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Encyclopedia > Anaximander
Western Philosophy
Pre-Socratic philosophy
Detail of Raphael's painting The School of Athens, 15101511. This could be a representation of Anaximander leaning towards Pythagoras on his left.[1]

Name Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The apeiron is a cosmological theory created by Anaximander in the 6th century BC. Anaximanders work is mostly lost. ... Anaximander can mean:- Anaximander was a Greek philosopher. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Image File history File links Anaximander. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... The School of Athens or in Italian is one of the most famous paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. ... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...

Anaximander (Άναξίμανδρος)

Birth

c. 610 BC Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang...

Death

c. 546 BC Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ...

School/tradition

Ionian Philosophy, Milesian school, Naturalism The Ionians were one of the three main ancient Greek ethno-linguistic groups, linked by their use of the Ionic dialect of the Greek language. ... The Milesian school was a school of thought founded in the 6th Century BC. The ideas associated with it are exemplified by three philosophers from the Ionian town of Miletus, on the edge of Anatolia: Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. ... Naturalism may refer to: Naturalism (philosophy), any of several philosophical stances wherein all phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural, are either false, unknowable, or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses Methodological naturalism is the methodological assumption that that observable events in nature are explained only by natural...

Main interests

Metaphysics, astronomy, geometry, geography Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ...

Notable ideas

The apeiron is the first principle The apeiron is a cosmological theory created by Anaximander in the 6th century BC. Anaximanders work is mostly lost. ... In modern chemistry, principles are the constituents of a substance, specifically those that produce a certain quality or effect in the substance, such as a bitter principle, which is any one of the numerous compounds having a bitter taste. ...

Influences

Thales of Miletus For the Defense and Security Company, see Thales Group. ...

Influenced

Anaximenes, Pythagoras Anaximenes (in Greek: Άναξιμένης) of Miletus (585 BC - 525 BC) was a Greek philosopher from the latter half of the 6th century, probably a younger contemporary of Anaximander, whose pupil or friend he is said to have been. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...

Anaximander (Ancient Greek: Ἀναξίμανδρος) (c. 610 BC–c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia. He joined the Milesian school and studied the teachings of its master Thales. He succeeded him and became the second master of that school where he counted Anaximenes and Pythagoras amongst his pupils. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... Pre-Socratic philosophers are often very hard to pin down, and it is sometimes very difficult to determine the actual line of argument they used in supporting their particular views. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... The Milesian school was a school of thought founded in the 6th Century BC. The ideas associated with it are exemplified by three philosophers from the Ionian town of Miletus, on the edge of Anatolia: Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. ... For the Defense and Security Company, see Thales Group. ... Anaximenes (in Greek: Άναξιμένης) of Miletus (585 BC - 525 BC) was a Greek philosopher from the latter half of the 6th century, probably a younger contemporary of Anaximander, whose pupil or friend he is said to have been. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...


Little of his life and work is known today. According to available historical documents, he is the first philosopher known to have written down his studies[2], although only one fragment of his work remains. Fragmentary testimonies found in documents after his death provide a portrait of the man.


Anaximander was one of the earliest Greek thinkers at the start of the Axial Age, the period from approximately 700 BC to 200 BC, during which similarly revolutionary thinking appeared in China, India, Iran, the Near East, and Ancient Greece. He was an early proponent of science and tried to observe and explain different aspects of the universe, with a particular interest in its origins, claiming that nature is ruled by laws, just like human societies, and anything that disturbs the balance of nature does not last long.[3] Like many thinkers of his time, his contributions to philosophy relate to many disciplines. In astronomy, he tried to describe the mechanics of celestial bodies in relation to the Earth. In physics, he postulated that the indefinite (or apeiron) was the source of all things. His knowledge of geometry allowed him to introduce the gnomon in Greece. He created a map of the world that contributed greatly to the advancement of geography. He was also involved in the politics of Miletus as he was sent as a leader to one of its colonies. According to the Axial Age theory, the philosophy behind the worlds major religions sprang from a six-hundred year span of time in the first millennium BCE. German philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the term the Axial Age (Achsenzeit in the German language original) to describe the period from 800... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... The apeiron is a cosmological theory created by Anaximander in the 6th century BC. Anaximanders work is mostly lost. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... The cantilever spar of this cable-stay bridge, the Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, forms the gnomon of a large garden sundial The gnomon is the part of a sundial that casts the shadow. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Anaximander, son of Praxiades, was born in Miletus during the third year of the 42nd Olympiad (610 BCE).[4] According to Apollodorus, Greek grammarian of the 2nd century BCE, he was sixty-four years old during the second year of the 58th Olympiad (547 BC-546 BCE), and died shortly afterwards.[5] An Olympiad is a period of four years, associated with the Olympic Games of Classical Greece. ... Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


Very few documents provide details on his life. Fragments that refer to him deal with his work, except for the very short description provided by Diogenes Laertius. Diogenes explains that Anaximander was a pupil of Thales, founder of the Milesian School of philosophy. He succeeded him as master of the School where his work influenced Anaximenes and Pythagoras. According to the Suda, Thales was also a relative, probably his cousin or uncle,[6] but no other text provides any information about his family life. Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ...


Establishing a timeline of his work is now impossible, since no document provides chronological references. Anaximander would have reached the pinnacle of his career around the time of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. Themistius, a 4th century Byzantine rhethorician, mentions that he was the "first of the known Greeks to publish a written document on nature" and therefore his texts would be amongst the earliest written in prose, at least in the Western world. By the time of Plato, his philosophy was almost forgotten, and Aristotle, his successor Theophrastus and a few doxographers provide us with the little information that remains. For the bishop, see Polycrates of Ephesus. ... Samos (Greek: Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formerly known as Ionia. ... Themistius (317 - c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Doxography (Greek: δόξα - an opinion, a point of view + γραϕή - to write, to describe) is a term used for the works especially of classical historians which describe the points of view of past philosophers and scientists concerning philosophy, science, etc. ...


The 3rd century Roman rhetorician Aelian depicts him as leader of the Milesian colony to Apollonia on the Black Sea coast, and hence some have inferred that he was a prominent citizen. Indeed, Various History (III, 17) explains that philosophers sometimes left the contentment of their thoughts to deal with political matters. It is very likely that leaders of Miletus sent him there as a legislator to create a constitution or simply to maintain the colony’s allegiance. // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ... Sozopol Architectural heritage of Sozopol Fishermens boats in Sozopol Ancient remains Old wooden houses in the town Fortress Beach located in the old quarter The peninsula of the old city quarter Sozopol (Bulgarian: ) is a small ancient town located 30 km south of Burgas on the southern Bulgarian Black... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


In Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers (II, 2), Diogenes Laertius reports an amusing anecdote regarding his personality: learning that children were mocking him when he was singing, Anaximander replied that he should learn to sing better for the children. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a biography of the Greek philosophers by Diogenes Laërtius. ...


Theories

Apeiron

Main article: Apeiron (cosmology)

The antipope Hippolytus of Rome (I, 5), and later 4th century Byzantine philosopher Simplicius of Cilicia, attribute to Anaximander the earliest use of the word apeíron (ἄπειρον/infinite or limitless) to designate the original principle. He is the first philosopher to employ, in a philosophical context, the term arkhế (ἀρχή), which until then had meant beginning or origin. For him, it became no longer a mere point in time, but a source that could perpetually give birth to whatever will be. The apeiron is a cosmological theory created by Anaximander in the 6th century BC. Anaximanders work is mostly lost. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... Simplicius, a native of Cilicia, a disciple of Ammonius and of Damascius, was one of the last of the Neoplatonists. ... The apeiron is a cosmological theory created by Anaximander in the 6th century BC. Anaximanders work is mostly lost. ... In the ancient Greek philosophy, arche (ἀρχή) is the beginning or the first principle of the world. ...


Aristotle writes (Metaphysics, I III 3-4) that the Pre-Socratics were searching for the element that constitutes all things. While each pre-Socratic philosopher gave a different answer as to the identity of this element (water for Thales, air for Anaximenes, fire for Heraclitus), Anaximander understood the beginning or first principle to be an endless, unlimited primordial mass (apeiron), subject to neither old age nor decay, that perpetually yielded fresh materials from which everything we perceive is derived.[7] He proposed the theory of the apeiron in direct response to the earlier theory of his teacher, Thales, who had claimed that the primary substance was water. Metaphysics is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ...


For Anaximander, the principle of things, the constituent of all substances, is nothing determined and not an element such as water in Thales' view. Neither is it something halfway between air and water, or between air and fire, thicker than air and fire, or more subtle than water and earth.[8] Anaximander argues that water cannot embrace all of the opposites found in nature — for example, water can only be wet, never dry — and therefore cannot be the one primary substance; nor could any of the other candidates. He postulated the apeiron as a substance that, although not directly perceptible to us, could explain the opposites he saw around him. In modern chemistry, principles are the constituents of a substance, specifically those that produce a certain quality or effect in the substance, such as a bitter principle, which is any one of the numerous compounds having a bitter taste. ...


Anaximander explains how the four elements of ancient physics (air, earth, water and fire) are formed, and how Earth and terrestrial beings are formed through their interactions. Unlike other Pre-Socratics, he never defines this principle precisely, and it has generally been understood (e.g., by Aristotle and by Saint Augustine) as a sort of primal chaos. According to him, the Universe originates in the separation of opposites in the primordial matter. It embraces the opposites of hot and cold, wet and dry, and directs the movement of things; an entire host of shapes and differences then grow that are found in "all the worlds" (for he believed there were many). . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Water has been important to all peoples of the earth, and it is rich in spiritual tradition. ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... Augustinus redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chaos. ...


Anaximander maintains that all dying things are returning to the element from which they came (apeiron). The one surviving fragment of Anaximander's writing deals with this matter. Simplicius transmitted it as a quotation, which describes the balanced and mutual changes of the elements:[9]

Whence things have their origin, Thence also their destruction happens, According to necessity; For they give to each other justice and recompense For their injustice In conformity with the ordinance of Time.

This concept of returning to the element of origin was often revisited afterwards, notably by Aristotle (Metaphysics, I, 3, 983 b 8-11; Physics, III, 5, 204 b 33-34) and by the Greek tragedian Euripides ("what comes from earth must return to earth", Supplices, v. 532). It is even echoed in the Judeo-Christian phrase, "For dust you are and to dust you will return". Aristotles Physics, frontispice of an 1837 edition Physics (or Physica, or Physicae Auscultationes meaning lessons) is a key text in the philosophy of Aristotle. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A statue of Euripides. ... The Suppliants (also known as The Suppliant Women) 423 BC, is an ancient Greek play by Euripides. ...


Cosmology

Map of Anaximander's universe
Map of Anaximander's universe

Anaximander's bold use of non-mythological explanatory hypotheses considerably distinguishes him from previous cosmology writers such as Hesiod. It confirms that pre-Socratic philosophers were making an early effort to demythify the genealogical process. His major contribution to history was writing the oldest prose document about the Universe and the origins of life; for this he is often called the "Father of Cosmology" and founder of astronomy. However, pseudo-Plutarch (the name given to unknown authors whose works are attributed to the Greek biographer Plutarch) (I, 7) states that he still viewed celestial bodies as deities. Image File history File links Anaximander_cosmology-en. ... Image File history File links Anaximander_cosmology-en. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about life in general. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Anaximander was the first to conceive a mechanical model of the world. In his model, the Earth floats very still in the centre of the infinite, not supported by anything. It remains "in the same place because of its indifference", a point of view that Aristotle considered ingenious, but false, in On the Heavens (II, 13). Its curious shape is that of a cylinder[10] with a height one-third of its diameter. The flat top forms the inhabited world, which is surrounded by a circular oceanic mass. For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... On the Heavens (or De Caelo) is Aristotles chief cosmological treatise: it contains his astronomical theory. ...


Such a model allowed the concept that celestial bodies could pass under it. It goes further than Thales’ claim of a world floating on water, for which Thales faced the problem of explaining what would contain this ocean, while Anaximander solved it by introducing his concept of infinite (apeiron). Astronomical objects are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current science has confirmed to exist in space. ...

Illustration of Anaximander's models of the universe. On the left, daytime in summer; on the right, nighttime in winter.
Illustration of Anaximander's models of the universe. On the left, daytime in summer; on the right, nighttime in winter.

At the origin, after the separation of hot and cold, a ball of flame appeared that surrounded Earth like bark on a tree. This ball broke apart to form the rest of the Universe. It resembled a system of hollow concentric wheels, filled with fire, with the rims pierced by holes like those of a flute. Consequently, the Sun was the fire that one could see through a hole the same size as the Earth on the farthest wheel, and an eclipse corresponded with the occlusion of that hole. The diameter of the solar wheel was twenty-seven times that of the Earth (or twenty-eight, depending on the sources)[11] and the lunar wheel, whose fire was less intense, eighteen (or nineteen) times. Its hole could change shape, thus explaining lunar phases. The stars and the planets, located closer,[12] followed the same model.[13] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Look up hot, HOT in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up cold in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sol redirects here. ... A term indicating that the state of something, which is normally open, is now totally closed. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ...


Anaximander was the first astronomer to consider the Sun as a huge mass, and consequently, to realize how far from Earth it might be, and the first to present a system where the celestial bodies turned at different distances. Furthermore, according to Diogenes Laertius (II, 2), he built a celestial sphere. This invention undoubtedly made him the first to realize the obliquity of the Zodiac as the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder reports in Natural History (II, 8). It is a little early to use the term ecliptic, but his knowledge and work on astronomy confirm that he must have observed the inclination of the celestial sphere in relation to the plane of the Earth to explain the seasons. The doxographer and theologian Aetius attributes to Pythagoras the exact measurement of the obliquity. The celestial sphere is divided by the celestial equator. ... In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... Doxography (Greek: δόξα - an opinion, a point of view + γραϕή - to write, to describe) is a term used for the works especially of classical historians which describe the points of view of past philosophers and scientists concerning philosophy, science, etc. ... Aëtius of Antioch (Aëtius Antiochenus, flourished 350), surnamed the Atheist, founder of an extreme sect of Arians, was a native of Coele-Syria. ...


Multiple worlds

According to Simplicius, Anaximander already speculated on the plurality of worlds, similar to atomists Leucippus and Democritus, and later philosopher Epicurus. These thinkers supposed that worlds appeared and disappeared for a while, and that some were born when others perished. They claimed that this movement was eternal, "for without movement, there can be no generation, no destruction".[14] The World in plate carrée projection The World In English, world is rooted in a compound of the obsolete words were, man, and eld, age; thus, its oldest meaning is age or life of man. Its primary modern meaning is the planet Earth, especially when capitalized: the World. ... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: discussions of existence of atoms among prominent physicists up to the end of 19th century. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... Epicure redirects here. ...


In addition to Simplicius, Hippolytus (Refutation I, 6) reports Anaximander's claim that from the infinite comes the principle of beings, which themselves come from the heavens and the worlds (several doxographers use the plural when this philosopher is referring to the worlds within,[15] which are often infinite in quantity). Cicero writes that he attributes different gods to the countless worlds.[16] For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


This theory places Anaximander close to the Atomists and the Epicureans who, more than a century later, also claimed that an infinity of worlds appeared and disappeared. In the timeline of the Greek history of thought, some thinkers conceptualized a single world (Plato, Aristotle, Anaxagoras and Archelaus), while others instead speculated on the existence of a series of worlds, continuous or non-continuous (Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Empedocles and Diogenes). Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... A wide-ranging list of philosophers from the Western traditions of philosophy. ... Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (Greek: Αναξαγόρας, c. ... Archelaus was a Greek philosopher of the 5th century BCE, born probably in Athens, though Diogenes Laërtius (ii. ... Empedocles (Greek: , ca. ... Diogenes Apolloniates or Diogenes of Apollonia (c. ...


Meteorological phenomena

Anaximander attributed some phenomena, such as thunder and lightning, to the intervention of elements, rather than to divine causes.[17] In his system, thunder results from the shock of clouds hitting each other; the loudness of the sound is proportionate with that of the shock. Thunder without lightning is the result of the wind being too weak to emit any flame, but strong enough to produce a sound. A flash of lightning without thunder is a jolt of the air that disperses and falls, allowing a less active fire to break free. Thunderbolts are the result of a thicker and more violent air flow.[18] For other uses, see Thunder (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with lighting. ...


He saw the sea as a remnant of the mass of humidity that once surrounded Earth.[19] A part of that mass evaporated under the sun's action, thus causing the winds and even the rotation of the celestial bodies, which he believed were attracted to places where water is more abundant.[20] He explained rain as a product of the humidity pumped up from Earth by the sun.[4] For him, the Earth was slowly drying up and water only remained in the deepest regions, which someday would go dry as well. According to Aristotle's Meteorology (II, 3), Democritus also shared this opinion. Meteorology (or Meteorologica) is a text by Aristotle which contains his theories about the earth sciences. ...


Origin of humankind

Anaximander speculated about the beginnings and origin of animal life. Taking into account the existence of fossils, he claimed that animals sprang out of the sea long ago. The first animals were born trapped in a spiny bark, but as they got older, the bark would dry up and break.[21] As the early humidity evaporated, dry land emerged and, in time, humankind had to adapt. In De Die Natali (IV, 7), the 3rd century Roman writer Censorinus reports: This article is about evolution in biology. ... Censorinus, Roman grammarian and miscellaneous writer, flourished during the 3rd century AD. He was the author of a lost work De Accentibus and of an extant treatise De Die Natali, written in 238, and dedicated to his patron Quintus Caerellius as a birthday gift. ...

Anaximander of Miletus considered that from warmed up water and earth emerged either fish or entirely fishlike animals. Inside these animals, men took form and embryos were held prisoners until puberty; only then, after these animals burst open, could men and women come out, now able to feed themselves.

Anaximander put forward the idea that humans had to spend part of this transition inside the mouths of big fish to protect themselves from the Earth's climate until they could come out in open air and lose their scales.[22] He thought that, considering humans' extended infancy, we could not have survived in the primeval world in the same manner we do presently.


Even though he had no theory of natural selection, some people consider him as evolution's most ancient proponent. The theory of an aquatic descent of man was re-conceived centuries later as the aquatic ape hypothesis. These pre-Darwinian concepts may seem strange, considering modern knowledge and scientific methods, because they present complete explanations of the universe while using bold and hard-to-demonstrate hypotheses. However, they illustrate the beginning of a phenomenon sometimes called the "Greek miracle": men try to explain the nature of the world, not with the aid of myths or religion, but with material principles. This is the very principle of scientific thought, which was later advanced further by improved research methods. For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Other accomplishments

Cartography

Possible rendering of Anaximander's world map
Possible rendering of Anaximander's world map[23]

Both Strabo and Agathemerus (Greek geographers whose work postdates Anaximander) claim that, according to the geographer Eratosthenes, Anaximander was the first to publish a map of the world. The map probably inspired the Greek historian Hecataeus of Miletus to draw a more accurate version. Strabo viewed both as the first geographers after Homer. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Agathemerus (Greek: ) was a Greek geographer who published a small two-part geographical work during the Roman Greece period. ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... Hecataeus (c. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ...


Local maps were produced in ancient times, notably in Egypt, Lydia, the Middle East, and Babylon. They indicated roads, towns, borders, and geological features. Anaximander's innovation was to represent the entire inhabited land known to the ancient Greeks. Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


Such an accomplishment is more significant than it at first appears. Anaximander most likely drew this map for three reasons.[24] First, it could be used to improve navigation and trade between Miletus' colonies and other colonies around the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Second, Thales would probably have found it easier to convince the Ionian city-states to join in a federation in order to push the Median threat away if he possessed such a tool. Finally, the philosophical idea of a global representation of the world simply for the sake of knowledge was reason enough to design one. The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... For the Defense and Security Company, see Thales Group. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ... Mede nobility. ...


Surely aware of the sea's convexity, he may have designed his map on a slightly rounded metal surface. The centre or “navel” of the world (ὀμφαλός γῆς/omphalós gẽs) could have been Delphi, but is more likely in Anaximander's time to have been located near Miletus. The Aegean Sea was near the map's centre and enclosed by three continents, themselves located in the middle of the ocean and isolated like islands by sea and rivers. Europe was bordered on the south by the Mediterranean Sea and was separated from Asia by the Pontus Euxinus (the Black Sea), the Lake Maeotis, and, further east, either by the Phasis River (now called the Rioni) or the Tanais. The Nile flowed south into the ocean, separating Libya (which was the name for the part of the then-known African continent) from Asia. For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... The Rioni River (Georgian რიონი) is the principal river of western Georgia. ... Sarmatian cataphract from Tanais. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Gnomon

The Suda relates that Anaximander explained some basic notions of geometry. It also mentions his interest in the measurement of time and associates him with the introduction in Greece of the gnomon. In Lacedaemon, he participated in the construction, or at least in the adjustment, of sundials to indicate solstices and equinoxes.[25] Indeed, a gnomon required adjustments from a place to another because of the difference in latitude. The cantilever spar of this cable-stay bridge, the Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, forms the gnomon of a large garden sundial The gnomon is the part of a sundial that casts the shadow. ... Lacedaemon, or Lakedaimon, Grk. ... For other uses, see Sundial (disambiguation). ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ...


In his time, the gnomon was simply a vertical pillar or rod mounted on a horizontal plane. The position of its shadow on the plane indicated the time of day. As it moves through its apparent course, the sun draws a curve with the tip of the projected shadow, which is shortest at noon, when pointing due south. The variation in the tip’s position at noon indicates the solar time and the seasons; the shadow is longest on the winter solstice and shortest on the summer solstice.


However, the invention of the gnomon itself cannot be attributed to Anaximander because its use, as well as the division of days into twelve parts, came from the Babylonians. It is they, according to Herodotus' Histories (II, 109), who gave the Greeks the art of time measurement. It is likely that he was not the first to determine the solstices, because no calculation is necessary. On the other hand, equinoxes do not correspond to the middle point between the positions during solstices, as the Babylonians thought. As the Suda seems to suggest, it is very likely that with his knowledge of geometry, he became the first Greek to accurately determine the equinoxes. Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ...


Prediction of an earthquake

In his philosophical work De Divinatione (I, 50, 112), Cicero states that Anaximander convinced the inhabitants of Lacedaemon to abandon their city and spend the night in the country with their weapons because an earthquake was near.[26] The city collapsed when the top of the Taygetus split like the stern of a ship. Pliny the Elder also mentions this anecdote (II, 81), suggesting that it came from an "admirable inspiration", as opposed to Cicero, who did not associate the prediction with divination. Ciceros De Divinatione (Latin, Concerning Divination) is a philosophical treatise in two books written in 45 BC . ... Lacedaemon, or Lakedaimon, Grk. ... Taygetus or Taygetos (Greek: Ταΰγετος), also Taigetos is a mountain range of the Peloponnesus, Southern Greece, extending about 65 mi (100 km) north from the southern end of Cape Matapan in the Mani Peninsula. ...


Interpretations

Bertrand Russell in the History of Western Philosophy interprets Anaximander's theories as an assertion of the necessity of an appropriate balance between earth, fire, and water, all of which may be independently seeking to aggrandize their proportions relative to the others. Anaximander seems to express his belief that a natural order ensures balance between these elements, that where there was fire, ashes (earth) now exist.[27] His Greek peers echoed this sentiment with their belief in natural boundaries beyond which not even their gods could operate. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Bertrand Russells A History of Western Philosophy : And Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day has the ambitious goal of tracing Western philosophy from the earliest times to Russells modern day, which was the nineteen sixties. ...


Friedrich Nietzsche, in Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, claimed that Anaximander was a pessimist who asserted that the primal being of the world was a state of indefiniteness. In accordance with this, anything definite has to eventually pass back into indefiniteness. In other words, Anaximander viewed "...all coming-to-be as though it were an illegitimate emancipation from eternal being, a wrong for which destruction is the only penance". (Ibid., § 4) The world of individual objects, in this way of thinking, has no worth and should perish.[28] Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen) is a publication of an incomplete book by Friedrich Nietzsche. ...


Martin Heidegger lectured extensively on Anaximander, and delivered a lecture entitled "Anaximander's Saying" which was subsequently included in Off the Beaten Track. The lecture examines the ontological difference and the oblivion of Being or Dasein in the context of the Anaximander fragment.[29] Heidegger's lecture is, in turn, an important influence on the French philosopher Jacques Derrida.[30] Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Dasein is a concept forged by Martin Heidegger in his magnum opus Being and Time . ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ...


Works

According to the Suda:[31]

  • On Nature (Περὶ φύσεως / Perì phúseôs)
  • Around the Earth (Γῆς περίοδος / Gễs períodos)
  • On Fixed Bodies (Περὶ τῶν ἀπλανῶν / Perì tỗn aplanỗn)
  • The Sphere (Σφαῖρα / Sphaĩra)

On Nature was a philosophical poem which details Anaximanders theories about the evolution of the Earth, plants, animals and humankind. ...

See also

Atlas Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Milesian school was a school of thought founded in the 6th Century BC. The ideas associated with it are exemplified by three philosophers from the Ionian town of Miletus, on the edge of Anatolia: Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ This character is traditionally associated with Boethius, however his face offering similarities with a bust of Anaximander, it could be a representation of the philosopher.See http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/SchoolAthens2.htm for a description of the characters in this painting.
  2. ^ Themistius, Oratio 36, §317
  3. ^ Park, David (2005) The Grand Contraption, Princenton University Press ISBN 0-691-12133-8
  4. ^ a b Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies (I, 5)
  5. ^ In his Chronicles, as reported by Diogenes Laertius, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers (II, 2).
  6. ^ The use of the word συγγενὴς in the Suda may refer to relatives, but in Ancient Greek, it can refer to men of the same race. Thales was about fifteen years older that Anaximander. Even though technically they could be brothers, the Suda says they have different fathers. So Conche concludes it is most likely that Thales was either his uncle or his cousin.
  7. ^ Opinion refuted by Pseudo-Plutarch, The Doctrines of the Philosophers (I, 3).
  8. ^ Aristotle, On Generation and Corruption (II, 5)
  9. ^ Simplicius, Comments on Aristotle's Physics (24, 13):
    "Ἀναξίμανδρος [...] λέγει δ' αὐτὴν μήτε ὕδωρ μήτε ἄλλο τι τῶν καλουμένων εἶναι στοιχείων, ἀλλ' ἑτέραν τινὰ φύσιν ἄπειρον, ἐξ ἧς ἅπαντας γίνεσθαι τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ τοὺς ἐν αὐτοῖς κόσμους· ἐξ ὧν δὲ ἡ γένεσίς ἐστι τοῖς οὖσι, καὶ τὴν φθορὰν εἰς ταῦτα γίνεσθαι κατὰ τὸ χρεών· διδόναι γὰρ αὐτὰ δίκην καὶ τίσιν ἀλλήλοις τῆς ἀδικίας κατὰ τὴν τοῦ χρόνου τάξιν, ποιητικωτέροις οὕτως ὀνόμασιν αὐτὰ λέγων. δῆλον δὲ ὅτι τὴν εἰς ἄλληλα μεταβολὴν τῶν τεττάρων στοιχείων οὗτος θεασάμενος οὐκ ἠξίωσεν ἕν τι τούτων ὑποκείμενον ποιῆσαι, ἀλλά τι ἄλλο παρὰ ταῦτα· οὗτος δὲ οὐκ ἀλλοιουμένου τοῦ στοιχείου τὴν γένεσιν ποιεῖ, ἀλλ' ἀποκρινομένων τῶν ἐναντίων διὰ τῆς αἰδίου κινήσεως."
    Punctuation does not exist in Ancient Greek and quotes usually blend with surrounding text. Consequently, deciding where they start and where they end is often difficult. However, it is generally accepted that this quote is not Simplicius' own interpretation, but Anaximander's writing, in "somewhat poetic terms".
  10. ^ "A column of stone", Aetius reports in De Fide (III, 7, 1), or "similar to a pillar-shaped stone", pseudo-Plutarch (III, 10).
  11. ^ In Refutation, Hippolytus reports that the circle of the Sun is twenty-seven times bigger than the Moon.
  12. ^ Aetius, De Fide (II, 15, 6)
  13. ^ Most of Anaximander's model of the Universe comes from pseudo-Plutarch (II, 20-28):
    "[The Sun] is a circle twenty-eight times as big as the Earth, with the outline similar to that of a fire-filled chariot wheel, on which appears a mouth in certain places and through which it exposes its fire, as through the hole on a flute. [...] the Sun is equal to the Earth, but the circle on which it breathes and on which it's born is twenty-seven times as big as the whole earth. [...] [The eclipse] is when the mouth from which comes the fire heat is closed. [...] [The Moon] is a circle nineteen times as big as the whole earth, all filled with fire, like that of the Sun".
  14. ^ In Comments of Aristotle's Physics (1121, 5-9)
  15. ^ Notably pseudo-Plutarch (III, 2) and Aetius, (I, 3, 3; I, 7, 12; II, 1, 3; II, 1, 8).
  16. ^ On the Nature of the Gods (I, 10, 25):
    "Anaximandri autem opinio est nativos esse deos longis intervallis orientis occidentisque, eosque innumerabiles esse mundos."
    "For Anaximander, gods were born, but the time is long between their birth and their death; and the worlds are countless."
  17. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch (III, 3):
    "Anaximander claims that all this is done by the wind, for when it happens to be enclosed in a thick cloud, then by its subtlety and lightness, the rupture produces the sound; and the scattering, because of the darkness of the cloud, creates the light."
  18. ^ According to Seneca, Naturales quaestiones (II, 18).
  19. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch (III, 16)
  20. ^ It is then very likely that by observing the moon and the tides, Anaximander thought the latter were the cause, and not the effect of the satellite's movement.
  21. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch (V, 19)
  22. ^ Plutarch also mentions Anaximander's theory that humans were born inside fish, feeding like sharks, and that when they could defend themselves, they were thrown ashore to live on dry land.
  23. ^ According to John Mansley Robinson, An Introduction to Early Greek Philosophy, Houghton and Mifflin, 1968.
  24. ^ As established by Marcel Conche, Anaximandre. Fragments et témoignages, introduction (p. 43-47).
  25. ^ These accomplishments are often attributed to him, notably by Diogenes Laertius (II, 1) and by the Roman historian Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation for the Gospel (X, 14, 11).
  26. ^ Da Divinatione (in Latin)
  27. ^ Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy and Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946).
  28. ^ Friedrich Nietzsche, Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1962).
  29. ^ Martin Heidegger, Off the Beaten Track (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  30. ^ Cf., Jacques Derrida, Margins of Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), pp. 66–7; Derrida, "Geschlecht II: Heidegger's Hand," in John Sallis (ed.), Deconstruction and Philosophy (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp. 181–2; Derrida, Given Time: I. Counterfeit Money (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1992), p. 159, n. 28.
  31. ^ Themistius and Simplicius also mention some work "on nature". The list could refer to book titles or simply their topics. Again, no one can tell because there is no punctuation sign in Ancient Greek. Furthermore, this list is incomplete since the Suda ends it with ἄλλα τινά, thus implying "other works".

For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... Themistius (317 - c. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... The Refutation of All Heresies is a compendious Christian polemical work of the early third century, now generally attributed to Hippolytus of Rome. ... Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ... Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a biography of the Greek philosophers by Diogenes Laërtius. ... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... On Generation and Corruption (or De Generatione et Corruptione) is a text by Aristotle. ... Simplicius, a native of Cilicia, a disciple of Ammonius and of Damascius, was one of the last of the Neoplatonists. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Aëtius of Antioch (Aëtius Antiochenus, flourished 350), surnamed the Atheist, founder of an extreme sect of Arians, was a native of Coele-Syria. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Praeparatio evangelica (Preparation for the Gospel), commonly known by its Latin title, was a work by Eusebius which attempts to prove the excellence of Christianity over every pagan religion and philosophy. ... John Sallis (born 1938) is an American philosopher. ...

References

Primary sources

  • Aelian: Various History (III, 17)
  • Aëtius: De Fide (I-III; V)
  • Agathemerus: A Sketch of Geography in Epitome (I, 1)
  • Pseudo-Plutarch: The Doctrines of the Philosophers (I, 3; I, 7; II, 20-28; III, 2-16; V, 19)
  • Simplicius: Comments on Aristotle's Physics (24, 13-25; 1121, 5-9)

Claudius Aelianus (c. ... Aëtius of Antioch (Aëtius Antiochenus, flourished 350), surnamed the Atheist, founder of an extreme sect of Arians, was a native of Coele-Syria. ... Agathemerus (Greek: ) was a Greek geographer who published a small two-part geographical work during the Roman Greece period. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Meteorology (or Meteorologica) is a text by Aristotle which contains his theories about the earth sciences. ... On Generation and Corruption (or De Generatione et Corruptione) is a text by Aristotle. ... On the Heavens (or De Caelo) is Aristotles chief cosmological treatise: it contains his astronomical theory. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Censorinus, Roman grammarian and miscellaneous writer, flourished during the 3rd century AD. He was the author of a lost work De Accentibus and of an extant treatise De Die Natali, written in 238, and dedicated to his patron Quintus Caerellius as a birthday gift. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ... Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a biography of the Greek philosophers by Diogenes Laërtius. ... A statue of Euripides. ... The Suppliants (also known as The Suppliant Women) 423 BC, is an ancient Greek play by Euripides. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Praeparatio evangelica (Preparation for the Gospel), commonly known by its Latin title, was a work by Eusebius which attempts to prove the excellence of Christianity over every pagan religion and philosophy. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Simplicius, a native of Cilicia, a disciple of Ammonius and of Damascius, was one of the last of the Neoplatonists. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Themistius (317 - c. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ...

Secondary sources

  • Conche, Marcel (1991). Anaximandre: Fragments et témoignages (in French). Paris: Presses universitaires de France. ISBN 2130437850.  The default source; anything not otherwise attributed should be in Conche.
  • Couprie, Dirk L.; Robert Hahn, Gerard Naddaf (2003). Anaximander in Context: New Studies in the Origins of Greek Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791455386. 
  • Furley, David J.; Reginald E. Allen (1970). Studies in Presocratic Philosophy, vol. 1. London: Routledge. OCLC 79496039. 
  • Heidegger, Martin (2002). Off the Beaten Track. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521801141. 
  • Kahn, Charles H. (1960). Anaximander and the Origins of Greek Cosmology. New York: Colombia University Press. 
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich (1962). Philosophy in the tragic age of the Greeks. Chicago: Regnery. ISBN 0895269449. 
  • Robinson, John Mansley (1968). An Introduction to Early Greek Philosophy. Houghton and Mifflin. ISBN 0395053161. 
  • Ross, Stephen David (1993). Injustice and Restitution: The Ordinance of Time. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791416704. 
  • Russell, Bertrand [1946]. History of Western philosophy: and its connection with political and social circumstances from the earliest times to the present day. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0671201581. 
  • Vernant, Jean-Pierre (1982). The Origins of Greek Thought. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801492939. 

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

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Anaximander
Philosophy Portal
Persondata
NAME Anaximander
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Aniximander; Ἀναξίμανδρος
SHORT DESCRIPTION Early Greek philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH c.610 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Miletus
DATE OF DEATH c. 546 BC
PLACE OF DEATH Miletus

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... ScienceWorld, also known as Eric Weissteins World of Science, is a web site that opened to the general public in January 2002. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... The Milesian school was a school of thought founded in the 6th Century BC. The ideas associated with it are exemplified by three philosophers from the Ionian town of Miletus, on the edge of Anatolia: Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. ... For the Defense and Security Company, see Thales Group. ... Anaximenes (in Greek: Άναξιμένης) of Miletus (585 BC - 525 BC) was a Greek philosopher from the latter half of the 6th century, probably a younger contemporary of Anaximander, whose pupil or friend he is said to have been. ... Bust of Pythagoras Pythagoreanism is a term used for the esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were much influenced by mathematics and probably a main inspirational source for Plato and platonism. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... Philolaus (circa 480 BC – circa 405 BC) was a Greek mathematician and philosopher. ... Alcmaeon of Croton (mid-fifth century B.C.) was an Ancient Greek philosopher and medical theorist. ... Archytas Archytas (428 BC - 347 BC) was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, strategist and commander-in-chief. ... Timaeus of Locri (called Timaeus Locrus in Latin, Timée de Locres in French) was a Pythagorean philosopher living in the 5th century BC. He features in Platos Timaeus, where he is said to come from Locri in Italy. ... Ephesian School sometimes refers to the philosophical thought of the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who considered that the being of all the universe is fire. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... The Eleatics were a school of pre-Socratic philosophers at Elea, a Greek colony in Lucania, Italy. ... Xenophanes of Colophon (Greek: Ξενοφάνης, 570 BC-480 BC) was a Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Zeno of Elea (IPA:zÉ›noÊŠ, É›lɛɑː)(circa 490 BC? – circa 430 BC?) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of southern Italy and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides. ... Melissus of Samos, Greek philosopher of the Eleatic School, was born probably not later than 470 BC. According to Diogenes Laërtius, ix. ... The Pluralist School was a school of presocratic philosophers who attempted to reconcile Parmenides rejection of change with the apparently changing world of sense experience. ... Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (Greek: Αναξαγόρας, c. ... Empedocles (Greek: , ca. ... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: discussions of existence of atoms among prominent physicists up to the end of 19th century. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... Sophist redirects here. ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... Gorgias (in Greek Γοργἰας, circa 483-376 BC) // Introduction Due to his ushering in of rhetorical innovations involving structure and ornamentation and his introduction of paradoxologia – the idea of paradoxical thought and paradoxical expression – Gorgias of Leontini has been labeled the ‘father of sophistry’ (Wardy 6). ... Prodicus of Ceos (Πρόδικος Pródikos, born c. ... Hippias can also refer to a son of Pisistratus and a tyrant of Athens. ... Diogenes Apolloniates or Diogenes of Apollonia (c. ... Pherecydes of Syros (in Greek: Φερεχύδης) was a Greek thinker from the island of Siros, Magna Graecia of the 6th century BC. Pherecydes authored the Heptamychia, one of the first attested prose works in Greek literature, which formed an important bridge between... Image File history File links Portal. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Anaximander [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (5447 words)
Anaximander added two distinctive features to the concept of divinity: his Boundless is an impersonal something (or 'nature', the Greek word is 'phusis'), and it is not only immortal but also unborn.
Anaximander boldly asserts that the earth floats free in the center of the universe, unsupported by water, pillars, or whatever.
Anaximander's intention, however, can be better understood not as an image, but as a comparison of the light of the celestial bodies with that of lightning.
Anaximander (1541 words)
Anaximander was a younger contemporary of Thales, who also sought for the first material principle; he was a disciple and successor of Thales and philosophized in dialogue with him.
Anaximander was not mentioned until the time Aristotle, who classifies him as belonging the "physical" school of thought of Thales.
For Anaximander, the archê;, or first principle, is not any of the elements—earth, water, air or fire—but that which is before all the elements (and everything else), from which the elements emerge and which they all ultimately are (see also Aristotle, Physics 187a 12).
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