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Encyclopedia > Anatomical position
The anatomical planes
The anatomical planes

The anatomical position is a schematic convention for describing the relative morphology of the human body. All terms in the study of anatomy refer to when the body is in this position.
The person is oriented Image File history File links Made by User: PhatRita for the Wikipedia: WikiProject Preclinical Medicine. ... Image File history File links Made by User: PhatRita for the Wikipedia: WikiProject Preclinical Medicine. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in organisms. ... Human anatomy or anthropotomy is a special field within anatomy. ...

  • in an erect standing position
  • eyes and head facing forward
  • feet forward and perpendicular to the body
  • arms close to the sides and palms of the hands facing forward with fingers extended.

It should be noted that this is not the normal position that arms rest in.

Contents


Median and sagittal plane

The body in anatomical position may be divided conceptually by planes. The median plane passes from the top to the bottom of the body and separates the left and the right sides of the body in equal halves.
Positions toward the median plane are called medial, and positions away from the median plane are called lateral. Hence ipsilateral refers to things on the same side, contralateral to something on the opposite side and bilateral to both sides.
A sagittal plane is any plane parallel to the median and hence the median plane is also called the midsagittal plane. A sagittal slice or section that is not on the median plane is also referred to as a parasagittal section.


Coronal plane

The frontal or coronal plane essentially separates the body into the forward half and the back half. This plane is perpendicular to the median and also passes from the top to the bottom along the long axis of the body. The term posterior refers to objects on the back half of the body, behind the coronal plane and the term anterior refers to objects in front of this plane.


Transverse plane

The horizontal or transverse plane is perpendicular to both of these planes and is the plane which divides the body into an upper and a lower half. Positions above the transverse plane are called superior, and positions below the transverse plane are called inferior. In comparative anatomy, superior may be called the rostral (beak) or cranial (head) end. Inferior may be referred to as the caudal or (tail) ends. Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... Rostrum can mean one of several different things: A rostrum (Latin beak) is an anatomical structure resembling a birds beak, such as the snout of crocodiles or dolphins or the part of the carapace of a crustacean. ... Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ...


Planes in between these three are known as oblique planes.


Special cases

In the anatomical position, the penis is considered to be erect and pointing upwards, i.e. the dorsal side of the penis is what one would normally call its top side. The penis (plural penises or penes) or phallus is an external male sexual organ. ...


The tongue has a dorsal side which is facing upwards (the side that tastes and licks). Many animals have longer and more flexible tongues than humans. ...


The perineum is a region of exception for obstetricians and gynecologists (OB/GYNs). OB/GYNs regard the perineal body in the perinuem to be an anatomical center and an important landmark. Several regions are discussed in spacial relation to the perineal body, deviating from the general terminology described above. The muscles of the male perineum In anatomy, the perineum is the region between the genital area and the anus in both sexes. ...


Note that the reclining body may be viewed correctly in terms of the anatomical position. Standing behind and at the head of a body, you will observe that the body's right arm with respect to your right arm is in the anatomically correct position. Likewise, the same with the body's left arm. This continues down the scope of the viewed body. Standing at the feet position when viewing the body, does not reveal the proper anatomical correct position.


Terms describing movement

Main article: Anatomical terms of motion

// Introduction The movement of body structures is accomplished by the contraction of muscles. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Anatomical position - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (535 words)
The anatomical position is a schematic convention for describing the relative morphology of the human body.
Positions toward the median plane are called medial, and positions away from the median plane are called lateral.
In the anatomical position, the penis is considered to be erect and pointing upwards, i.e.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Anatomical position (567 words)
The person is oriented in an erect standing position, with eyes and head facing forward, feet forward and perpendicular to the body, arms close to the sides, and palms of the hands facing forward with fingers extended.
Positions in front of the coronal plane are called anterior or ventral, and positions behind the coronal plane are called posterior or dorsal.
The position of the hand in anatomical position is considered supine, such that rotation of the hand so that the palm faces backwards is called pronation and the reverse action, supination.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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