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Encyclopedia > Anarcho capitalism
Libertarianism [edit]

Factions
Minarchism
Anarcho-capitalism
Paleolibertarianism
Neolibertarianism
Geolibertarianism
This article deals with the individualist and propertarian meaning of libertarian (sometimes called right libertarianism). ... In civics, Minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism, is the view that government should be as small as possible. ... Paleolibertarianism is a school of thought within libertarianism founded by Murray Rothbard and Lew Rockwell, and closely associated with the Ludwig von Mises Institute. ... Neolibertarianism is a subset of libertarian thought that embraces incrementalism and pragmatism domestically and a generally interventionist foreign policy. ... Geolibertarianism is a political philosophy that holds with other forms of libertarianism that the products of ones labor should be privately owned and controlled. ...


Influences
Objectivism
Austrian School
Classical liberalism
Individualist anarchism
Objectivism is the philosophy of Russian-born American philosopher and author Ayn Rand. ... The Austrian School is a school of economic thought which rejects opposing economists reliance on methods used in natural science for the study of human action, and instead bases its formalism of economics on relationships through logic or introspection called praxeology. ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... Individualist anarchism is a philosophical tradition, appearing primarily in the United States, that emphasises the autonomy of the individual, most noteably in regard to its advocacy of private property rather than collective property. ...


Practices
Capitalism
Non-aggression
Capitalism has been defined in various ways (see q:Capitalism). ... In general, the non-aggression axiom can be said to be a prohibition against the initiation of force, or the threat of force, against persons (i. ...


Key issues
Economic views
Views of rights
Theories of law
Criticism
The Austrian School of economics and the Chicago School of economics are important foundations the economic system favored by modern libertarians — capitalism, where the means of production are privately owned, economic and financial decisions are made privately rather than by state control, and goods and services are exchanged in a... Libertarians and Objectivists limit what they define as rights to variations on the right to be left alone, and argue that other rights such as the right to a good education or the right to have free access to water are not legitimate rights and do not deserve the same... Libertarian theories of law build on libertarianism or classical liberalism. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy that supports largely unrestricted property rights and opposes most government functions (such as taxation, prosecution of victimless crimes and regulations on businesses beyond the minimum required to prevent fraud or property damage) as coercive, even if a democratic majority supports it. ...

Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. The first well-known version of anarcho-capitalism to identify itself with this term was developed by Austrian School economist and libertarian Murray Rothbard in the mid-20th Century as an attempted synthesis of Austrian School economics, classical liberalism, and Individualist anarchism. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The term philosophy derives from a combination of the Greek words philos meaning love and sophia meaning wisdom. ... Capitalism has been defined in various ways (see q:Capitalism). ... The Austrian School is a school of economic thought which rejects opposing economists reliance on methods used in natural science for the study of human action, and instead bases its formalism of economics on relationships through logic or introspection called praxeology. ... This article deals with the libertarianism as defined in America and several other nations. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... Individualist anarchism is a philosophical tradition, appearing primarily in the United States, that emphasises the autonomy of the individual, most noteably in regard to its advocacy of private property rather than collective property. ...


Anarcho-capitalist philosophy as described by Rothbard is based on self-ownership, an absolute right to private property, and a prohibition against the initiation of force against other persons or property. From this is derived a rejection of the state (an entity claiming a territorial monopoly on the use of force) and the principles of capitalism (allowing any voluntary transaction between any two parties.) Self-ownership is the condition where a society recognizes individuals right to control their selves without interference by others. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ...


Because of this embrace of capitalism, there is considerable tension between anarcho-capitalists and movements that see the rejection of capitalism as being just as fundamental to Anarchist philosophy as rejection of the state. Despite this tension, some anarcho-capitalists see Individualist Anarchist thinkers such as Benjamin Tucker as extremely important in their own philosophy. Anti-capitalism is any and all opposition to capitalism. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Benjamin Tucker (April 17, 1854 - 1939) was Americas leading proponent of individualist anarchism in the 19th century. ...


The grounding anarcho-capitalism has in classical liberalism is demonstrated by the assertion of many anarcho-capitalists that the first anarcho-capitalist was Gustave de Molinari, who argued for a free market, and against a state monopoly on force, as early as 1849. While some modern adherents of liberalism and socialist anarchism wouldn't call Molinari an anarcho-capitalist, his thoughts were certainly influential on Rothbard and other modern anarcho capitalists. Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... Gustave de Molinari (March 3, 1819 - January 28, 1912) was a Belgian-born economist associated with the French économistes, a group of laissez-faire liberals. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... This article describes a range of political philosophies that oppose the state and capitalism. ...

Contents


Philosophy

The term anarcho-capitalism was most likely coined in the mid-50s by the economist Murray Rothbard[1]. Other terms used for this philosophy include: Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ...

Free-market anarchism (also:Market anarchism) is a term which can be used to refer to: Some forms of Individualist anarchism, a school of thought originating in the United States in the 19th century; Mutualism, a form of anarchism described by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Modern anarcho-capitalism. ... Voluntarism (lat. ...

The Non-Aggression Axiom

Main article: non-aggression axiom Anarcho-capitalism, as formulated by Rothbard and others, holds strongly to the central libertarian "non-aggression axiom": The non-aggression principle (Also: non-aggression axiom) is defined as a prohibition against the initiation of force, or the threat of force, against persons or property. ...

"[...] The basic axiom of libertarian political theory holds that every man is a selfowner, having absolute jurisdiction over his own body. In effect, this means that no one else may justly invade, or aggress against, another's person. It follows then that each person justly owns whatever previously unowned resources he appropriates or 'mixes his labor with.' From these twin axioms—-self-ownership and 'homesteading'-stem the justification for the entire system of property rights titles in a free-market society. This system establishes the right of every man to his own person, the right of donation, of bequest (and, concomitantly, the right to receive the bequest or inheritance), and the right of contractual exchange of property titles."[6]

In general, the non-aggression axiom can be said to be a prohibition against the initiation of force, or the threat of force, against persons (i.e. direct violence, murder, assault) or property (i.e. theft, fraud, burglary, taxation).[7] The initiation of force is usually referred to as aggression or coercion. The difference between anarcho-capitalists and other libertarians is largely one of the degree to which they take this axiom. Minarchist libertarians, such as Objectivists, would retain the state in some smaller and less invasive form, retaining public police, courts and military. In contrast, anarcho-capitalists reject even that level of state intervention, defining any state as a coercive monopoly and, as the only entity in human society that derives it income from legal aggression, an entity that inherently violates the central axiom of libertarianism. [8] Self-ownership is the condition where a society recognizes individuals right to control their selves without interference by others. ... Aggression is defined as The act of initiating hostilities or invasion. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of force. ... In civics, Minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism, is the view that government should be as small as possible. ... Objectivism is opposed to subjectivism and may mean: Metaphysical objectivism The philosophy of Ayn Rand, Objectivist philosophy The poetry of the Objectivist poets Moral objectivism, Objective morality This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about courts of law. ...

Anarcho-capitalism uses the following terms in ways that may differ from common usage or other anarchist movements::

  • Anarchy - a society without a State
  • Contract – a voluntary agreement between persons
  • Coercion – physical force or threat of such against persons or property
  • Capitalism – economic system where the means of production are privately owned, and where investments, production, distribution, income, and prices are determined through the operation of a free market
  • Free market – a market where all decisions regarding transfer of money, goods (including capital goods), and services are voluntary
  • Fraud inducing one to part with something of value through the use of dishonesty
  • State – an organization claiming a monopoly on use of coercion in a given geographic area
  • Voluntary – any action not influenced by coercion or fraud perpetrated by any human agency

Anarchism and Capitalism

Main article: Anarchism and capitalism Objections to the Idea of Profit Anarchists point to profit to be the driving motive of capitalists. ...


Despite the fact that anarcho-capitalism is an anti-statist philosophy, anarchists that follow Peter Kropotkin's socialist definition of anarchy, as well as many who follow from Proudhon's mutualism and Benjamin Tucker's individualism, would strongly maintain that anarcho-capitalism is not a form of anarchy. This is a terminological dispute that heavily relies on the user's definition of the word "anarchism". The traditions that object to the term anarcho-capitalism are using "anarchism" to refer specifically to a particular socialist political movement, and use a general definition that includes rejection of all hierarchical social organization, not just a state. They regard the uneven distribution of wealth among individuals in a capitalist system as inherently hierarchical. Therefore they see anarcho-capitalism as antithetical to the principles of anarchy. Peter Kropotkin Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin (In Russian Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of... For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism,For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ... Anarchy (New Latin anarchia) is a term that has several usages. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ... For another use of the term see Mutualism (economic theory) In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two species in which both species derive benefit. ... Benjamin Tucker (April 17, 1854 - 1939) was Americas leading proponent of individualist anarchism in the 19th century. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ...


According to The Anarchist International, "Capitalism is economical plutarchy, including hierarchy." They place anarcho-capitalism outside of the anarchist movement, and into the classical liberal tradition: "plutarchy without statism = liberalism." They also view anarcho-capitalism as a serious misrepresentation of the core principles of anarchism, and disagree on definitions (see sidebar) as basic as what constitutes a "voluntary" action and what constitutes a "free market." (see: Criticisms of anarcho-capitalism) Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ...


Conversely, libertarians and anarcho-capitalists most commonly use the term “anarchism” with the more limited definition of an opposition of the existence of a state, favoring a society based on voluntary relations between individuals, accepting whatever social structures that evolve under such a system. This divide has been termed as left anarchism versus right anarchism by some individuals, such as Ulrike Heider.[9] Anarcho-capitalists such as Murray Rothbard, in "Left and Right: The Prospects for Liberty," put anarcho-capitalism on the extreme left. Most contemporary anarchists reject the standard linear model of ideologies, in favor of a 2-dimensional model with a liberty-authority dimension. The political ideology diagram shows a view of this political spectrum more in line with anarcho-capitalist philosophy. Libertarian socialism is a political philosophy dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the state. ... Anarcho-capitalism is a branch of libertarian political philosophy which calls for a free market, private property, and a society without a state. ... Left-Right politics is the traditional terminology used to describe the two ideological poles of a political spectrum in a society, especially in a democracy. ... The political spectrum theory is a way of comparing or visualizing different political positions, by placing them upon one or more geometric axes. ...

An anarcho-capitalist model of political ideologies. Liberty-Authority X Socialism-Capitalism.
Enlarge
An anarcho-capitalist model of political ideologies. Liberty-Authority X Socialism-Capitalism.

Download high resolution version (744x637, 34 KB)Two-dimensional Political Ideology Map; Extent X Purpose File links The following pages link to this file: Anarcho-capitalism Anarchism (theory) Anarchism (anti-state) ... Download high resolution version (744x637, 34 KB)Two-dimensional Political Ideology Map; Extent X Purpose File links The following pages link to this file: Anarcho-capitalism Anarchism (theory) Anarchism (anti-state) ...

Original appropriation

Central to anarcho-capitalism are the concepts of self-ownership and original appropriation: Self-ownership is the condition where a society recognizes individuals right to control their selves without interference by others. ...

"Everyone is the proper owner of his own physical body as well as of all places and nature-given goods that he occupies and puts to use by means of his body, provided only that no one else has already occupied or used the same places and goods before him. This ownership of "originally appropriated" places and goods by a person implies his right to use and transform these places and goods in any way he sees fit, provided only that he does not change thereby uninvitedly the physical integrity of places and goods originally appropriated by another person. In particular, once a place or good has been first appropriated by, in John Locke’s phrase, 'mixing one’s labor' with it, ownership in such places and goods can be acquired only by means of a voluntary – contractual – transfer of its property title from a previous to a later owner."[10]

This is the root of anarcho-capitalist property rights, and where they differ from collectivist forms of anarchisim. Original appropriation allows an individual to claim any "unused" property, including land, and by improving or otherwise using it, own it with the same absolute right as his own body. As a practical matter, in terms of the ownership of land, anarcho-capitalists recognize that there are few (if any) parcels of land left on Earth whose ownership was not at some point in time transferred as the result of coercion, usually by seizure by some form of state. However, they do not believe that this history de-legitimizes current ownerships which are based on consensual transactions. They believe it is wrong to attempt to remedy past coercion by the use of present coercion. (i.e. seizure or eviction.) John Locke John Locke (August 29, 1632–October 28, 1704) was a 17th-century philosopher concerned primarily with society and epistemology. ... For judgements of value about collectivism and individualism, see individualism and collectivism. ...

The Libertatis Æquilibritas is a symbol of anarcho-capitalism.
The Libertatis Æquilibritas is a symbol of anarcho-capitalism.

By accepting an axiomatic definition of private property and property rights, anarcho-capitalists deny the legitimacy of a state on principle: Gold Libertatis Aequilibritas This image was taken from [1] with explicit written permission from the copyright holder: Ben, Go ahead using the images. ... Gold Libertatis Aequilibritas This image was taken from [1] with explicit written permission from the copyright holder: Ben, Go ahead using the images. ... Proponents of anarcho-capitalism, also commonly known as market anarchism or anti-state capitalism, use a number of special terms and symbols to discuss and represent their ideas. ...

"For, apart from ruling out as unjustified all activities such as murder, homicide, rape, trespass, robbery, burglary, theft, and fraud, the ethics of private property is also incompatible with the existence of a state defined as an agency that possesses a compulsory territorial monopoly of ultimate decision-making (jurisdiction) and/or the right to tax"[11]

The Contractual Society

The society envisioned by anarcho-capitalists has been called the Contractual Society; "[...] a society based purely on voluntary action, entirely un­hampered by violence or threats of violence."[12] Because this system relies on voluntary agreements (contracts) between individuals as the only legal framework, it is difficult to predict precisely what the particulars of this society would look like. Those particulars are disputed both among anarcho-capitalists and between anarcho-capitalists and their critics. A contract is any legally-enforceable promise or set of promises made by one party to another and, as such, reflects the policies represented by freedom of contract. ...


One particular ramification is that transfer of property and services must be voluntary on the part of both parties. No external entities can force an individual to accept or deny a particular transaction. An employer might offer insurance and death benefits to same-sex couples; another might refuse to recognize any union outside his or her own faith. Individuals would be free to enter into contractual agreements as they saw fit, allowing discrimination or favoritism based on race, gender, language, sexual orientation, or any other categorization. Anarcho-capitalists maintain that the social structure would be self-regulating, since any disenfranchised group can avail themselves of boycott and/or protest, and other entrepreneurs will see their own interests (i.e. profit) in servicing the group. Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, marriage equality, and often just marriage by its proponents, and—usually by its opponents—homosexual marriage) refers to a marriage between two individuals of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions distinct from marriage, see the articles linked in that... A boycott is a refusal to buy, sell, or otherwise trade with an individual or business who is generally believed by the participants in the boycott to be doing something morally wrong. ... 2003 GMO USDA protest Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations: sometimes in favour, more often opposed. ...


Another important ramification is the fact that any social structure is permissible under anarcho-capitalism as long as it is formed by a voluntary contract between individuals. Therefore, radically different "governments" and sub-economies can form, creating a panarchic society. Individuals could voluntarily live in a privately owned democracy, or republic, or even a monarchy, if they so choose. Panarchism is a political philosophy advocating the peaceful co-existence of all political systems, where each individual may voluntarily adhere to the system of their choice, free to join and leave the jurisdiction of the governments he sees fit. ...


One social structure that is not permissible under anarcho-capitalism is one that attempts to claim greater sovereignty than the individuals that form it. The state is a prime example, but another is the modern corporation— defined as a legal entity that exists under a different legal code than individuals as a means to shelter the individuals who own and run the corporation from possible legal consequences of acts by the corporation. It is worth noting that Rothbard allows a narrower definition of a corporation: "[...] Corporations are not at all monopolistic privileges; they are free associations of individuals pooling their capital. On the purely free market, such men would simply announce to their creditors that their liability is limited to the capital specifically invested in the corporation [...]"[13] However, this is a very narrow definition that only shelters owners from debt by creditors that specifically agree to the arrangement. It doesn't shelter other liability, such as from malfeasance or other wrongdoing. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region, group of people, or oneself. ... A corporation is (fucked up)a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name AS (anonymous society) or something similar, depending on language... In the most general sense, a liability is anything that is a hinderance, or puts one at a disadvantage. ...


There are limits to the right to contract under some interpretations of anarcho-capitalisim. Rothbard himself asserts that the right to contract is based in inalienable human rights[14] and therefore any contract that implicitly violates those rights can be voided at will, which would, for instance, prevent a person from permanently selling himself into slavery. Other interpretations conclude that "banning" such contracts would in itself be an unacceptably invasive interference in the right to contract.[15] In morality, the term inalienable rights (sometimes unalienable rights) refers to the concept of rights that are completely inseparable from those to whom they belong. ...


Systems of justice

Anarcho-capitalists only believe in collective defense of individual liberty (i.e. courts, military or police forces) insofar as such groups are formed and paid for on an explicitly voluntary basis. According to Molinari, "Under a regime of liberty, the natural organization of the security industry would not be different from that of other industries."[16] Proponents point out that private systems of justice and defense already exist, naturally forming where the market is allowed to compensate for the failure of the state; private arbitration, security guards, neighborhood watch groups and so on.[17] Defense of those unable to pay for such protection would be financed by charitable organizations relying on voluntary donation rather than by state institutions relying on enforced taxation.


Retributive justice, meaning retalitory force, is often a component of the contracts imagined for an anarcho-capitalist society. Some believe prisons or indentured servitude would be justifiable institutions to deal with those who violate anarcho-capitalist property relations, while others believe exile or forced restitution are sufficient.[18] Retributive justice is a theory of criminal justice wherein punishments are justified on the grounds that the criminal has created an imbalance in the social order that must be addressed by action against the criminal. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Exile is a form of punishment. ... Restitution is the process by which land and other property that was forcibly removed from its owners is restored or compensation of equivalent value provided. ...


The use of force

The axiom of non-aggression is not a necessarily a pacifist doctrine, it is a prohibition against the initiation of (interpersonal) force. Like classical liberalism, anarcho-capitalism permits the use of force, as long as it is in the defense of persons or property. Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. ...


However, the permissible extent of this defensive use of force is an arguable point between anarcho-capitalists. Some argue that the initiator of any aggressive act should be subject to a retributive counter-attack beyond what is solely necessary to repel the aggression. The counter-argument is that such a counterattack is only legitimate insofar as it was defined in an agreement between the parties.


Another controversial application of “defensive” aggression is the act of revolutionary violence against tyrannical regimes. Many anarcho-capitalists admire the American Revolution as the legitimate act of individuals working together to fight against tyrannical restrictions of their liberties. But, illustrating their general ambivalence toward war, these same people also sharply criticize the revolutionaries for the means used — taxes, conscription, inflationary money — and the inadequacy of the result: a coercive government (a state). Before the Revolution: The 13 colonies are in red, the pink area was claimed by Great Britain after the French and Indian War, and the orange region was claimed by Spain. ... A tyrant (from Greek τυραννος) is a usurper of rightful power, possessing absolute power and ruling by tyranny. ... Inflation rates of five core members of the G8 from 1950 to 1994. ...


While some anarcho-capitalists believe forceful resistance and revolutionary violence against the state is legitimate, most believe the use of force is a dangerous tool at best, and that violent insurrection should be a last resort. A rebellion is, in the most general sense, a refusal to accept authority. ...


History and Influences

Gustave de Molinari The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Gustave de Molinari The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Gustave de Molinari (March 3, 1819 - January 28, 1912) was a Belgian-born economist associated with the French économistes, a group of laissez-faire liberals. ...

Liberalism

Main article: Liberalism Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ...


Anarcho-capitalist philosophy has drawn from many influences. The primary influence with the longest history is classical liberalism. Classical liberals have had two main themes since John Locke first expounded the philosophy: the liberty of man, and limitations of State power. The liberty of man was expressed in terms of Natural Rights, while limiting the State was based (for Locke) on a consent theory. While Locke saw the State as evolving from society via a social contract, later more radical liberals saw a fundamental schism between society, the "natural" voluntary interactions of men, and State, the institution of brute force. John Locke John Locke (August 29, 1632–October 28, 1704) was a 17th-century philosopher concerned primarily with society and epistemology. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. ...


In the 18th century, liberal revolutionaries in Britain and America had opposed statism without grounding it in theory, while some French economists had theorized it without endorsing it. In the 19th century, classical liberals led the attack against statism. One notable was Frederic Bastiat ("The Law") who wrote, "The state is the great fiction by which everybody seeks to live at the expense of everybody else." Henry David Thoreau's liberalism might be considered evolutionary anarchism, as when he wrote, "I heartily acceot the motto,'That government is best which governs least'; and I should like to see it acted up to more rapidly and systematically. Carried out, it finally amounts to this, which also I believe,'That government is best which governs not at all'; and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have."[19] (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Statism is a term to describe any economic system where a government implements a significant degree of centralized economic planning,which may include state ownership of the means of production, as opposed to a system where the overwhelming majority of economic planning occurs at a decentralized level by private individuals... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frédéric Bastiat Claude Frédéric Bastiat (June 30, 1801–December 24, 1850) was a French classical liberal author and political economist. ... Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was a noted American author and philosopher who is most famous for Walden, his essay on civil disobedience, and his call for the preservation of wilderness. ...


The first person to 'explicitly' argue to abolish monopoly government was Gustave de Molinari in 1849. In his essay "The Production of Security," he argued, "No government should have the right to prevent another government from going into competition with it, or to require consumers of security to come exclusively to it for this commodity." Molinari and this new type of anti-state liberal grounded their reasoning on liberal ideals and classical economics. Following the logic of laissez faire economics leads to anarchism. Unlike the liberalism of Locke, which saw the State as evolving from society, the anti-state liberals saw a fundamental conflict between the voluntary interations of people - society - and the instutions of force - the State. This society versus State idea was expressed in various ways: natural society vs. artificial society, liberty vs. authority, society of contract vs. society of authority, and industrial society vs. militant society, just to name a few.[20] The anti-state liberal tradition in Europe and the United States continued after Molinari in the early writings of Herbert Spencer, as well as in thinkers such as Paul Émile de Puydt and Auberon Herbert. Gustave de Molinari (March 3, 1819 - January 28, 1912) was a Belgian-born economist associated with the French économistes, a group of laissez-faire liberals. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Herbert Spencer. ... Paul Émile de Puydt (Born in Mons, March 6, 1810 - Died in Mons, May 28, 1888) was a many-talented character. ... Auberon Herbert (1838-1906) was a writer, theorist, philosopher, and member of the British parliament. ...


Later, in the early 20th century, the mantle of anti-state liberalism was taken by the "Old Right." These were minarchist or anarchist, anti-war, anti-imperialist, and (later) anti-New Dealers. Some of the most notable members of the Old Right were Albert Jay Nock, Rose Wilder Lane, Isabel Paterson, Frank Chodorov, Garet Garrett, and H. L. Mencken. In the 1950's, the new "fusion conservatism," also called cold war conservatism, took hold of the right wing in the US, stressing anti-communism, militarism, and economic interventionism. This induced the libertarian Old Right to split off from the right, and seek alliances with the (now left-wing) anti-war movement, and to start specifically libertarian organizations such as the (US) Libertarian Party. The Old Right refers to separate political groups in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... The New Deal was President Franklin D. Roosevelts legislative agenda for rescuing the United States from the Great Depression. ... Albert Jay Nock ( October 13, 1870 or 1872 - August 19, 1945) was an influential American libertarian author, educational theorist, and social critic of the early and middle 20th century. ... Rose Wilder Lane (December 5, 1886–October 30, 1968) was an American writer and the daughter of author Laura Ingalls Wilder. ... Isabel Paterson (born January 22, 1886; died 1961) was a best-selling writer, influential literary critic, and philosopher. ... Garet Garrett (1878-1954) was an American journalist and author who was noted for his critiques of the New Deal and U.S. involvement in the Second World War. ... H. L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956) was a twentieth century journalist and social critic, a cynic and a freethinker, known as the Sage of Baltimore and the American Nietzsche. He is often regarded as one of the most influential American writers of the early 20th... The Cold War was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies. ...

Lysander Spooner (1808-1887)
Lysander Spooner (1808-1887)

Lysander Spooner File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lysander Spooner File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 - May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, abolitionist, and legal theorist of the 19th century. ...

Individualist anarchism

Main article: Individualist anarchism Individualist anarchism is a philosophical tradition, appearing primarily in the United States, that emphasises the autonomy of the individual, most noteably in regard to its advocacy of private property rather than collective property. ...


Anarcho-capitalist thought has also been significantly influenced by the work of the 19th century individualist anarchists. Some of the most notable figures in this respect include Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker. Of particular importance are the ideas of "sovereignty of the individual" (often called "self-ownership"), a right to own the product of one's labor and trade it in a free market, and the opposition to collectivism including collectivist conceptions of property, in favor of individual private property. In politics, individualist anarchism is a variety of anarchism that emphasises the importance of the individual. ... Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 - May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, abolitionist, and legal theorist of the 19th century. ... Benjamin Tucker (April 17, 1854 - 1939) was Americas leading proponent of individualist anarchism in the 19th century. ... Collectivism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. ...


Lysander Spooner's articles, such as No Treason and the Letter to Thomas Bayard, were widely reprinted in early anarcho-capitalist journals, and his ideas -- especially his individualist critique of the state and his defense of the right to ignore or withdraw from it -- were often cited by anarcho-capitalists. Spooner was staunchly opposed to government interference in economic matter, and supported a "right to acquire property...as one of the natural, inherent, inalienable rights of men [...] one which government has no power to infringe [...]"[21]. He also supported the freedom of individuals to charge interest for loans free of government regulation: "All legislative restraints upon the rate of interest, are arbitrary and tyrannical restraints upon a man's natural capacity amid natural right to hire capital, upon which to bestow his labor"[22]. He was particularly vocal, however, in opposing any collusion between banks and government, and argued that the monopolistic privileges that the government granted to a few bankers were the source of many social and economic ills.


Benjamin Tucker supported private ownership of all wealth produced by an individual, and was a staunch advocate of the mutualist form of private property. He also advocated a free market economy, which he believed was obstructed by profit making. From an essay in The New Freewoman: "Anarchism is a word without meaning, unless it includes the liberty of the individual to control his product or whatever his product has brought him through exchange in a free market—that is, private property." Tucker characterized the economic demands of individualism as "Absolute Free Trade; free trade at home, as well as with foreign countries; the logical carrying out of the Manchester doctrine; laissez faire the universal rule"[23]. Although his self-identification as a socialist and sympathy for the labor movement led to hostility from some early anarcho-capitalists (such as Robert LeFevre), others (such as Murray Rothbard) embraced his critique of the State and pointed out how he defined his "socialism" not in terms of opposition to a free market or private property, but in opposition to government privileges for business. A market economy is a term used to describe an economy where economic decisions, such as pricing of goods and services, are made in a decentralized manner by the economys participants and manifested by trade. ... The labor movement (or labour movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... Robert LeFevre (1911-1986) was a libertarian businessman and radio personality. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ...


There are several points of similarity and divergence between individual anarchism and anarcho-capitalism.

  • Both philosophies favor individual private property including capital. However, individualist anarchists opposed titles to unused land, and income from the lending of capital, since that would be income without labor.
  • Both individualist anarchists and anarcho-capitalists advocate "free banking" where any individual or group of individualists would be allowed to create and lend private currency.
  • Individualist anarchists rejected standard employment, believing that wages should equal the full sale price of the resulting product. Though the individualist anarchists viewed profiting from the labor of others as exploitative, they opposed coercively intervening in a capitalist system to thwart it; economic competition was regarded as the solution to eliminating the opportunity for profit making. Anarcho-capitalists consider all voluntary arrangements to be permissable, so have no objection whatsoever to employment. Anarcho-capitalists disagree with the traditional individualists' position that the value of a thing is equal to the labor required to produce it; in contrast they may argue that the value of a thing is how much labor one is willing to exert to purchase it, or alternatively, that value is entirely subjective.
  • Both individualist anarchists and anarcho-capitalists advocate private "defense associations" and private courts, though they disagree on some aspects of their jurisdiction.
  • The individualist anarchists tended to consider "usury" (i.e., profits from labor, rent, or interest) to be an unjust source of income made possible by government-backed monopolies. Interestingly, Tucker eventually argued that usury was possible even in the absence of the state, if vast concentrations of wealth had been accumulated due to government-backed monopolies. Anarcho-capitalists believe that profit earned through consentual interactions are permissible, and generally praiseworthy.
 Murray Rothbard (1926-1995)
Murray Rothbard (1926-1995)

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ...

The Austrian School

Main article: Austrian School The Austrian school of economics was founded with the publication of Carl Menger's 1871 book, Principles of Economics. The Austrians approach economics as an a priori system like logic or mathematics, rather than as an empirical science like geology. It attempts to discover axioms of human action (called "praxeology" in the Austrian tradition), and make deductions therefrom. Some of these praxeological axioms are: The Austrian School is a school of economic thought which rejects opposing economists reliance on methods used in natural science for the study of human action, and instead bases its formalism of economics on relationships through logic or introspection called praxeology. ... The Austrian School is a school of economic thought which rejects opposing economists reliance on methods used in natural science for the study of human action, and instead bases its formalism of economics on relationships through logic or introspection called praxeology. ... Austrian School economist Carl Menger Carl Menger (February 23, 1840 – February 26, 1921) was the founder of the Austrian School of economics. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Principles of Economics is a book by economist Carl Menger which is credited with the founding of the Austrian School of economics. ...

  • Humans act.
  • Humans prefer more of a good to less.
  • Humans prefer to receive a good sooner rather than later.
  • Each party to a trade benefits ex ante.

These are macro-level generalizations, or heuristics, which are true for the many, but not necessarily true for any particular person.


Even in the early days, Austrian economics was used as a theoretical weapon against socialism and statist socialist policy. Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, a colleague of Menger, wrote one of the first and most devastating critiques of socialism ever written - one that still holds up today - in his treatise, "The Exploitation Theory of Socialism-Communism." Later, Friedrich Hayek wrote such classics as "The Road to Serfdom," warning that a command economy destroys the information function of prices, and that authority over the economy leads to totalitarianism. Another very influential Austrian economist was Ludwig von Mises, author of the definitive praxeological work "Human Action." Ludwig von Mises (September 29, 1881 - October 10, 1973), a notable economist and social philosopher, was born Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (today Lviv, Ukraine), the son of Arthur von Mises, a railroad engineer and civil servant, and Adele von Mises, born Adele Landau. ...


Murray Rothbard, a student of Mises, is the man who melded Austrian economics with classical liberalism and individualist anarchism, and is credited with coining the term "anarcho-capitalism." He was probably the first to use "libertarian" in its current (US) pro-capitalist sense. He was a trained economist, but also extremely erudite in history and political philosophy. When young, he considered himself part of the Old Right, an anti-statist and anti-interventionist branch of the US Republican party. When interventionist cold warriors of the National Review, such as William Buckley, captured the Republican party in the 1950s, Rothbard quit that group and formed an alliance with left-wing anti-war groups. Later, Rothbard was a founder of the US Libertarian Party. In the sixties, Rothbard was a part of Ayn Rand's objectivist group, but later had a falling out. Rothbard's books, such as "Man Economy and State", "Power and Market", "The Ethics of Liberty", and "For a New Liberty", are considered classics of natural law libertarian thought.


Criticisms of anarcho-capitalism

Anarcho-capitalism is a radical development of liberalism. Therefore, the same general arguments for and against liberalism, laissez-faire capitalism and capitalism apply, excepting those points (such as the justice system) where anarcho-capitalism diverges from the classical liberal tradition. Libertarianism is a political philosophy that supports largely unrestricted property rights and opposes most government functions (such as taxation, prosecution of victimless crimes and regulations on businesses beyond the minimum required to prevent fraud or property damage) as coercive, even if a democratic majority supports it. ... Objections to the Idea of Profit Anarchists point to profit to be the driving motive of capitalists. ... Some political ideologies (eg Libertarianism, Anarcho-capitalism) make support of their notion of capitalism crucial to their identity, these groups might, or might not support other ideologies laying claim to capitalism. ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... Laissez-faire capitalism is, roughly stated, the doctrine that the free market functions to the greatest good when left unfettered and unregulated by government. ... Capitalism has been defined in various ways (see q:Capitalism). ...


Practical questions

Critics often assert that anarcho-capitalism will degenerate into plutocracy or feudalism in practice. They argue that it is a rational economic decision for organizations with the ability to exert coercion (private police, security and military forces) to exploit groups with less power. In this kind of environment, piracy, military imperialism, and slavery can be very profitable. Taken to its logical extreme, this argument assumes that allowing such “security” organizations to exert coercive power will inevitably lead to their becoming a de-facto state. The term plutocracy indicates a form of government where all the states decisions are centralized in an affluent wealthy class of citizenry and the degree of economic inequality is high while the level of social mobility is low. ... Defining feudalism is difficult because there is no generally accepted agreement on what it means. ... This article is about sea pirates. ... A cartoon portraying the British Empire as an octopus, reaching into foreign lands Imperialism is a policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics... A monument celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, erected in Victoria Tower Gardens, Millbank, Westminster, London Look up Slavery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Slavery is a condition of control over a person against their will, enforced by violence or other forms of coercion. ...


Minarchist and statist critics often argue that the free rider problem makes anarcho-capitalism (and, by extension, any anti-statist political system) fundamentally unworkable in modern societies. They typically argue that there are some vital goods or services — such as civil or military defense, management of common environmental resources, or the provision of public goods such as roads or lighthouses — that cannot be effectively delivered without the backing of a government exercising effective territorial control, and so that abolishing the state as anarcho-capitalists demand will either lead to catastrophe or to the eventual re-establishment of monopoly governments as a necessary means to solving the coordination problems that the abolition of the state created. In civics, Minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism, is the view that government should be as small as possible. ... Statism is a term to describe any economic system where a government implements a significant degree of centralized economic planning,which may include state ownership of the means of production, as opposed to a system where the overwhelming majority of economic planning occurs at a decentralized level by private individuals... In the analyses of economics and political science, free riders are actors who take more than their fair share of the benefits or do not shoulder their fair share of the costs of their use of a resource, involvement in a project, etc. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... In economics, a public good is a good that is hard or even impossible to produce for private profit, because the market fails to account for its large beneficial externalities. ...


Moral questions

Anarcho-capitalists consider a choice or action to be "voluntary," in a moral sense, so long as that choice or action is not influenced by coercion or fraud perpetrated by another individual. Thus, so long as an employee and employer agree to terms without aggression being used, employment is regarded as voluntary. Some critics say this ignores constraints on action due to non-human factors, such as the need for food and shelter. Thus, if a person requires employment in order to feed and house himself, it is said that the employer-employee relationship cannot be voluntary, even if employment was not coerced by another individual. This is essentially a semantic argument over the term "voluntary." Anarcho-capitalists simply do not use the term in that latter sense in their philosophy, believing that sense to be morally irrelevant. Other critics argue that employment is involuntary because the unfair distributions of wealth that make it necessary are supported by private property systems. This is a deeper arguement relating to distributive justice. These critics appeal to an end-state theory of justice, while anarcho-capitalists (and propertarians in general) appeal to an entitlement theory. Distributive justice concerns what is just or right with respect to the allocation of goods (or utility) in a society. ... Distributive justice concerns what is just or right with respect to the allocation of goods (or utility) in a society. ... Propertarians advocate the individual/group private ownership of de jure, transferable, private property titles within a free market. ... Distributive justice concerns what is just or right with respect to the allocation of goods (or utility) in a society. ...


Critics also point out that anarcho-capitalist ethics does not enforce any positive moral obligation to help others in need (see altruism, the ethical doctrine). Like other right libertarians, anarcho-capitalists may argue that no such moral obligation exists or argue that if a moral obligation to help others does exist that there is an overarching moral obligation to refrain from initiating coercion on individuals to enforce it. Anarcho-capitalists believe that helping others should be a matter of free personal choice. They, like all right libertarians, believe that only negative rights should be recognized as being legitimate, as opposed to positive rights. Critics often dismiss this stance as being unethical or selfish. Altruism is either a practice or habit (in the view of many, a virtue) as well as an ethical doctrine. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy that holds that individuals should be allowed complete freedom of action as long as they do not infringe on the freedom of others. ... A Negative right is a right, either moral or decreed by law, to not be subject to an action of another (usually abuse or coercion) so that restraint is incumbent upon another, as opposed to a positive right which is a right to be provided with something by the positive... A Positive right is a right, either moral or decreed by law, to be provided with something so that it is incumbent upon another to act, as opposed to a negative right which is a right to not be subject to the action of another. ...


Property ownership rights and their extent are a source of contention among different philosophies. Most see the rights as less absolute than anarcho-capitalists do. The main issues are 1) what kinds of things are valid property, and 2) what constitutes abandonment of property. The first is contentious even among anarcho-capitalists: there is disagreement over the validity of intellectual property[24] - non-tangible goods that are not economically scarce. Some supporters of private property but critics of anarcho-capitalism may question whether unused land is valid property (Agorism,Georgism, Geolibertarianism, Individualist anarchism). The second issue, what constitutes abandonment, is a common objection among socialists who don't believe in absentee ownership. Anarcho-capitalists have strong abandonment criteria - one maintains ownership (more or less) until one agrees to trade or gift it. The critics of this view tend have weaker abandonment criteria, e.g. one loses ownership (more or less) when one stops personally using it. Also, the idea of original appropriation is anathema to most types of socialism, as well as any philosophy that takes common ownership of land and natural resources as a premise. Many philosophies view any ownership claims on land and natural resources as immoral and illegitimate. // Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ... Agorism is a radical libertarian political philosophy popularized by Samuel Edward Konkin III, who defined an agorist as a conscious practitioner of Counter-Economics; older terms include Left Libertarian and New Libertarian. ... Georgism, named after Henry George (1839-1897), is a philosophy and economic theory that follows from the belief that although everyone owns what they create, land, and everything else supplied by nature, belongs equally to all humanity. ... Geolibertarianism is a political philosophy that holds with other forms of libertarianism that the products of ones labor should be privately owned and controlled. ... Individualist anarchism is a philosophical tradition, appearing primarily in the United States, that emphasises the autonomy of the individual, most noteably in regard to its advocacy of private property rather than collective property. ... For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism,For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ...


Natural Law anarcho-capitalism (such as that advocated by Rothbard) is also criticized by those who have a different view on what exactly is "natural law", and by those who believe that natural laws or rights do not exist (i.e., that laws and rights are a human invention, a product of human society). This includes criticism by consequentialists such as Milton Friedman. The natural law or law of nature is a system of justice that exists independently of the positive law of a given political order. ... Consequentialism is the belief that what ultimately matters in evaluating actions or policies of action are the consequences that result from choosing one action or policy rather than the alternative. ... Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (born July 31, 1912) is a U.S. economist, known primarily for his work on macroeconomics and for his advocacy of laissez-faire capitalism. ...


Utilitarian critics simply argue that anarcho-capitalism does not maximize utility; contending that it would fall far short of that goal. This kind of criticism comes from a variety of different political views and ideologies, and different critics have different views on which other system does or would do a better job of bringing the greatest benefits to the greatest number of people. Anarcho-capitalists consider the non-aggression axiom to be a "side-constraint" on civilized human action (Nozick 1975), or a necessary condition for human society to be beneficial (Herbert Spencer, Ayn Rand, Murray Rothbard), and thus should not be used as a trade-off for miscellaneous utilitarian values. Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ...


Notes

  1. ^  Rothbard, Murray N. (1988) "What’s Wrong with Liberty Poll; or, How I Became a Libertarian", Liberty, July 1988, p.53
  2. ^  Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (2001) "Anarcho-Capitalism: An Annotated Bibliography" Retrieved May 23, 2005
  3. ^  Ibid.
  4. ^  Ibid.
  5. ^  Wall, Richard (2004) "Who's Afraid of Noam Chomsky?" Retrieved May 19, 2005
  6. ^  Rothbard, Murray N. (1982.1) "Law, Property Rights, and Air Pollution" Cato Journal 2, No. 1 (Spring 1982): pp. 55-99. Retrieved May 20, 2005
  7. ^  Rothbard, Murray N. (1973) For a new Liberty Collier Books, A Division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York: pp.24-25. Retrieved May 20, 2005
  8. ^  Rothbard, Murray N. (1982.2) The Ethics of Liberty Humanities Press ISBN 0814775063:p162 Retrieved May 20, 2005
  9. ^  Heider, Ulrike (1994) Anarchism: Left, Right, and Green City Lights Books ISBN 0872862895 Retrieved May 19, 2005
  10. ^  Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (2002) "Rothbardian Ethics" Retrieved May 23, 2005
  11. ^  Ibid.
  12. ^  Rothbard, Murray N. (1962) Man, Economy & State with Power and Market Ludwig von Mises Institute ISBN 0945466307:ch2 Retrieved May 19, 2005
  13. ^  Ibid, ch15
  14. ^  (Rothbard 1982.2)
  15. ^  Nozick, Robert (1973) Anarchy, State, and Utopia
  16. ^  Molinari, Gustave de (1849) The Production of Security (trans. J. Huston McCulloch) Retrieved May 19, 2005
  17. ^  Friedman, David D. (1973) The Machinery of Freedom: Guide to a Radical Capitalism Harper & Row ISBN 0060910100:ch29
  18. ^  O’Keeffe, Matthew (1989) "Retribution versus Restitution" Legal Notes No.5, Libertarian Alliance ISBN 1870614224 Retrieved May 19, 2005
  19. ^  (Molinari 1849)
  20. ^  Thoreau, Henry David (1849) Civil Disobedience
  21. ^  Spooner, Lysander (1843) Constitutional law, Relative to Credit, Currency, and Banking Retrieved May 19, 2005
  22. ^  Spooner, Lysander (1846) Poverty: Its Illegal Causes and Cure Retrieved May 19, 2005
  23. ^  Tucker, Benjamin (1888) State Socialism and Anarchism:How Far They Agree, and Wherein They Differ Liberty 5.16, no. 120 (10 March 1888), pp. 2-3.Retrieved May 20, 2005
  24. ^  McElroy, Wendy (1995) Intellectual Property:The Late Nineteenth Century Libertarian Debate Libertarian Heritage No. 14 ISBN 1856372812 Retrieved June 24, 2005

Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Hans-Hermann Hoppe (born September 2, 1949) is an Austrian school economist and controversial anarcho-capitalist philosopher. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Hans-Hermann Hoppe (born September 2, 1949) is an Austrian school economist and controversial anarcho-capitalist philosopher. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... Gustave de Molinari (March 3, 1819 - January 28, 1912) was a Belgian-born economist associated with the French économistes, a group of laissez-faire liberals. ... David Friedman David D. Friedman (born 1945), is a libertarian writer who became a leading figure in Anarcho-capitalism with the publication of his book The Machinery of Freedom (1971). ... The Machinery of Freedom (ISBN 0812690699) is a book of essays by libertarian economist David Friedman. ... Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 - May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, abolitionist, and legal theorist of the 19th century. ... Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 - May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, abolitionist, and legal theorist of the 19th century. ... Benjamin Tucker (April 17, 1854 - 1939) was Americas leading proponent of individualist anarchism in the 19th century. ...

References

Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 - May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, abolitionist, and legal theorist of the 19th century. ... Benjamin Tucker (April 17, 1854 - 1939) was Americas leading proponent of individualist anarchism in the 19th century. ... Benjamin Tucker (April 17, 1854 - 1939) was Americas leading proponent of individualist anarchism in the 19th century. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Hans-Hermann Hoppe (born September 2, 1949) is an Austrian school economist and controversial anarcho-capitalist philosopher. ... A Theory of Socialism and Capitalism is a treatise by Hans-Hermann Hoppe, a student of Jurgen Habermas, which uses the ethics of argumentation, a Habermasian principle, as the foundation for self_ownership and private property as social principles. ... Hans-Hermann Hoppe (born September 2, 1949) is an Austrian school economist and controversial anarcho-capitalist philosopher. ... Democracy: The God That Failed is a book by Hans-Hermann Hoppe, containing a series of thirteen essays on the subject of democracy, and concluding with the belief that democracy is a sign of decivilization sweeping the world since World War I and that it must be delegitimized. ... Bruce Benson is a commercial fisherman and politician in Manitoba, Canada. ...

External links

Anarcho-capitalism websites

  • Anarchism.Net sells books
  • Ancapistan Network comes with an ancap start-up, articles and links
  • Anti-State.com[25], has one of the more active forums and infrequent theoretical and practical articles.
  • Bertrand Lemennicier, a renowned French anarcho-capitalist economist and his links (English and French)
  • Cuthhyra is a resource promoting anarcho-capitalism through essays, humour, quotes, links and more.
  • Bryan Caplan's "Anarchism Theory FAQ" is written from the perspective of an anarcho-capitalist.
  • LewRockwell.com is a widely read anarcho-capitalist news site with a Catholic slant.
  • The Molinari Institute
  • Murray Rothbard: A Legacy of Liberty
  • Panarchy, another way of considering things that is considered by some ultimately equivalent to anarcho-capitalism.
  • David Hart's Gustave De Molinari And The Anti-Statist Liberal Tradition
  • Liberalia, an anarcho-capitalist site
  • The contrast of anarcho-capitalist and individualist anarchism is a matter of some debate. For one anarcho-capitalist view, see A Brief Introduction to Philosophical Anarchism.
  • Samizdata is a group blog by "...a varied group [ that includes ] wild-eyed anarcho-capitalists"
  • Strike The Root is an anarcho-capitalist news site with an atheistic slant.
  • Why I Call Myself A Free Market Anarchist And Why I Am One by Brian Miklethwait
  • Libertari.org Italian libertarian/anarcho-capitalist site
  • Bureaucrash

Anti-state. ... Individualist anarchism is a philosophical tradition, appearing primarily in the United States, that emphasises the autonomy of the individual, most noteably in regard to its advocacy of private property rather than collective property. ...

Opposing views

This article deals with the individualist and propertarian meaning of libertarian (sometimes called right libertarianism). ... In civics, Minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism, is the view that government should be as small as possible. ...

Other

See also

Related Subjects

Anarcho-capitalism has been the subject of a number of works of literature, both nonfiction and fiction. ... Proponents of anarcho-capitalism, also commonly known as market anarchism or anti-state capitalism, use a number of special terms and symbols to discuss and represent their ideas. ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... Crypto-anarchism is a philosophy that expounds the use of strong public key cryptography to enforce privacy and therefore individual freedom. ... See also: Topics in cryptography The security of all practical encryption schemes remains unproven, both for symmetric and asymmetric schemes. ... Cyberspace is a (virtual) reality within the worlds computers and computer networks. ... Crypto-anarchism is a philosophy that expounds the use of strong public key cryptography to enforce privacy and therefore individual freedom. ... Individualist anarchism is a philosophical tradition, appearing primarily in the United States, that emphasises the autonomy of the individual, most noteably in regard to its advocacy of private property rather than collective property. ... This article deals with the individualist and propertarian meaning of libertarian (sometimes called right libertarianism). ... Panarchism is a political philosophy advocating the peaceful co-existence of all political systems, where each individual may voluntarily adhere to the system of their choice, free to join and leave the jurisdiction of the governments he sees fit. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...

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