 2600 BC to 2000 BC (after Archaic Egyptian and before Middle Egyptian). ... Middle Egyptian is the typical form of the Egyptian spoken from 2000 BC to 1300 BC (after Old Egyptian and before Late Egyptian). ... Old Egyptian is one diachronic part of Egyptian language and Egyptians spoke it from 1300 BC to 700 BC (after Middle Egyptian and before Demotic Egyptian). ... Demotic (from δημοτικά dimotika popular) refers to both the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, as well as the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


The transition from Earlier to Later Egyptian displays a number of innovations, namely a change from synthetic to more analytic patterns that undergo grammaticalization, and the development of different scripts for writing the language. Later Egyptian develops prefixal definite and indefinite articles, which replace the earlier suffix markers of inflectional categories, and undergoes a change from the older VSO word order to SVO.[98] The older Egyptian writing systems, namely the native hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts, eventually give way to the more phonetic Coptic alphabet. The last phase of Egyptian, Coptic, continues to be used in the liturgy of the Egyptian Orthodox Church, and traces of it are found in modern Egyptian Arabic.[99] A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. ... An analytic language is any language where syntax and meaning are shaped more by use of particles and word order than by inflection. ... Grammaticalisation, also referred to as Grammaticalization, Grammatisation or Grammatization is a theory describing the change of a content word (lexical morpheme) into a function word or grammatical affix. ... The redirects here. ... A grammatical category is a general term. ... Verb Subject Object—commonly used in its abbreviated form VSO—is a term in linguistic typology. ... In linguistic typology, word order, or more precisely constituent order refers to the permitted combinations of words or larger constituents. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... Demotic (from δημοτικά dimotika popular) refers to both the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, as well as the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. ... The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ... Egyptian Arabic (Marī مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ...


Sounds and grammar

Egyptian has a phonemic inventory of about 25 consonants similar to those of other Afro-Asiatic languages. These include the characteristic pharyngeal and to a lesser extent emphatic consonants, in addition to voiced and voiceless stops, voiceless fricatives and voiced and voiceless affricates. Three long and three short vowels, which expanded in Later Egyptian to about nine, are distinguished.[100] The basic word in Egyptian, similar to Semitic and Berber, is a triliteral or biliteral root made up of a sequence of consonants and semiconsonants to which affixes are attached to indicate grammatical categories. Finite verbs correspond to the forms of the person markers, yielding a paradigm of 11 in Earlier Egyptian. The triconsonantal skeleton S--M is the semantic core of the word 'hear'; its basic conjugation is sm=f 'he hears'. In most cases, a non-finite verb heads a clause if the subject is nominal:[101] sḏm ḥmt 'the woman hears'. In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... Emphatic consonant is a somewhat imprecise term commonly used in Semitic linguistics to describe pharyngealized or velarized, and ejective consonants, or consonants that historically had one of these properties. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic and some other Afro-Asiatic languages, a triliteral (Arabic: جذر ثلاثي, ǧaḏr thalathi) is a root containing a sequence of three consonants (so also known as a triconsonantal root). ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A grammatical category is a general term. ... A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages it occurs in. ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... A non-finite verb is not limited by the person, tense and number of the subject. ...


Adjectives are formed derivationally from a noun through a process that Egyptologists call nisbation due to its similarity with that of Arabic.[102] The typical order of constituents is PREDICATE-SUBJECT in sentences with verbal and adjectival predicates, and SUBJECT-PREDICATE in sentences in which the predicate is a noun phrase or an adpositional phrase.[103] Verb arguments can be topicalized at the beginning of sentences if they are long noun phrases, and are followed by a coreferential pronoun.[104] Negation in Middle Egyptian is usually expressed through the addition of the particle n before a verb form or a noun phrase, or nn to negate a clause with an adverbial or adjectival predicate. Stress falls on the ultimate or penultimate syllable, which can be open (CV) or closed (CVC).[105] In linguistics, derivation is the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... Arabic redirects here. ... In traditional grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies). ... In linguistics, an adpositional phrase is a general term that includes prepositional phrases (which are usually found in head-first languages like English) and postpositional phrases (usually found in head-final languages like Dutch). ... A syntactic verb argument, in linguistics, is a phrase that appears in a relationship with the verb in a proposition. ... In linguistics, the topic (or theme) is the part of the proposition that is being talked about (predicated). ... In linguistics, coreference is the phenomenon where two expressions in an utterance both refer to the same thing. ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ... This article is about word stress in some languages, sometimes called accent. For accent meaning the pronunciation of a particular group of people, see Accent (linguistics). ...


Writing

Main article: Egyptian hieroglyphs
The Rosetta stone enabled linguists to begin the process of hieroglyph decipherment.
The Rosetta stone enabled linguists to begin the process of hieroglyph decipherment.[106]

Hieroglyphic writing dates to c. 3200 BC, and is composed of some 500 symbols. A hieroglyph can represent a word, a phoneme, or a silent determinative; and the same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts. Hieroglyphs were a formal script, used on stone monuments and in tombs, that could be as detailed as individual works of art. In day-to-day writing, scribes used a cursive form of writing, called hieratic, which was quicker and easier. While formal hieroglyphs may be read in rows or columns in either direction (though typically written from right to left), hieratic was always written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows. A new form of writing, Demotic, became the prevalent writing style, and it is this form of writing—along with formal hieroglyphs—that accompany the Greek text on the Rosetta Stone. A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1011 × 1296 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1011 × 1296 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the ancient Rosetta Stone . ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... Demotic (from δημοτικά dimotika popular) refers to both the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, as well as the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. ...


Around the 1st century AD, the native demotic script gave way to the Coptic alphabet, a modified Greek alphabet with the addition of demotic graphemes.[107] Although formal hieroglyphs were used in a ceremonial role until the 4th century AD, towards the end only a small handful of priests could still read them. As the traditional religious establishments were disbanded, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was mostly lost. Attempts to decipher them date to the Byzantine[108] and Islamic periods in Egypt[109], but only in 1822, after the discovery of the Rosetta stone and years of research by Thomas Young and Jean-François Champollion, were hieroglyphs almost fully deciphered.[110] Thomas Young, English scientist Thomas Young (June 13, 1773-May 10, 1829) was an English polymath, contributing to the scientific understanding of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, and Egyptology. ... For the Champollion comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ...

The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus describes anatomy and medical treatments and is written in hieratic.
The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus describes anatomy and medical treatments and is written in hieratic.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 783 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2550 × 1954 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 783 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2550 × 1954 pixel, file size: 1. ... Plates vi & vii of the Edwin Smith Papyrus at the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine The Edwin Smith Papyrus is the only surviving copy of part of an Ancient Egyptian textbook on trauma surgery. ...

Literature

Main article: Ancient Egyptian literature

Writing first appeared in association with kingship on labels and tags for items found in royal tombs. It was primarily an occupation of the scribes, who worked out of the Per Ankh institution or the House of Life. The latter comprised offices, libraries (called House of Books), laboratories and observatories.[111] Some of the best-known pieces of ancient Egyptian literature, such as the Pyramid and Coffin Texts, were written in Classical Egyptian, which continued to be the language of writing until about 1300 BC. Later Egyptian was spoken from the New Kingdom onward and is represented in Ramesside administrative documents, love poetry and tales, as well as in Demotic and Coptic texts. During this period, the tradition of writing had evolved into the tomb autobiography, such as those of Harkhuf and Weni. The genre known as Sebayt (Instructions) was developed to communicate teachings and guidance from famous nobles; the Ipuwer papyrus, a poem of lamentations describing natural disasters and social upheaval, is a famous example. The literature of Ancient Egypt developed from enscriptions, associated with kingship, labels and tags for items found in royal tombs, etc. ... The Pyramid Texts are a collection of Ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom, mostly inscriptions found in pyramids. ... The Coffin Text, which basically superseded the Pyramid Texts as magical funerary spells at the end of the Egyptian Old Kingdom, are principally a Middle Kingdom phenomenon, though we have found examples as early as the late Old Kingdom. ... The Ramesside Period encompasses the Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties of Ancient Egypt. ... Harkhuf was a governor of Upper Egypt in the 23rd century BC. He travelled extensively over time. ... Weni the Elder was a court official of the 6th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Sebayt (Manuel de Codage transcription: sbA.yt)[1] is the ancient Egyptian term for a genre of pharaonic literature. ... The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All[1] is an ancient Egyptian poem preserved in a single papyrus, Leiden Papyrus I 344, which is housed in the National Archeological Museum in Leiden, Netherlands. ...


The Story of Sinuhe, written in Middle Egyptian, might be the classic of Egyptian literature.[112] Also written at this time was the Westcar Papyrus, a set of stories told to Khufu by his sons relating the marvels performed by priests.[113] Towards the end of the New Kingdom, the vernacular language was more often employed to write popular pieces like the Story of Wenamun and the Instructions of Ani. The former tells the story of a noble who is robbed on his way to buy cedar from Lebanon and of his struggle to return to Egypt. From about 700 BC, narrative stories and instructions, such as the popular Instructions of Onchsheshonqy, as well as personal and business documents were written in the demotic script and phase of Egyptian. Many stories written in demotic during the Graeco-Roman period were set in previous historical eras, when Egypt was an independent nation ruled by great pharaohs such as Ramesses II.[114] Unsolved problems in Egyptology: Does the Story of Sinuhe recount real events? If so, did Sinuhe abandon his duty or was he a hero? The Tale of Sinuhe is an Ancient Egyptian work of literature. ... Middle Egyptian is the typical form of the Egyptian spoken from 2000 BC to 1300 BC (after Old Egyptian and before Late Egyptian). ... Westcar Papyrus is a document about Khufu, a 4th-Dynasty Egyptian leader, and contains a cycle of five stories about marvels performed by priests. ... For other uses, see Khufu (disambiguation). ... Old Egyptian is one diachronic part of Egyptian language and Egyptians spoke it from 1300 BC to 700 BC (after Middle Egyptian and before Demotic Egyptian). ... The Story of Wenamun (alternately known as the Report of Wenamun, The Misadventures of Wenamun, or [informally] as just Wenamun) is a literary text written in hieratic in the Late Egyptian language. ... Demotic (from δημοτικά dimotika popular) refers to both the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, as well as the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. ... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ...


Culture

Daily life

The ancient Egyptians maintained a rich cultural heritage complete with feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
The ancient Egyptians maintained a rich cultural heritage complete with feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.

Most ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land. Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed to remain cool in the heat of the day. Each home had a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grindstone for milling flour and a small oven for baking bread.[115] Walls were painted white and could be covered with dyed linen wall hangings. Floors were covered with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the floor and individual tables comprised the furniture.[116] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1675, 385 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Culture ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1675, 385 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Culture ... A Mudbrick is an unfired brick made of clay. ...


The ancient Egyptians placed a great value on hygiene and appearance. Most bathed in the Nile and used a pasty soap made from animal fat and chalk. Men shaved their entire bodies for cleanliness, and aromatic perfumes and ointments covered bad odors and soothed skin.[117] Clothing was made from simple linen sheets that were bleached white, and both men and women of the upper classes wore wigs, jewelry, and cosmetics. Children went without clothing until maturity, at about age 12, and at this age males were circumcised and had their heads shaved. Mothers were responsible for taking care of the children, while the father provided the family's income.[118]


The staple diet consisted of bread and beer, supplemented with vegetables such as onions and garlic, and fruit such as dates and figs. Wine and meat were enjoyed by all on feast days while the upper classes indulged on a more regular basis. Fish, meat, and fowl could be salted or dried, and could be cooked in stews or roasted on a grill.[119] Music and dance were popular entertainments for those who could afford them. Early instruments included flutes and harps, while instruments similar to trumpets, oboes, and pipes developed later and became popular. In the New Kingdom, the Egyptians played on bells, cymbals, tambourines, and drums and imported lutes and lyres from Asia.[120] The sistrum was a rattle-like musical instrument that was especially important in religious ceremonies. A renaissance-era lute. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... -1...


The ancient Egyptians enjoyed a variety of leisure activities, including games and music. Senet, a board game where pieces moved according to random chance, was particularly popular from the earliest times; another similar game was mehen, which had a circular gaming board. Juggling and ball games were popular with children, and wrestling is also documented in a tomb at Beni Hasan.[121] The wealthy members of ancient Egyptian society enjoyed hunting and boating as well. Nefertari playing Senet. ... In Ancient Egypt, Mehen is both what appears to be a mythological character, and a board game. ... Beni Hasan (or Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) is a village in Middle Egypt about 25 km south of al Minya, on the east bank of the Nile, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated. ...

Karnak temple's hypostyle halls are constructed with rows of thick columns supporting the roof beams.
Karnak temple's hypostyle halls are constructed with rows of thick columns supporting the roof beams.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 389 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 770 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 389 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 770 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Architecture

The architecture of ancient Egypt includes some of the most famous structures in the world: the Great Pyramids of Giza and the temples at Thebes. Building projects were organized and funded by the state for religious and commemorative purposes, but also to reinforce the power of the pharaoh. The ancient Egyptians were skilled builders; using simple but effective tools and sighting instruments, architects could build large stone structures with accuracy and precision.[122] The well preserved temple of Horus at Edfu is an exemplar of Egyptian architecture The Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations which developed a vast array of diverse structures encompassing ancient Egyptian architecture. ... The Giza pyramid field, viewed from the southwest. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ...


The domestic dwellings of elite and ordinary Egyptians alike were constructed from perishable materials such as mud bricks and wood, and have not survived. Peasants lived in simple homes, while the palaces of the elite were more elaborate structures. A few surviving New Kingdom palaces, such as those in Malkata and Amarna, show richly decorated walls and floors with scenes of people, birds, water pools, deities and geometric designs.[123] Important structures such as temples and tombs that were intended to last forever were constructed of stone instead of bricks. The architectural elements used in the world's first large-scale stone building, Djoser's mortuary complex, include post and lintel supports in the papyrus and lotus motif. Malkata (or Malqata) is a place located on the west bank of Thebes, Egypt, in Egypt, in the desert south of Medinet Habu. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... Stonehenge is an example of post and lintel construction // This article is about the architectural structure. ...


The earliest preserved ancient Egyptian temples, such as those at Giza, consist of single, enclosed halls with roof slabs supported by columns. In the New Kingdom, architects added the pylon, the open courtyard, and the enclosed hypostyle hall to the front of the temple's sanctuary, a style that was standard until the Graeco-Roman period.[124] The earliest and most popular tomb architecture in the Old Kingdom was the mastaba, a flat-roofed rectangular structure of mudbrick or stone built over an underground burial chamber. The step pyramid of Djoser is a series of stone mastabas stacked on top of each other. Pyramids were built during the Old and Middle Kingdoms, but later rulers abandoned them in favor of less conspicuous rock-cut tombs.[125] Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. ... In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a flat ceiling which is supported by columns, as in the Hall of Columns at Karnak. ... A mastaba was a flat-roofed, mud brick, rectangular building with inward sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypts ancient period. ... The Pyramid of the Moon, Teotihuacan, is one example of an enormous step pyramid. ...


Art

The Bust of Nefertiti, by the sculptor Thutmose, is one of the most famous masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art.
The Bust of Nefertiti, by the sculptor Thutmose, is one of the most famous masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art.
Main article: Art of Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians produced art to serve functional purposes. For over 3500 years, artists adhered to artistic forms and iconography that were developed during the Old Kingdom, following a strict set of principles that resisted foreign influence and internal change.[126] These artistic standards—simple lines, shapes, and flat areas of color combined with the characteristic flat projection of figures with no indication of spatial depth—created a sense order and balance within a composition. Images and text were intimately interwoven on tomb and temple walls, coffins, stelae, and even statues. The Narmer Palette, for example, displays figures which may also be read as hieroglyphs.[127] Because of the rigid rules that governed its highly stylized and symbolic appearance, ancient Egyptian art served its political and religious purposes with precision and clarity.[128] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x752, 162 KB) Summary Description: Bust of queen Nefertiti in the Altes Museum, Berlin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x752, 162 KB) Summary Description: Bust of queen Nefertiti in the Altes Museum, Berlin. ... Thutmoses bust of Nefertiti, now in Berlins Egyptian Museum The Kings Favourite and Master of Works, the Sculptor Thutmose (also spelled Djhutmose and Thutmosis) was apparently the court sculptor of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten in the latter part of his reign. ... Ancient Egyptian art refers to the style of painting, sculpture, crafts and architecture developed by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from c. ... Reverse and Obverse Sides of Narmer Palette, this facsimile on display at the Royal Ontario Museum, in Toronto, Canada The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC, containing some of...


Ancient Egyptian artisans used stone to carve statues and fine reliefs, but used wood as a cheap and easily carved substitute. Paints were obtained from minerals such as iron ores (red and yellow ochres), copper ores (blue and green), soot or charcoal (black), and limestone (white). Paints could be mixed with gum arabic as a binder and pressed into cakes, which could be moistened with water when needed.[129] Pharaohs used reliefs to record victories in battle, royal decrees, and religious scenes. Common citizens had access to pieces of funerary art, such as shabti statues and books of the dead, which they believed would protect them in the afterlife.[130] During the Middle Kingdom, wooden or clay models depicting scenes from everyday life became popular additions to the tomb. In an attempt to duplicate the activities of the living in the afterlife, these models show laborers, houses, boats, and even military formations that are scale representations of the ideal ancient Egyptian afterlife.[131] In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ushabti. ...


Despite the homogeneity of ancient Egyptian art, the styles of particular times and places sometimes reflected changing cultural or political attitudes. After the invasion of the Hyksos in the Second Intermediate Period, Minoan-style frescoes were found in Avaris.[132] The most striking example of a politically driven change in artistic forms comes from the Amarna period, where figures were radically altered to conform to Akhenaten's revolutionary religious ideas.[133] This style, known as Amarna art, was quickly and thoroughly erased after Akhenaten's death and replaced by the traditional forms.[134] The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... Avaris Avaris (Egyptian: , Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις, Auaris), thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... The Ancient Egyptian art style known as Amarna Art was a style of art that was adopted in the Amarna Period (i. ...


Religious beliefs

The book of the dead was a guide to the deceased's journey in the afterlife.
The book of the dead was a guide to the deceased's journey in the afterlife.

Beliefs in the divine and in the afterlife were ingrained in ancient Egyptian civilization from its inception; pharaonic rule was based on the divine right of kings. The Egyptian pantheon was populated by gods who had supernatural powers and were called on for help or protection. However, the gods were not always viewed as benevolent, and Egyptians believed they had to be appeased with offerings and prayers. The structure of this pantheon changed continually as new deities were promoted in the hierarchy, but priests made no effort to organize the diverse and sometimes conflicting creation myths and stories into a coherent system.[135] Egyptian goddess Isis protecting a mummified pharaoh, a late Ptolemic relief from the Philae Temple, which was first built in the thirtieth dynasty, c. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ...

The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest.
The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest.

Gods were worshiped in cult temples administered by priests acting on the king's behalf. At the center of the temple was the cult statue in a shrine. Temples were not places of public worship or congregation, and only on select feast days and celebrations was a shrine carrying the statue of the god brought out for public worship. Normally, the god's domain was sealed off from the outside world and was only accessible to temple officials. Common citizens could worship private statues in their homes, and amulets offered protection against the forces of chaos.[136] After the New Kingdom, the pharaoh's role as a spiritual intermediary was de-emphasized as religious customs shifted to direct worship of the gods. As a result, priests developed a system of oracles to communicate the will of the gods directly to the people.[137] An oracle could be a statue of a god that could be asked a yes or no question, to which it would "respond" by hidden manipulations of a priest, who could also pose questions behind closed doors. Oracles became very popular for appealing legal verdicts or for justifying military actions and political decisions.[137] An Oracle is a person or agency considered to be a source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ...


The Egyptians believed that every human being was composed of physical and spiritual parts or aspects. In addition to the body, each person had a šwt (shadow), a ba (personality or soul), a ka (life-force), and a name.[138] The heart, rather than the brain, was considered the seat of thoughts and emotions. After death, the spiritual aspects were released from the body and could move at will, but they required the physical remains (or a substitute, such as a statue) as a permanent home. The ultimate goal of the deceased was to rejoin his ka and ba and become one of the "blessed dead", living on as an akh, or "effective one". In order for this to happen, the deceased had to be judged worthy in a trial, in which the heart was weighed against a "feather of truth". If deemed worthy, the deceased could continue their existence on earth in spiritual form.[139]

Pharaohs' tombs were provided with vast quantities of wealth, such as this golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun.
Pharaohs' tombs were provided with vast quantities of wealth, such as this golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun.

King Tuts mask released into the Public Domain by the Christian Theological Seminary. ... King Tuts mask released into the Public Domain by the Christian Theological Seminary. ... King Tut redirects here. ...

Burial customs

Main article: Ancient Egyptian burial customs

The ancient Egyptians maintained an elaborate set of burial customs that they believed were necessary to ensure immortality after death. These customs involved preserving the body by mummification, performing burial ceremonies, and interring, along with the body, goods to be used by the deceased in the afterlife.[130] Before the Old Kingdom, bodies buried in desert pits were naturally preserved by desiccation. The arid, desert conditions continued to be a boon throughout the history of ancient Egypt for the burials of the poor, who could not afford the elaborate burial preparations available to the elite. Wealthier Egyptians began to bury their dead in stone tombs and, as a result, they made use of artificial mummification, which involved removing the internal organs, wrapping the body in linen, and burying it in a rectangular stone sarcophagus or wooden coffin. Beginning in the Fourth Dynasty, some parts were preserved separately in canopic jars.[140] For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... Among the ancient Egyptians, canopic jars were covered funerary vases, normally composed of clay, intended to keep the viscera of mummified corpses. ...

Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.
Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.

By the New Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had perfected the art of mummification; the best technique took 70 days and involved removing the internal organs, removing the brain through the nose, and desiccating the body in a mixture of salts called natron. The body was then wrapped in linen with protective amulets inserted between layers and placed in a decorated anthropoid coffin. Mummies of the Late Period were also placed in painted cartonnage mummy cases. Actual preservation practices declined during the Ptolemaic and Roman eras, while greater emphasis was placed on the outer appearance of the mummy, which was decorated.[141] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Natron is a white, crystalline hygroscopic mineral salt, primarily a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (common baking soda) and sodium carbonate (soda ash) with small amounts of sodium chloride (table salt) and sodium sulfate. ... Cartonnage is a type of material composing Egyptian funerary masks from the First Intermediate Period onward. ...


Wealthy Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social status, included goods for the deceased. Beginning in the New Kingdom, books of the dead were included in the grave, along with shabti statues that were believed to perform manual labor for them in the afterlife.[142] Rituals in which the deceased was magically re-animated accompanied burials. After burial, living relatives were expected to occasionally bring food to the tomb and recite prayers on behalf of the deceased.[143] For other uses, see Book of the Dead (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ushabti. ...


Foreign relations

Trade

The ancient Egyptians engaged in trade with their foreign neighbors to obtain rare, exotic goods not found in Egypt. In the Predynastic Period, they established trade with Nubia to obtain gold and incense. They also established trade with Palestine, as evidenced by Palestinian-style oil jugs found in the burials of the First Dynasty pharaohs.[144] By the Second Dynasty, the ancient Egyptians had established trade with Byblos, a critical source of quality timber not found in Egypt. In the Fifth Dynasty, trade was established with the Land of Punt, which provided gold, aromatic resins, ebony, ivory, and wild animals such as monkeys and baboons.[145] The following is a chronicle of ancient Egyptian foreign contacts up through 343 BC. // Evidence of Naqadan contacts include pottery and other artifacts from the Levant that have been found in ancient Egypt and obsidian from Ethiopia and the Aegean. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet[1] by the ancient Egyptians, at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the land of the god [2], was a fabled site in the Horn of Africa and was the source of many exotic products, such as gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood, ebony, ivory...


Egypt relied on trade with Anatolia for essential quantities of tin as well as supplementary supplies of copper, both metals being necessary for the manufacture of bronze. The ancient Egyptians prized the blue stone lapis lazuli, which had to be imported from far-away Afghanistan. Egypt's Mediterranean trade partners also included Greece and Crete, which provided, among other goods, supplies of olive oil.[146] In exchange for its luxury imports and raw materials, Egypt mainly exported grain, gold, linen, and papyrus, in addition to other finished goods including glass and stone objects.[147] This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ...


Military

Main article: Military history of Ancient Egypt
Wooden figures of Egyptian soldiers, from the tomb of Mesehti, 11th Dynasty
Wooden figures of Egyptian soldiers, from the tomb of Mesehti, 11th Dynasty

The ancient Egyptian military was responsible for defending Egypt against foreign invasion, and for maintaining Egypt's domination in the ancient Near East. The military protected mining expeditions to the Sinai during the Old Kingdom and fought civil wars during the First and Second Intermediate Periods. The military was responsible for maintaining fortifications along important trade routes, such as those found at the city of Buhen on the way to Nubia. Forts also were constructed to serve as military bases, such as the fortress at Sile, which was a base of operations for expeditions to the Levant. In the New Kingdom, a series of pharaohs used the standing Egyptian army to attack and conquer Kush and parts of the Levant.[148] For most parts of its long history, Ancient Egypt was unified under one government. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 517 pixelsFull resolution (2075 × 1342 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 517 pixelsFull resolution (2075 × 1342 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated below the Second Cataract. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article is about the Nubian civilization. ...


Typical military equipment included bows and arrows, spears, and round-topped shields made by stretching animal skin over a wooden frame. In the New Kingdom, the military began using chariots that had earlier been introduced by the Hyksos invaders. Weapons and armor continued to improve after the adoption of bronze: shields were now made from solid wood with a bronze buckle, spears were tipped with a bronze point, and the Khopesh was adopted from Asiatic soldiers.[149] The pharaoh was usually depicted in art and literature riding at the head of the army, and there is evidence that at least a few pharaohs, such as Seqenenre Tao II and his sons, did do so.[150] Soldiers were recruited from the general population, but during, and especially after, the New Kingdom, mercenaries from Nubia, Kush, and Libya were hired to fight for Egypt.[151] 18th century BC Khopesh found in Shechem, Israel (West-Bank); the blade is decorated with electrum inlays. ...


Technology, medicine, and mathematics

In technology, medicine and mathematics, ancient Egypt achieved a relatively high standard of productivity and sophistication. Traditional empiricism, as evidenced by the Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri (c. 1600 BC), is first credited to Egypt, and the roots of the scientific method can also be traced back to the ancient Egyptians. The Egyptians created their own alphabet and decimal system. The characteristics of Ancient Egyptian technology are indicated by a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for thousands of years. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Plates vi & vii of the Edwin Smith Papyrus at the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine The Edwin Smith Papyrus is the only surviving copy of part of an Ancient Egyptian textbook on trauma surgery. ... Ebers medical papyrus giving the treatment of cancer. ... -1... Decimal, or denary, notation is the most common way of writing the base 10 numeral system, which uses various symbols for ten distinct quantities (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, called digits) together with the decimal point and the sign symbols + (plus) and − (minus) to...

Glassmaking was a highly developed art.
Glassmaking was a highly developed art.

Faience and glass

Even before the Old Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had developed a glassy material known as faience, which they treated as a type of artificial semi-precious stone. Faience is a non-clay ceramic made of silica, small amounts of lime and soda, and a colorant, typically copper.[152] The material was used to make beads, tiles, figurines, and small wares. Several methods can be used to create faience, but typically production involved application of the powdered materials in the form of a paste over a clay core, which was then fired. By a related technique, the ancient Egyptians produced a pigment known as Egyptian Blue, also called blue frit, which is produced by fusing (or sintering) silica, copper, lime, and an alkali such as natron. The product can be ground up and used as a pigment.[153] The ancient Egyptians could fabricate a wide variety of objects from glass with great skill, but it is not clear whether they developed the process independently.[154] It is also unclear whether they made their own raw glass or merely imported pre-made ingots, which they melted and finished. However, they did have technical expertise in making objects, as well as adding trace elements to control the color of the finished glass. A range of colors could be produced, including yellow, red, green, blue, purple, and white, and the glass could be made either transparent or opaque.[155] Egyptian faience is an extension of the term faience. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O. It is used in ceramics and glasses. ... Egyptian Blue ( CaCuSi4O10 or CaO.CuO.4SiO2) is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Medicine

This wood and leather prosthetic toe was used by an amputee to facilitate walking.
This wood and leather prosthetic toe was used by an amputee to facilitate walking.

The medical problems of the ancient Egyptians stemmed directly from their environment. Living and working close to the Nile brought hazards from malaria and debilitating schistosomiasis parasites, which caused liver and intestinal damage. Dangerous wildlife such as crocodiles and hippos were also a common threat. The life-long labors of farming and building put stress on the spine and joints, and traumatic injuries from construction and warfare all took a significant toll on the body. The grit and sand from stone-ground flour abraded teeth, leaving them susceptible to abscesses (though caries were rare).[156] The diets of the wealthy were rich in sugars, which promoted periodontal disease.[157] Despite the flattering physiques portrayed on tomb walls, the overweight mummies of many of the upper class show the effects of a life of overindulgence.[158] Adult life expectancy was about 35 for men and 30 for women, but reaching adulthood was difficult as about one-third of the population died in infancy.[159] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a parasitic disease caused by several species of flatworm. ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... This article is about dental caries in humans. ... Periodontitis a disease involving inflammation of the gums (gingiva), often persisting unnoticed for years or decades in a patient, that results in loss of bone around teeth. ...


Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the ancient Near East for their healing skills, and some, like Imhotep, remained famous long after their deaths.[160] Herodotus remarked that there was a high degree of specialization among Egyptian physicians, with some treating only the head or the stomach, while others were eye-doctors and dentists.[161] Training of physicians took place at the Per Ankh or "House of Life" institution, most notably those headquartered in Per-Bastet during the New Kingdom and at Abydos and Saïs in the Late period. Medical papyri show empirical knowledge of anatomy, injuries, and practical treatments.[162] Wounds were treated by bandaging with raw meat, white linen, sutures, nets, pads and swabs soaked with honey to prevent infection,[163] while opium was used to relieve pain. Garlic and onions were used regularly to promote good health and were thought to relieve asthma symptoms. Ancient Egyptian surgeons stitched wounds, set broken bones, and amputated diseased limbs, but they recognized that some injuries were so serious that they could only make the patient comfortable until he died.[164] This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Bubastis is an Ancient Egyptian city, located along the River Nile in the Delta region of Lower Egypt. ... Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس, Greek Αβυδος), one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, is about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred...


Mathematics

Main article: Egyptian mathematics

The earliest attested examples of mathematical calculations date to the predynastic Naqada period, and show a fully developed number system.[165] The importance of mathematics to an educated Egyptian is suggested by a New Kingdom fictional letter in which the writer proposes a scholarly competition between himself and another scribe regarding everyday calculation tasks such as accounting of land, labor and grain.[166] Texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus show that the ancient Egyptians could perform the four basic mathematical operations—addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division—use fractions, compute the volumes of boxes and pyramids, and calculate the surface areas of rectangles, triangles, circles and even spheres. They understood basic concepts of algebra and geometry, and could solve simple sets of simultaneous equations.[167] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Naqada or Naquada is a district and town about 30km north of Luxor on the west bank of the Nile in southern Egypt, (Upper Egypt),includes some villages such as Toukh,khatara ,Danfiq and zawayda. ... The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus ( papyrus British Museum 10057 and pBM 10058), is named after Alexander Henry Rhind, a Scottish antiquarian, who purchased the papyrus in 1858 in Luxor, Egypt; it was apparently found during illegal excavations in or near the Ramesseum. ... The Moscow and Rhind Mathematical Papyri are two of the oldest mathematical texts discovered. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... In Mathematics simultaneous equations are a set of equations containing multiple variables. ...

23
in hieroglyphs

Mathematical notation was decimal, and based on hieroglyphic signs for each power of ten up to one million. Each of these could be written as many times as necessary to add up to the desired number; so to write the number eighty or eight hundred, the symbol for ten or one hundred was written eight times respectively.[168] Because their methods of calculation could not handle most fractions with a numerator greater than one, ancient Egyptian fractions had to be written as the sum of several fractions. For example, the fraction two-fifths was resolved into the sum of one-third + one-fifteenth; this was facilitated by standard tables of values.[169] Some common fractions, however, were written with a special glyph; the equivalent of the modern two-thirds is shown on the right.[170] A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... An Egyptian fraction is a sum of distinct unit fractions, i. ...


Ancient Egyptian mathematicians had a grasp of the principles underlying the Pythagorean theorem, knowing, for example, that a triangle had a right angle opposite the hypotenuse when its sides were in a 3–4–5 ratio.[171] They were able to estimate the area of a circle by subtracting one-ninth from its diameter and squaring the result: In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem (AmE) or Pythagoras theorem (BrE) is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. ... A right triangle and its hypotenuse, h, along with catheti, c1 and c2. ... This article is about the shape and mathematical concept of circle. ...

Area ≈ [(89)D]2 = (25681)r2 ≈ 3.16r2,

a reasonable approximation of the formula πr2.[172][171] When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. Pi or Ï€ is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ...


The golden ratio seems to be reflected in many Egyptian constructions, including the pyramids, but its use may have been an unintended consequence of the ancient Egyptian practice of combining the use of knotted ropes with an intuitive sense of proportion and harmony.[173] Not to be confused with Golden mean (philosophy), the felicitous middle between two extremes, Golden numbers, an indicator of years in astronomy and calendar studies, or the Golden Rule. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ...


Legacy

Dr. Zahi Hawass is the current secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities.
Dr. Zahi Hawass is the current secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities.

The culture and monuments of ancient Egypt have left a lasting legacy on the world. The cult of the goddess Isis, for example, became popular in the Roman empire, as obelisks and other relics were transported back to Rome.[174] The Romans also imported building materials from Egypt to erect structures in Egyptian style. Early historians such as Herodotus, Strabo and Diodorus Siculus studied and wrote about the land which became viewed as a place of mystery.[175] During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Egyptian pagan culture was in decline after the rise of Christianity and later Islam, but interest in Egyptian antiquity continued in the writings of medieval scholars such as Dhul-Nun al-Misri and al-Maqrizi.[176] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... ISIS (Image and Scanner Interface Specification) is an industry standard interface for image scanning technologies, developed by Pixel Translations in 1990 (today: EMC captiva). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Dhul-Nun al-Misri (Arabic:ذو النون المصري) (d. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: ‎, was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ...


In the 17th and 18th centuries, European travelers and tourists brought back antiquities and wrote stories of their journeys, leading to a wave of Egyptomania across Europe. This renewed interest sent collectors to Egypt, who took, purchased, or were given many important antiquities.[177] Although the European colonial occupation of Egypt destroyed a significant portion of the country's historical legacy, some foreigners had more positive results. Napoleon, for example, arranged the first studies in Egyptology when he brought some 150 scientists and artists to study and document Egypt's natural history, which was published in the Description de l'Ėgypte.[178] In the 19th century, the Egyptian Government and archaeologists alike recognized the importance of cultural respect and integrity in excavations. The Supreme Council of Antiquities now approves and oversees all excavations, which are aimed at finding information rather than treasure. The council also supervises museums and monument reconstruction programs designed to preserve the historical legacy of Egypt. Evolution of Civilization a portion of the mural by Edwin Blashfield (1895) above the Main Reading Room of the Library of Congress. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... IDescription de lÉgypte (English: Description of Egypt) is the monumental French comprehensive scientific description of ancient and modern Egypt as well as its natural history. ... Part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA) is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in the Arab Republic of Egypt. ...


Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ Only after 664 BC are dates secure. See Egyptian chronology for details. Chronology. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  2. ^ Dodson (2004) p. 46
  3. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 217
  4. ^ James (2005) p. 8
  5. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 6–7
  6. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 153
  7. ^ James (2005) p. 84
  8. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 17
  9. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 17, 67–69
  10. ^ Hayes (1964) p. 220
  11. ^ Midant-Reynes (2000) p. 106
  12. ^ Hayes (1964) p. 230
  13. ^ Midant-Reynes (2000) pp. 210–19
  14. ^ The Badarian Civilisation. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  15. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 39
  16. ^ Midant-Reynes (2000) p. 211
  17. ^ Mallory-Greenough (2002), p. 84
  18. ^ Chronology of the Naqada Period. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  19. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 61
  20. ^ Faience in different Periods. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  21. ^ Allen (2000) p. 1
  22. ^ Robins (1997) p. 32
  23. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 78–80
  24. ^ Clayton (1994) pp. 12–13
  25. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 6
  26. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 70
  27. ^ Early Dynastic Egypt. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  28. ^ James (2005) p. 40
  29. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 102
  30. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 116–7
  31. ^ Fekri Hassan. The Fall of the Old Kingdom. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
  32. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 69
  33. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 120
  34. ^ a b Shaw (2002) p. 146
  35. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 29
  36. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 148
  37. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 79
  38. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 158
  39. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 179–82
  40. ^ Robins (1997) p. 90
  41. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 188
  42. ^ a b Ryholt (1997) p. 310
  43. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 189
  44. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 224
  45. ^ James (2005) p. 48
  46. ^ Hatshepsut. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  47. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 108
  48. ^ Aldred (1988) p. 259
  49. ^ Cline (2001) p. 273
  50. ^ From his two principal wives and large harem, Ramesses II sired more than 100 children. Clayton (1994) p. 146
  51. ^ Tyldesley (2001) pp. 76–7
  52. ^ James (2005) p. 54
  53. ^ Cerny (1975) p. 645
  54. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 345
  55. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 358
  56. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 383
  57. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 385
  58. ^ Bard, Kathryn (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, 73. ISBN 978-0415185899. 
  59. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 405
  60. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 411
  61. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 418
  62. ^ James (2005) p. 62
  63. ^ James (2005) p. 63
  64. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 426
  65. ^ a b Shaw (2002) p. 422
  66. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 441
  67. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 445
  68. ^ a b c d Manuelian (1998) p. 358
  69. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 363
  70. ^ Meskell (2004) p. 23
  71. ^ a b c Manuelian (1998) p. 372
  72. ^ Walbank (1984) p. 125
  73. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 383
  74. ^ James (2005) p. 136
  75. ^ Billard (1978) p. 109
  76. ^ Social classes in ancient Egypt. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  77. ^ a b c Janet H. Johnson. Women's Legal Rights in Ancient Egypt. University of Chicago. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  78. ^ Oakes (2003) p. 472
  79. ^ McDowell (1999) p. 168
  80. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 361
  81. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 514
  82. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 506
  83. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 510
  84. ^ Nicholson (2000) pp. 577 and 630
  85. ^ a b Strouhal (1989) p. 117
  86. ^ a b c Manuelian (1998) p. 381
  87. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 409
  88. ^ Oakes (2003) p. 229
  89. ^ Greaves (1929) p. 123
  90. ^ Lucas (1962) p. 413
  91. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 28
  92. ^ Scheel (1989) p. 14
  93. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 166
  94. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 51
  95. ^ Loprieno (1995b) p. 2137
  96. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 161
  97. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 162
  98. ^ Loprieno (1995b) p. 2137-38
  99. ^ Vittman (1991) pp. 197–227
  100. ^ Loprieno (1995a) p. 46
  101. ^ Loprieno (1995a) p. 74
  102. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 175
  103. ^ Allen (2000) pp. 67, 70, 109
  104. ^ Loprieno (2005) p. 2147
  105. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 173
  106. ^ Allen (2000) p. 13
  107. ^ Allen (2000) p. 7
  108. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 166
  109. ^ El-Daly (2005) p. 164
  110. ^ Allen (2000) p. 8
  111. ^ Strouhal (1989) p. 235
  112. ^ Lichtheim (1975) p. 11
  113. ^ Lichtheim (1975) p. 215
  114. ^ Lichtheim (1980) p. 159
  115. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 401
  116. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 403
  117. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 405
  118. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 406–7
  119. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 399–400
  120. ^ Music in Ancient Egypt. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  121. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 126
  122. ^ Clarke (1990) pp. 94–7
  123. ^ Badawy (1968) p. 50
  124. ^ Types of temples in ancient Egypt. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  125. ^ Dodson (1991) p. 23
  126. ^ Robins (1997) p. 29
  127. ^ Robins (1997) p. 21
  128. ^ Robins (2001) p. 12
  129. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 105
  130. ^ a b James (2005) p. 122
  131. ^ Robins (1998) p. 74
  132. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 216
  133. ^ Robins (1998) p. 149
  134. ^ Robins (1998) p. 158
  135. ^ James (2005) p. 102
  136. ^ James (2005) p. 117
  137. ^ a b Shaw (2002) p. 313
  138. ^ Allen (2000) pp. 79, 94–5
  139. ^ Wasserman, et al (1994) pp. 150–3
  140. ^ Mummies and Mummification: Old Kingdom. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  141. ^ Mummies and Mummification: Late Period, Ptolemaic, Roman and Christian Period. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  142. ^ Shabtis. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  143. ^ James (2005) p. 124
  144. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 72
  145. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 322
  146. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 145
  147. ^ Harris (1990) p. 13
  148. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 245
  149. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 366–7
  150. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 96
  151. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 400
  152. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 177
  153. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 109
  154. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 195
  155. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 215
  156. ^ Filer (1995) p. 94
  157. ^ Filer (1995) pp. 78–80
  158. ^ Filer (1995) p. 21
  159. ^ Figures are given for adult life expectancy and do not reflect life expectancy at birth. Filer (1995) p. 25
  160. ^ Filer (1995) p. 39
  161. ^ Strouhal (1989) p. 243
  162. ^ Stroual (1989) pp. 244–46
  163. ^ Stroual (1989) p. 250
  164. ^ Filer (1995) p. 38
  165. ^ Understanding of Egyptian mathematics is incomplete due to paucity of available material and lack of exhaustive study of the texts that have been uncovered. Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 13
  166. ^ Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 11
  167. ^ Clarke (1990) p. 222
  168. ^ Clarke (1990) p. 217
  169. ^ Clarke (1990) p. 218
  170. ^ Gardiner (1957) p. 197
  171. ^ a b Strouhal (1989) p. 241
  172. ^ Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 31
  173. ^ Kemp (1989) p. 138
  174. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 8
  175. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 10
  176. ^ El-Daly (2005) p. 112
  177. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 13
  178. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 100

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Aldred, Cyril (1988). Akhenaten, King of Egypt. London, England: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05048-1. 
  • Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian : An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77483-7. 
  • Badawy, Alexander (1968). A History of Egyptian Architecture. Vol III. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-00057-9. 
  • Billard, Jules B. (1978). Ancient Egypt: Discovering its Splendors. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society. 
  • Cerny, J (1975). Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380–1000 BC. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-08691-4. 
  • Clarke, Somers (1990). Ancient Egyptian Construction and Architecture. New York, New York: Dover Publications, Unabridged Dover reprint of Ancient Egyptian Masonry: The Building Craft originally published by Oxford University Press/Humphrey Milford, London, (1930). ISBN 0-486-26485-8. 
  • Clayton, Peter A. (1994). Chronicle of the Pharaohs. London, England: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05074-0. 
  • Cline, Eric H.; O'Connor, David Kevin (2001). Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 273. ISBN 0-472-08833-5. 
  • Dodson, Aidan (1991). Egyptian Rock Cut Tombs. Buckinghamshire, UK: Shire Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-7478-0128-2. 
  • Dodson, Aidan (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London, England: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500051283. 
  • El-Daly, Okasha (2005). Egyptology: The Missing Millennium. London, England: UCL Press. ISBN 1-844-72062-4. 
  • Filer, Joyce (1996). Disease. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72498-5. 
  • Gardiner, Sir Alan (1957). Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. Oxford, England: Griffith Institute. ISBN 0-900416-35-1. 
  • Hayes, W. C. (October 1964). "Most Ancient Egypt: Chapter III. The Neolithic and Chalcolithic Communities of Northern Egypt". JNES 23: 217–272. 
  • Imhausen, Annette; Eleanor Robson, Joseph W. Dauben, Kim Plofker, J. Lennart Berggren, Victor J. Katz (2007). The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A Sourcebook. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11485-4. 
  • James, T.G.H. (2005). The British Museum Concise Introduction to Ancient Egypt. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-03137-6. 
  • Kemp, Barry (1991). Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. London, England: Routledge. ISBN 0415063469. 
  • Lichtheim, Miriam (1975). Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol 1. London, England: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02899-6. 
  • Lichtheim, Miriam (1980). Ancient Egyptian Literature, A Book of Readings. Vol III: The Late Period. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24844-1. 
  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995a). Ancient Egyptian: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44849-2. 
  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995b), “Ancient Egyptian and other Afroasiatic Languages”, in Sasson, J. M., Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 4, New York, New York: Charles Scribner, pp. 2137–2150, ISBN 1-565-63607-4 
  • Loprieno, Antonio (2004), “Ancient Egyptian and Coptic”, in Woodward, Roger D., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 160–192, ISBN 0-52-156256-2 
  • Lucas, Alfred (1962). Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, 4th Ed.. London, England: Edward Arnold Publishers. ISBN 1854170465. 
  • Mallory-Greenough, Leanne M. (2002). "The Geographical, Spatial, and Temporal Distribution of Predynastic and First Dynasty Basalt Vessels". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 88: 67–93. London, England: Egypt Exploration Society. doi:10.2307/3822337. 
  • Manuelian, Peter Der (1998). Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs. Bonner Straße, Cologne Germany: Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. ISBN 3-89508-913-3. 
  • McDowell, A. G. (1999). Village life in ancient Egypt: laundry lists and love songs. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814998-0. 
  • Meskell, Lynn. Object Worlds in Ancient Egypt: Material Biographies Past and Present (Materializing Culture). Oxford, England: Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-85973-867-2. 
  • Midant-Reynes, Béatrix (2000). The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-21787-8. 
  • Nicholson, Paul T. et al. (2000). Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521452570. 
  • Oakes, Lorna (2003). Ancient Egypt: An Illustrated Reference to the Myths, Religions, Pyramids and Temples of the Land of the Pharaohs. New York, New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0-7607-4943-4. 
  • Robins, Gay (2000). The Art of Ancient Egypt. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00376-4. 
  • Ryholt, Kim (January 1997). The Political Situation in Egypt During the Second Intermediate Period. Copenhagen, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum. ISBN 8772894210. 
  • Scheel, Bernd (1989). Egyptian Metalworking and Tools. Haverfordwest, Great Britain: Shire Publications Ltd. ISBN 0747800014. 
  • Shaw, Ian (2003). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-500-05074-0. 
  • Siliotti, Alberto (1998). The Discovery of Ancient Egypt. Edison, New Jersey: Book Sales, Inc.. ISBN 0-7858-1360-8. 
  • Strouhal, Eugen (1989). Life in Ancient Egypt. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2475-x. 
  • Tyldesley, Joyce A. (2001). Ramesses: Egypt's greatest pharaoh. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 76–77. ISBN 0-14-028097-9. 
  • Vittman, G. (1991). "Zum koptischen Sprachgut im Ägyptisch-Arabisch". Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 81: 197–227. Vienna, Austria: Institut für Orientalistik, Vienna University. 
  • Walbank, Frank William (1984). The Cambridge ancient history. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23445-X. 
  • Wasserman, James; Faulkner, Raymond Oliver; Goelet, Ogden; Von Dassow, Eva (1994). The Egyptian Book of the dead, the Book of going forth by day: being the Papyrus of Ani. San Francisco, California: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-0767-3. 
  • Wilkinson, R. H. (2000). The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. London, England: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0500051003. 

The Journal of Near Eastern Studies is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press, devoted to examination of the ancient and medieval civilisations of the Near East. ... Barry Kemp is an English archaeologist and Egyptologist, currently Reader in Egyptology at the University of Cambridge and director of the excavations at Amarna in Egypt. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Kim S B Ryholt is a Danish Egyptologist, who works at the Carsten Niebuhr Institute (Publications) of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Copenhagen. ...

Further reading

  • Baines, John and Jaromir Malek (2000). The Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt, revised edition, Facts on File. ISBN 0816040362. 
  • Bard, KA (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. NY, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18589-0. 
  • Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Blackwell Books. ISBN 0631193960. 
  • Lehner, Mark (1997). The Complete Pyramids. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500050848. 
  • Wilkinson, R.H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0500051208. 

John Baines is the incumbent Professor of Egyptology at the University of Oxford, England and the author of multiple scholarly articles and publications relating to ancient Egyptian civilisation. ... Dr. Mark Lehner is an American archaeologist with over thirty years experience excavating in Egypt. ...

External links

Find more about Ancient Egypt on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Ancient Egypt – maintained by the British Museum, this site provides a useful introduction to Ancient Egypt for older children and young adolescents
  • BBC History: Egyptians – provides a reliable general overview and further links
  • Texts from the Pyramid Age Door Nigel C. Strudwick, Ronald J. Leprohon, 2005, Brill Academic Publishers
  • Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book Door Marshall Clagett, 1989
  • Digital Egypt for Universities. Outstanding scholarly treatment with broad coverage and excellent cross references (internal and external). Artifacts used extensively to illustrate topics.
  • Ancient Egyptian Metallurgy A site that shows the history of Egyptian metalworking
  • Napoleon on the Nile: Soldiers, Artists, and the Rediscovery of Egypt, Art History.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ancient Egypt - MSN Encarta (2149 words)
Ancient Egypt, civilization that thrived along the Nile River in northeastern Africa for more than 3,000 years, from about 3300 bc to 30 bc.
The Nile River, which formed the focus of ancient Egyptian civilization, originates in the highlands of East Africa and flows northward throughout the length of what are now Sudan and Egypt.
Although the ancient Egyptians worshiped many gods, Egypt is also often recognized as the origin of the first recorded monotheist (worshiper of one god), the king who called himself Akhenaton.
Life in Ancient Egypt: Life in Ancient Egypt (8383 words)
In the Delta in the north, the highest average temperature in the middle of winter is 50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit and in the hottest season 90 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
Between Aswan (ancient Elephantine) and the Mediterranean, the Nile is clear of cataracts and was the principal means of travel for the people of ancient Egypt.
The ancient Egyptians most often visited the countries along the Mediterranean Sea and the Upper Nile River to the south because they were immediately adjacent to Egypt and contained materials that the Egyptians desired.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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