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Encyclopedia > Anatidae
iDucks, geese and swans
White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons)
White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Vigors, 1825
Subfamilies

Dendrocygninae
Thalassorninae
Anserinae
Stictonettinae
Plectropterinae
Tadorninae
Anatinae
Aythyinae
Merginae
Oxyurinae
and see text Download high resolution version (750x745, 74 KB)White-fronted Goose at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands Centre, Gloucestershire, England. ... Binomial name Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) Subspecies (European White-fronted Goose) (Pacific White-fronted Goose) (Gambels White-fronted Goose) (Tule Goose) (Greenland White-fronted Goose) The White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) is a goose closely related to the smaller Lesser White-fronted Goose (). In North America it is known... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... {{{subdivision_ranks}}} See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Cnemiornithidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – October 26, 1840) was an Irish zoologist and politician. ... Genera Dendrocygna Thalassornis Dendrocygninae is a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. ... Binomial name Thalassornis leuconotus Eyton, 1838 The White-backed Duck (Thalassornis leuconotus) is a waterbird of the family Anatidae. ... Genera Cygnus Coscoroba Anser (including Chen) Branta Cereopsis The Anserinae is a subfamily of the waterfowl family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Stictonetta naevosa (Gould, 1841) The Freckled Duck (Stictonetta naevosa) is a moderately large, broad-bodied duck native to southern Australia. ... Binomial name Plectropterus gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766) The Spur-winged Goose, Plectropterus gambensis, is a large African bird in the family Anatidae, related to the geese and the shelducks, but distinct from both of these in a number of anatomical features, and therefore treated in its own subfamily, the Plectropterinae. ... Genera Sarkidiornis Tadorna Malacorhynchus Cyanochen Chloephaga Neochen Alopochen Hymenolaimus Merganetta Tachyeres The Tadorninae is a subfamily of the Anatidae, the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as the (geese and swans). ... The Anatinae is one of the subfamilies of the family Anatidae, which includes the swans, geese and ducks. ... Genera see article text The 15 or so living species of diving duck, commonly called pochards or scaups, are part of the diverse and very large duck, goose, and swan family, Anatidae. ... Genera Polysticta Somateria Histrionicus Camptorhynchus Melanitta Clangula Bucephala Mergellus Lophodytes Mergus † For other ducks, see also: Anatidae The seaducks, Merginae, form a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. ...

Anatidae is the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. The Magpie-goose is no longer considered to be part of the Anatidae, but is placed in its own family Anseranatidae. These are birds that are modified for swimming, floating on the water surface, and in some cases diving in at least shallow water. In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... // Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Genera see text Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the familyAnatidae. ... Genera and species Cygnus Bechstein 1803 C. cygnus C. buccinator C. columbianus C. (c. ... Binomial name Anseranas semipalmata (Latham, 1798) The Magpie Goose, Anseranas semipalmata, is an unusual member of the bird order Anseriformes, which contains about 150 species in three families. ... Binomial name Anseranas semipalmata (Latham, 1798) The Magpie Goose, Anseranas semipalmata, is an unusual member of the bird order Anseriformes, which contains about 150 species in three families. ... Orders Many - see section below. ...


They have webbed feet and bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent. Their feathers are excellent at shedding water due to special oils. Anatidae are remarkable for being one of the few families of birds that possess a penis; they are adapted for copulation on the water only and care must be taken when breeding ducks or geese that a pool is provided for this purpose as attempts to copulate on dry land will often lead to injury of the drake's penis. Duck, eider and goose feathers and down have long been popular for bedspreads, pillows, sleeping bags and coats. The members of this family also have long been used for food. The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ...


While the status of the Anatidae as a family is straightforward, and there is little debate about which species properly belong to it, the relationships of the different tribes and subfamilies within it are poorly understood. The listing in the box at right should be regarded simply one of several possible ways of organising the many species within the Anatidae; see discussion in the next section.

Contents

Systematics

The systematics of the Anatinae is currently in a state of flux. Previously divided into six subfamilies, anatomical characters (Livezey, 1986) suggest that the Anatidae are better treated in nine subfamilies. This classification has been followed by Madge & Burn (1987). But mtDNA sequence analyses of the cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes (Johnson & Sorenson, 1999) indicate that for example the dabbling and diving ducks do not belong into the same subfamily. While there are are certainly shortcomings in Livezey's analysis, mtDNA is a bad source for phylogenetic information in many waterfowl (especially dabbling ducks) due to their ability to produce fertile hybrids (Carboneras, 1992), in rare cases possibly even beyond the level of genus (see for example the "Barbary Duck"). Due to the small sample size of many molecular studies available to date, mtDNA results must be considered with caution. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... CoQ Cytochrome c reductase The Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase complex, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times Complex III, is the third complex in the electron transfer chain (PDB 1KYO, EC 1. ... NADH dehydrogenase NADH dehydrogenase (EC 1. ... In structural biology, a protein subunit or subunit protein is a single protein molecule that assembles (or coassembles) with other protein molecules to form a multimeric or oligomeric protein. ... // In biology, hybrid has two meanings. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic grouping. ... Binomial name Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) The Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata is a large perching duck which is native to Mexico, Central and South America. ... Sample size, N, effects the precision of an estimate. ...


But while a comprehensive review of the Anatidae which unites all evidence into a robust phylogeny is still lacking, the reasons for the confusing data are at least clear: As the Late Cretaceous fossil Vegavis iaai - an early modern waterbird which belonged to an extinct family - demonstrates, the Anatidae are an ancient group among the modern birds. Their earliest direct ancestors, though not documented by fossils yet, can likewise be assumed to have been contemporaries with the dinosaurs. The long period of evolution and shifts from one kind of waterbird lifestyle to another have obscured many plesiomorphies, while apomorphies apparently are quite often the result of parallel evolution, for example the "non-diving duck" type displayed by such unrelated genera as Dendrocygna, Amazonetta, and Cairina. For the fossil record, see below. In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Geography of the US in the late Cretaceous Late Cretaceous (also called the Upper Cretaceous) refers to the second half of the Cretaceous period, named after the famous white chalk cliffs of southern England, which date from this time. ... An ammonite fossil Eocene fossil fish of the genus Knightia Petrified wood fossil formed through permineralization. ... Binomial name Vegavis iaai Clarke , 2005 Vegavis is a recently discovered genus of extinct birds that lived during the Late Cretaceous period in Antarctica, some 66-68 mya. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... In 1832, while travelling on the Beagle, naturalist Charles Darwin collected giant fossils in South America. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... Bee hovering in flight In evolutionary biology, parallel evolution refers to the independent evolution of similar traits in closely related lineages of species, while convergent evolution refers to the appearance of striking similarities among lineages of organisms only very distantly related. ... Genera Dendrocygna Thalassornis Dendrocygninae is a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. ... Binomial name Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789) The Brazilian Duck or Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis) is the only duck in the genus Amazonetta (Boetticher, 1929). ... Cairina is a genus of ducks in the bird family Anatidae. ...



Alternatively (e.g. Terres & NAS, 1991), the Anatidae may be considered to consist of 3 subfamilies (ducks, geese, and swans, essentially) which contain the groups as presented here as tribes, with the swans separated as subfamily Cygninae, the goose subfamily Anserinae also containing the whistling ducks, and the Anatinae containing all other clades. In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic classification in between family and genus. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Thalassorninae Anserinae Stictonettinae Plectropterinae Tadorninae Anatinae Merginae Oxyurinae Anatidae is the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. ... Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ...


Dendrocygninae: whistling ducks

One pantropical genus, of distinctive long-legged goose-like birds: Genera Dendrocygna Thalassornis Dendrocygninae is a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. ...

Genera Dendrocygna Thalassornis Dendrocygninae is a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. ...

Thalassorninae: White-backed Duck

One genus in Africa, most closely related to the subfamily Dendrocygninae, though also showing convergent similarities to the subfamily Oxyurinae: Binomial name Thalassornis leuconotus Eyton, 1838 Subspecies (African White-backed Duck) (Madagascar White-backed Duck) The White-backed Duck (Thalassornis leuconotus) is a waterbird of the family Anatidae. ...

Binomial name Thalassornis leuconotus Eyton, 1838 The White-backed Duck (Thalassornis leuconotus) is a waterbird of the family Anatidae. ... Mute Swan at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands Centre, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England. ... Mute Swan at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands Centre, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England. ... Binomial name Cygnus olor (Gmelin, 1789) The Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) is a common Eurasian member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ...

Anserinae: swans and geese

Four to seven extant genera with 25-30 living species, mainly cool temperate Northern Hemisphere but also some Southern Hemisphere species, with the swans in two genera (three genera in some treatments), and the geese in three genera (two genera in some treatments): Genera Cygnus Coscoroba Anser (including Chen) Branta Cereopsis The Anserinae is a subfamily of the waterfowl family Anatidae. ... Genera and species Cygnus Bechstein 1803 C. cygnus C. buccinator C. columbianus C. (c. ... Genera see text Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the familyAnatidae. ...

  • Coscoroba: Coscoroba Swan
  • Cygnus: true swans (7 species, 4 sometimes separated in Olor)
  • Anser: grey geese (7 species)
  • Chen: white geese (3 species, sometimes included in Anser)
  • Branta: black geese (8 living species)

Binomial name Coscoroba coscoroba Molina, 1782 The Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) is the smallest species of swan. ... Genera Cygnus Bechstein 1803 Coscoroba Reichenbach 1853 Swans are large water birds of the family Anatidae, which also includes geese and ducks. ... Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis Cnemiornis (extinct) † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ...

Stictonettinae: Freckled Duck

One genus in Australia, formerly included in the Oxyurinae, but with anatomy suggesting a distinct ancient lineage perhaps closest to the Anserinae: Binomial name Stictonetta naevosa (Gould, 1841) The Freckled Duck (Stictonetta naevosa) is a moderately large, broad-bodied duck native to southern Australia. ...

Binomial name Stictonetta naevosa (Gould, 1841) The Freckled Duck (Stictonetta naevosa) is a moderately large, broad-bodied duck native to southern Australia. ...

Plectropterinae: Spur-winged Goose

One genus in Africa, formerly included in the "perching ducks", but closer to the Tadorninae: Binomial name Plectropterus gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766) The Spur-winged Goose, Plectropterus gambensis, is a large African bird in the family Anatidae, related to the geese and the shelducks, but distinct from both of these in a number of anatomical features, and therefore treated in its own subfamily, the Plectropterinae. ...

Binomial name Plectropterus gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766) The Spur-winged Goose, Plectropterus gambensis, is a large African bird in the family Anatidae, related to the geese and the shelducks, but distinct from both of these in a number of anatomical features, and therefore treated in its own subfamily, the Plectropterinae. ...

Tadorninae: shelducks and sheldgeese

This group of larger, often semi-terrestrial waterfowl can be seen as intermediate between Anserinae and Anatinae. Livezey's 1986 revision has resulted in the inclusion of 10 extant genera with about two dozen living species (one probably extinct) in this subfamily, mostly from the Southern Hemisphere but a few in the Northern Hemisphere, but the affiliations of several presumed tadornine genera has later been questioned (Johnson & Sorenson, 1999) and the group in the traditional lineup is likely to be paraphyletic: Genera Sarkidiornis Tadorna Malacorhynchus Cyanochen Chloephaga Neochen Alopochen Hymenolaimus Merganetta Tachyeres The Tadorninae is a subfamily of the Anatidae, the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as the (geese and swans). ... Common Shelduck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands Centre, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England. ... Common Shelduck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands Centre, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England. ... Binomial name Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) is a shelduck, a group of large goose-like birds which are part of the bird family Anatidae, which also includes the swans, geese and ducks. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

A female mallard duck
A female mallard duck

For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see Fossil birds. ... Species See text. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Binomial name Malacorhynchus membranaceus (Latham, 1802) The Pink-eared Duck, Malacorhynchus membranaceus is a species of duck found in Australia. ... Binomial name Salvadorina waigiuensis Rothschild & Hartert, 1894 The Salvadoris Teal (Salvadorina waigiuensis) is a secretive inhabitant of fast-flowing streams and alpine lakes between 500 and 3700m in the mountains of New Guinea. ... For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see Fossil birds. ... Binomial name Alopochen aegyptiacus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Binomial name Neochen jubata (Spix, 1825) The Orinoco Goose (Neochen jubata ) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... Species Chloephaga melanoptera Chloephaga picta Chloephaga hybrida Chloephaga poliocephala Chloephaga rubidiceps Chloephaga is a genus of ducks in the bird family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Hymenolaimus malacorhynchus (Gmelin, 1789) The Blue Duck (Hymenolaimus malacorhynchus ) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Merganetta armata (Gould, 1842) The Torrent Duck (Merganetta armata) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1161x1722, 921 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Anatidae Mallard User:Staxringold/gallery Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Duck at UConn Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/October-2006... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1161x1722, 921 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Anatidae Mallard User:Staxringold/gallery Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Duck at UConn Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/October-2006... // Binomial name Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies (Mallard) (Mexican Duck) The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; Greek for flat-billed duck[2]), also known in North America as the Wild Duck, is a common and widespread dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe and...

Anatinae: dabbling ducks and moa-nalos

The dabbling duck group, of worldwide distribution, were previously restricted to just one or two genera, but had been extended by Livezey (1986) to include 8 extant genera and about 55 living species, including several genera formerly known as the "perching ducks"; mtDNA on the other hand confirms that the genus Anas is over-lumped and casts doubt on the diving duck affiliations of several genera (see below): The Anatinae is one of the subfamilies of the family Anatidae, which includes the swans, geese and ducks. ... Genera Pteronetta Cairina Aix Nettapus Anas Callonetta Chenonetta Amazonetta See also Diving duck The dabbling ducks are a group of eight genera and about 55 species of ducks, including some of the most familiar Northern Hemisphere species. ...

The moa-nalos, of which 4 species in 3 genera are known to date, are a peculiar group of flightless, extinct Anatidae from the Hawaiian Islands. Gigantic in size and with massive bills, they were believed to be geese, but have been shown to be actually very closely related to mallard. They evolved filling the ecological niche of turtles, ungulates and other megaherbivores. Species The pygmy geese are a group of very small perching ducks in the genus Nettapus which breed in the Old World tropics. ... Species See text Anas is a genus of dabbling ducks. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Binomial name Lophonetta specularioides (King, 1828) Subspecies Andean Crested Duck Southern Crested Duck Synonyms Anas specularioides The Crested Duck (Lophonetta specularioides) is a species of duck native to South America, the only member of the monotypic genus Lophonetta. ... Binomial name Speculanas specularis (King, 1828) Synonyms Anas specularis The Bronze-winged Duck (Speculanas specularis) is a dabbling duck, the sole member of its genus Speculanas. ... Binomial name Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789) The Brazilian Duck or Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis) is the only duck in the genus Amazonetta (Boetticher, 1929). ... Genera Chelychelynechen Thambetochen Ptaiochen The Moa-nalos are an extinct group of aberrant ducks that used to live on the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... // Binomial name Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies (Mallard) (Mexican Duck) The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; Greek for flat-billed duck[2]), also known in North America as the Wild Duck, is a common and widespread dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe and... In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... Turtles and terapins may mean: plural of turtle Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles The Turtles band Turtles band Turtles Music stores See also: Turtle (disambiguation) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six survive: Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, and many others Cetacea: whales and dolphins (which evolved from hoofed land animals) Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinos Proboscidea: elephants... Megafauna are generally defined as animals that weigh over 500 kg to 1 tonne, i. ...

For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see Fossil birds. ... For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see Fossil birds. ... For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see Fossil birds. ...

Aythyinae: diving ducks

Some 15 species of diving ducks, of worldwide distribution, in 2-4 genera; Livezey's 1986 analysis suggests that the probably extinct Pink-headed Duck of India, previously treated separately in Rhodonessa, should be placed in Netta, but this has been questioned (Collar et al., 2001). Furthermore, while morphologically close to dabbling ducks, the mtDNA data indicates that a treatment as distinct subfamily is indeed correct, with the Tadorninae being actually closer to dabbling ducks than the diving ducks are (Johnson & Sorenson, 1999): Genera see article text The 15 or so living species of diving duck, commonly called pochards or scaups, are part of the diverse and very large duck, goose, and swan family, Anatidae. ... Genera Marmaronetta Netta (including Rhodonessa) Aythya † See also dabbling duck The 16 species of diving duck, also known as pochards, make up a sub-group of the biological subfamily Anatinae, which itself is part of the diverse and very large duck, goose and swan family, Anatidae. ... Binomial name Netta caryophyllacea (Latham, 1790) Synonyms Anas caryophyllacea Rhodonessa caryophyllacea The Pink-headed Duck (Netta caryophyllacea) is (or was) a large diving duck. ...

  • Netta: Red-crested Pochard and allies (4 species, one probably extinct)
  • Aythya: pochards, scaups, etc (12 species)

Species Netta caryophyllacea (Pink-headed Duck) Netta rufina (Red-crested Pochard) Netta erythrophthalma (Southern Pochard) Netta peposaca (Rosybill) Netta is a genus of diving ducks. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Species See text. ...

Merginae: eiders, scoters, sawbills and other sea-ducks

Common Goldeneye couple, male on the right.
Common Goldeneye couple, male on the right.

There are 9 extant genera and some 20 living species; most of this group occur in the Northern Hemisphere, but two Mergus in the Southern Hemisphere: Genera Polysticta Somateria Histrionicus Camptorhynchus Melanitta Clangula Bucephala Mergellus Lophodytes Mergus † For other ducks, see also: Anatidae The seaducks, Merginae, form a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1557x1038, 359 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Anatidae ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1557x1038, 359 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Anatidae ... Binomial name Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies (Eurasian Goldeneye) (American Goldeneye) The Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) is a medium sized sea duck of the genus Bucephala, the goldeneyes. ...

For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see Fossil birds. ... Binomial name Polysticta stelleri (Pallas, 1769) The Stellers Eider (Polysticta stelleri) is a medium-large sea duck, which breeds along the arctic coasts of eastern Siberia and Alaska. ... Eider may refer to: two genera and four species of birds in the duck subfamily Merginae: Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) King Eider (Somateria spectabilis) Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) Stellers Eider (Polysticta stelleri) the downy feathers from these ducks, used to fill pillows, duvets, and other bedding. ... Binomial name Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) is a small sea duck. ... Binomial name Camptorhynchus labradorius (Gmelin, 1789) The Labrador Duck (Camptorhynchus labradorius) was an striking black and white eider_like sea duck which was never very common, and was the first bird to go extinct in North America since 1500. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Genus Melanitta (Boie, 1822) The scoters are stocky seaducks in the genus Melanitta. ... Binomial name Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Long_tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis) is a medium_sized sea duck. ... Species Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye) Bucephala islandica (Barrows Goldeneye) Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead) Goldeneye are small seaducks belonging to the genus Bucephala. ... Binomial name Mergellus albellus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Smew (Mergellus albellus) is a small duck which is intermediate between the mergansers and the goldeneyes, and has interbred with the Common Goldeneye. ... Binomial name Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) is a small sea duck, and is the only member of the genus Lophodytes (Reichenbach, 1853). ... † For other related ducks, see also: Merginae Mergus is a genus of ducks in the seaduck subfamily Merginae. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ...

Oxyurinae: stiff-tail ducks

A small group of 4 genera, 3 of them monotypic, with 8 living species:

  • Oxyura: stiff-tailed ducks (5 living species)
  • Nomonyx: Masked Duck
  • Biziura: Musk Ducks (1 living species)
  • Heteronetta: Black-headed Duck

Binomial name Nomonyx dominica (Linnaeus, 1766) The Masked Duck (Nomonyx dominica) is a small Mexican, South American, West Indian, and Central American stiff-tailed duck. ... Binomial name Biziura lobata (Shaw, 1796) Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are highly aquatic, stiff-tailed ducks native to southern Australia. ... Binomial name Heteronetta atricapilla (Merrem, 1841) The Black-headed Duck (Heteronetta atricapilla) is a South American duck allied to the stiff-tailed ducks in the subfamily Oxyurinae of the family Anatidae. ...

Unresolved

The rare White-winged Wood Duck, a species of unclear affiliation.
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The rare White-winged Wood Duck, a species of unclear affiliation.

The largest degree of uncertainty concerns whether a number of genera are closer to the shelducks or to the dabbling ducks. See also the monotypic subfamilies above, and the "Perching ducks" Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1621x1014, 526 KB) White-winged Wood Duck at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1621x1014, 526 KB) White-winged Wood Duck at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Binomial name Cairina scutulata (Müller, 1842) The White-winged Wood Duck (Cairina scutulata) is a species of dabbling duck in the genus Cairina. ... Monotypic refers to a taxonomic group with only one subgroup at the next (smaller) taxonomic level, for example, a monotypic genus has only one species. ... The perching ducks were previously treated as a small group of ducks in the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae, grouped together on the basis of their readiness to perch high in trees. ...

  • Cereopsis: Cape Barren Goose - Anserinae, Tadorninae, or own subfamily?
  • Cnemiornis: New Zealand geese (prehistoric) - as Cereopsis
  • Sarkidiornis: Comb Duck - Tadorninae or closer to dabbling ducks?
  • Tachyeres: steamer ducks (4 species) - Tadorninae or closer to dabbling ducks?
  • Cyanochen: Blue-winged Goose - Tadorninae or more distant clade?
  • Pteronetta: Hartlaub's Duck - traditionally dabbling ducks, but may be closer to Cyanochen
  • Cairina: Muscovy Duck and White-winged Wood Duck (2 species) - traditionally dabbling ducks, but may be paraphyletic, with one species in Tadorninae and the other closer to diving ducks
  • Aix: Mandarin Duck and Wood Duck (2 species) - dabbling ducks or Tadorninae?
  • Callonetta: Ringed Teal - dabbling ducks or Tadorninae?
  • Chenonetta: Maned Duck (1 living species) - dabbling ducks or Tadorninae?
  • Marmaronetta: Marbled Duck - Formerly dabbling ducks; actually a diving duck or a distinct subfamily

From subfossil bones found on Kaua‘i (Hawaiian Islands), two bizarre and enigmatic waterfowl are known. The living and assignable prehistoric avifauna of the archipelago contains as Anseriformes Branta geese and their descendants, and the moa-nalos as mentioned above. The following taxa, although certainly new species, cannot be assigned even to subfamily; that Kaua‘i is the oldest of the large Hawaiian Islands, meaning the species may have been evolving in isolation for nearly up to 10 mya (since the Late Miocene), does not help in determining their affinities: Binomial name Cereopsis novaehollandiae Latham, 1802 The Cape Barren Goose, Cereopsis novaehollandiae, is a large goose resident in southern Australia. ... For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see Fossil birds. ... Binomial name Sarkidiornis melanotos Pennant, 1769 The Comb Duck, Sarkidiornis melanotos, is an unusual duck, best placed in the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae, though it has formerly been included in the Anatinae. ... Species Tachyeres patachonicus (Flying Steamer Duck) Tachyeres pteneres (Magellanic Flightless Steamer Duck) Tachyeres brachypterus (Falkland Flightless Steamer Duck) Tachyeres leucocephalus (White-headed Flightless Steamer Duck) Tachyeres (Steamer Ducks) is a genus of ducks in the bird family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Cyanochen cyanopterus ( Rüppell, 1845) The Blue-winged Goose (Cyanochen cyanopterus) is a large sheldgoose, which is endemic to Ethiopia. ... Binomial name Pteronetta hartlaubii (Cassin, 1859) The Hartlaubs Duck (Pteronetta hartlaubii) is a species of bird native to Africa. ... Cairina is a genus of ducks in the bird family Anatidae. ... Aix is a genus that contains two species of dabbling ducks: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) Aix galericulata (Mandarin Duck) Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata) Categories: Ducks ... Binomial name Callonetta leucophrys (Vieillot, 1816) The Ringed Teal (Callonetta leucophrys) is the only species of the genus Callonetta. ... Binomial name Chenonetta jubata (Latham, 1802) The Maned Duck, Chenonetta jubata, is a dabbling duck found throughout much of Australia. ... Binomial name Marmaronetta angustirostris (Menetries, 1832) The Marbled Duck, or Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris), is a medium-sized dabbling duck. ... Subfossil is attributed to bones or whole skeletons (and, in general all materials having living parts that can become fossil) whose fossilization process is not complete, either for lack of time or because the condition in which bones were buried were non optimal for fossilization. ... Kaua‘i (usually called Kauai outside the Hawaiian Islands, pronounced kawa-ee) is the oldest and fourth largest of the main Hawaiian Islands, having an area of 1,430. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... Genera Chelychelynechen Thambetochen Ptaiochen The Moa-nalos are an extinct group of aberrant ducks that used to live on the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific. ... In astronomy, geology, and paleontology, mya is an acronym for million years ago and is used as a unit of time to denote length of time before the present. ... The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ...

  • Long-legged "Shelduck", Anatidae sp. et gen. indet.
  • Small-eyed Duck, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet.

Fossil genera

The fossil record of anatids is extensive, but most prehistoric genera cannot be unequivocally assigned to present-day subfamilies for the reasons given above. Some (such as Eonessa) seem to belong to subfamilies which are completely extinct. For prehistoric species of extant genera, see the respective genus accounts.

  • Eonessa (Eocene of Utah, USA)
  • Cygnavus (Early Oligocene of Kazakhstan - Early Miocene of Germany)
  • Romainvillia (Early Oligocene of Belgium ?- Late Eocene of France)
  • Cygnopterus (Middle Oligocene of Belgium - Early Miocene of France)
  • Guguschia (Oligocene of Azerbaijan)
  • Mionetta (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene)
  • Megalodytes (Middle Miocene of California, USA)
  • "cf. Megalodytes" (Haraichi Middle Miocene of Annaka, Japan)
  • Anatidae gen. et sp. indet. (Sajóvölgyi Middle Miocene of Mátraszõlõs, Hungary)
  • Afrocygnus (Late Miocene ?- Early Pliocene of C Sahara, Africa)
  • Presbychen (Temblor Late Miocene of Sharktooth Hill, USA)
  • Paracygnus (Kimball Late Pliocene of Nebraska, USA)
  • Anabernicula (Late Pliocene ?- Late Pleistocene of SW and W North America)
  • "Chenopis" nanus - at least 2 taxa (Pleistocene of Australia)
  • Aldabranas
  • Brantadorna
  • Dendrochen
  • Eremochen
  • Sinanas
  • Wasonaka

Putative or disputed prehistoric anatids are:

  • Paracygnopterus (Early Oligocene of Belgium and England)
  • Limicorallus (Indricotherium Middle Oligocene of Chelkar-Teniz, Kazakhstan)
  • Paranyroca (Rosebud Early Miocene of Bennett County, USA)

References

  • Carboneras, Carles (1992): Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese and Swans). In: del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew & Sargatal, Jordi (editors): Handbook of Birds of the World, Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks: 536-629. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-10-5
  • Collar, N. J.; Andreev, A. V.; Chan, S.; Crosby, M. J.; Subramanya, S. & Tobias, J. A. (editors) (2001): Pink-headed Duck. In:Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book, p.489-501. BirdLife International. ISBN 0-946888-44-2 HTML fulltext
  • Johnson, Kevin P. & Sorenson, Michael D. (1999): Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (genus Anas): a comparison of molecular and morphological evidence. Auk 116(3): 792–805. PDF fulltext
  • Livezey, Bradley C. (1986): A phylogenetic analysis of recent anseriform genera using morphological characters. Auk 103(4): 737-754. PDF fulltext
  • Madge, Steve & Burn, Hilary (1987): Wildfowl : an identification guide to the ducks, geese and swans of the world. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-3999-7
  • Terres, John K. & National Audubon Society (1991): The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Wings Books, New York. ISBN 0517032880

Handbook of Birds of the World vol. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... The Helm Identification Guides are a series of books dealing with the identification of groups of birds. ... Headquarter of National Audubon Society in New York. ...

External links

  • Anatidae videos on the Internet Bird Collection
  • Anatidae sounds on the xeno-canto collection

 
 

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