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Encyclopedia > Anarchist symbolism
Part of the Politics series on

Anarchism The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is defined as a group of people who are influenced to change laws and other such things to make the world a better place the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of authoritarian relationship, compulsory government (cf. ...

Schools of thought

CapitalistChristian
CollectivistCommunist
Feminist • Green
IndividualistMutualist
Philosophical • Primitivist
Social • Syndicalist
Without adjectives
Image File history File links Anarchy-symbol. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Christian anarchism is a synthesis of anarchist theory with Christian theology. ... Left Anarchism is a term used almost exclusively by opponents of traditional anarchism to denominate philosophies that oppose private ownership of the means of production (or capitalism). ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... Green anarchism is a set of related political theories that is derived from philosophical and social movements such as social ecologists, feminism, egoism, situationism, surrealism, the Luddites, Anarcho-primitivism, post- and anti-leftists, indigenous, anti-industrialism, and pre-civilized people. ... Individualist Anarchism is an anarchist philosophical tradition that has a strong emphasis on sovereignty of the individual[1] and is generally opposed to collectivism[2]. The tradition appears most often in the United States, most notably in regard to its advocacy of private property. ... Mutualism is an economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that in extreme laissez-faire, market competition will cause the market values (prices) of commodities and services to align with the amount of labor embodied in those things. ... Philosophical anarchism is a type of anarchism that sees the state as lacking moral legitimacy but does not recommend any immediate revolutionary action for its elimination. ... Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Social anarchism is a term self-applied by many anarchists of the libertarian socialist thread of anarchism. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Anarchist theory

History • Economics
Anarchism and capitalism
Anarchism and Marxism
Co-operatives
Symbolism • Post-left
EspecifismoPlatformism
Propaganda of the deed
Social ecology
Spontaneous order
Workers' self-management
Anarcho-primitivists assert that, for the longest period before recorded history, human society was organized on anarchist principles. ... Anarchist economics entails theory and practice relating to economic activity within the philosophical outlines of anarchism. ... Though the libertarian socialist critique of capitalism is rooted in socialist theory, there are certain key distinctions in their critiques, which this article attempts to elucidate. ... While anarchism and Marxism are two different political philosophies, there is some similarity between the methodology and ideology of groups of anarchists and Marxists, and the history of the two have often been intertwined. ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) is an association of persons who join together to carry on an economic activity of mutual benefit, in an egalitarian fashion. ... Post-left anarchy is a recent current in anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchisms relationship to traditional leftism. ... Especifismo is an anarchist praxis which originates in South America. ... Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Nestor Makhnos Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Spontaneous order (sometimes called self-organization) is a phenomenon that happens when individuals each follow a set of self-interest-based rules without a central authority designing a plan for everyone. ... Worker Self-Management is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ...

Anarchism in culture

ArtsBlack anarchism
Jewish anarchismSociety
Popular Education
Criticisms
Anarchism has long had an association with the arts, particularly in music and literature. ... Black anarchism opposes the existence of a state and subjugation and domination of people of color, and favors a non-hierarchical organization of society. ... Freie Arbeiter Stimme, vol 1 no 4, Friday, July 25, 1890. ... This article discusses the anarchist critiques of society and proposed solutions from the anarchist perspective. ... Popular education is an educational technique designed to raise the consciousness of its participants and allow them to become more aware of how an individuals personal experiences are connected to larger societal problems. ... The theory and practice of anarchism has been controversial since it came to prominence in the 19th century. ...

Relationship to other
Belief Systems

Anarchism and religion
Anarchism and Marxism
Nationalism and Anarchism
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... While anarchism and Marxism are two different political philosophies, there is some similarity between the methodology and ideology of groups of anarchists and Marxists, and the history of the two have often been intertwined. ... Nationalism and Anarchism, both emerged in Europe following the French Revolution and have a long and complicated relationship, going back at least to Bakunin and his involvement with the Pan-Slavic movement prior to his conversion to anarchism and during the first several years thereafter. ...

Anarchism geographically

AfricaAustria
ChinaEngland
FranceGreece
IrelandMexico
RussiaSpain
SwedenUkraine
United States
African Anarchism This article is about the historical and contemporary Anarchist movement in Africa. ... Anarchism in England initially developed within the context of radical Whiggery and Protestant religious dissent. ...

Anarchism lists

BooksCommunities
ConceptsOrganizations
Anarchist Daniel Guérin, Anarchism Robert Graham Anarchism. ... This is a list of anarchist communities, past and present. ... These are concepts which, although not exclusive to anarchism, are significant in historical and/or modern anarchist circles. ... This list uses the word organization in its loosest sense. ...

Anarchism Portal
Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

This article discusses various anarchist symbols, including the circle-A and the black flag. Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ...

Contents

Black flag

Description

The black flag is, among other things, the traditional anarchist symbol
The black flag is, among other things, the traditional anarchist symbol

The black flag, and the color black in general, have been associated with anarchy since the 1880s. Many anarchist groups contain the word "black" in their names. There have been a number of anarchist periodicals titled Black Flag. Image File history File links BlackFlagSymbol. ... Image File history File links BlackFlagSymbol. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of authoritarian relationship, compulsory government (cf. ... Black Flag may refer to: Black Flag (insecticide), a brand of insecticide made by the Fountainhead Group Black Flag (band), a hardcore punk band Czarny Sztandar (1903), a Białystok anarchist organisation Chernoe Znamja (1905), a Geneva anarchist newspaper Black Flag (newspaper), an anarchist newspaper Black Flag Army, a bandit... Black cat, thought by some to cause bad luck (see superstition) Black is the shade of objects that do not reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum. ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Black Flag is the name of a British anarchist newspaper, mainly known for its coverage of international anarchist politics as well as supporting class war prisoners. ...


The uniform blackness of this flag is a representative of the negation of all oppressive structures. A plain black flag is almost an anti-flag (colourful flags being the usual symbols for nation states). Additionally, a white flag is the universal symbol for surrender to superior force — thus a black flag can be viewed as the polar opposite of surrender. Others have suggested that the black flag symbolises mourning for those martyred in the course of the struggle. German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ...


The black flag was also used by fascists, especially of the Italian variety, and is also carried by Shiah Muslims. Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Historical Origins

Many anarchists have said[Who says this?] that the black flag represents the absence of a flag, and thus stands in opposition to the very notion of nation-states and hierarchical institutions. In that light, the flag can be seen as a rejection of the concept of representation, or the idea that any person or institution can adequately represent a group of individuals.


Certain aspects of anarchistic theory have their origins in socialism, which is a movement strongly associated with the red flag. As anarchism became more and more distinct from socialism in the 1880s, it adopted the black flag to help differentiate itself. (It should be noted that anarchism is not a direct descendant of socialism; it did not spring from any one source.) Anarchy can refer to: the political theory anarchism, also known as libertarian socialism or anarcho_communism. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Historically, and most generally, the red flag is an international symbol for the blood of angry workers. ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ...


Both the black and red flags first gained notoriety for their use by Buccaneers, who were pirates of French origin operating in the West Indies. The black flag (later the "Jolly Roger") was run up first to indicate that the lives of the crew would be spared if they surrendered. If the crew resisted, the red flag would be displayed to indicate that the offer of amnesty had been withdrawn; no prisoners would be taken. This article refers to the type of pirate. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... A generic version of the Jolly Roger. ...


During the French Revolution, the red flag was adopted by the Jacobin Club, whose members controlled the insurrectionary Paris Commune during the assault on the Tuileries, the September Massacres, and throughout the Reign of Terror. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795, and especially from 1792 until 1795. ... On August 10, 1792, during the French Revolution, a mob – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the insurrectionary Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries palace. ... The September Massacres were a wave of mob violence which took place in Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. ... The Reign of Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period of about eleven months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine. ...


In 1831, the black flag was displayed as an emblem of protest during an uprising of silk workers in Lyon; it was also flown in the 1840s during hunger riots, as a symbol of the desperation of the starving urban poor. It first became associated with anarchism in the 1880s, when it was flown as an expression of mourning for the victims of the Paris Commune of 1871. The French anarchist paper, Le Drapeau Noir ("The Black Flag"), which existed until 1882, is one of the first published references to use black as an anarchist color. Black International was the name of a London anarchist group founded in July 1881. Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In the Russian Revolution of 1917, Nestor Makhno's anarchist forces were known collectively as the Black Army. They fought under a black flag with some success until they were crushed by the Red Army (see Black Guards). Emiliano Zapata, a Mexican revolutionary in the 1910s, used a black flag with a skull and crossbones and the Blessed Virgin Mary on it. The flag's slogan was "Tierra y Libertad" ("Land and Liberty"). In 1925, Japanese anarchists formed the Black Youth League, which had branches in the then-colonial Taiwan. In 1945, the group named their journal Kurohata ("Black Flag"). This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Nestor Makhno. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Black Guards flag, whit Nestor Makhno. ... Emiliano Zapata Salazar (August 8, 1879 – April 10, 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, which broke out in 1910, and which was initially directed against the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. ... // The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th Century. ... EU standard toxic symbol, as defined by Directive 67/548/EEC. A skull and crossbones (☠) is a symbol consisting of a human skull and two bones crossed together under the skull. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


More recently, Parisian students carried black (and red) flags during the massive General Strike of May 1968. In the same year, these flags were seen at the American Students for a Democratic Society national convention. Also at about the same time, the British based journal Black Flag was started, and is still in existence today. Black flags remain a symbol of anarchists today. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... SDS Button Logo The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was, historically, a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of the countrys New Left. ... In politics, a political convention is a meeting of a political party, typically to select party candidates. ... Black Flag is the name of a British anarchist newspaper, mainly known for its coverage of international anarchist politics as well as supporting class war prisoners. ...


The color black has often been associated with fascism, as well as with anarchism. Benito Mussolini gained power in Rome with the help of his Blackshirts, who sometimes carried black flags, through they were usually adorned with a white fasces, the symbol of Ancient Rome. The Fascists chose black essentially because it was the opposite of red, the color of socialism, which they wanted above all else to distance themselves from. Some of the fascists had previously been involved in the anarchist movement, and indeed Proudhon was often held up as a precursor of their ideology, particularly those influenced by Georges Sorel and Henri Bergson. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere or squadristi) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. The term was later applied to a similar group serving the British Union of Fascists before the War. ... Roman fasces. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847-29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of revolutionary syndicalism. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ...


Circle-A

Description

The traditional circle-A symbol
The traditional circle-A symbol

The Circle-A is almost certainly the best-known present-day symbol for anarchy. It is a monogram that consists of the capital letter "A" surrounded by the capital letter "O". The letter "A" is derived from the first letter of "anarchy" or "anarchism" in most European languages and is the same in both Latin and Cyrillic scripts. The "O" stands for order. Together they stand for "Anarchy is Order," the first part of a Proudhon quote.[1] Image File history File links Anarchy-symbol. ... Image File history File links Anarchy-symbol. ... The Chi-Rho, a monogram of the first two letters in the Greek word for Christ E and L embroider for clothes and bedding, for a wife by the initials E L or L E A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ...


This character can be written as Unicode codepoint U+24B6: Ⓐ. In addition, the "@" sign or "(A)" can be used to quickly represent the circle-A on a computer. Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ...


Pre-Anarchist usage

Detail of plate 1 from Spiegel der Kunst und Natur (Michelspacher Cabala), 1615, showing encircled A.
Detail of plate 1 from Spiegel der Kunst und Natur (Michelspacher Cabala), 1615, showing encircled A.

An early occasion when the encircled A was used was in Stephan Michelspacher book Spiegel der Kunst und Natur (The Mirror of Art and Nature) which was published in Augsburg 1615. This was an Alchemical work strongly influenced by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa's view of the Kabbalah and magic. Adam McLean describes the centre panel as "two circular diagrams with the German GOTT (the name of God) around the outside, and also the Alpha and Omega @ and the monograph which may be the name of God, Agla.[2] This represents the beginning - alpha - within the end - omega (the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. This relates to the claim related in the Book of Revelation that Jesus was "the "Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last" (22.13). Rosicrucian imagery of this type was used by the Golden Dawn. The Anarchist (and police spy) Theodor Reuss was associated with William Wynn Westcott, one of the founders of the Golden Dawn, before setting up the Ordo Templi Orientis. Two offshoots of this - Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis and Aleister Crowley's Thelema used the formulation "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law", which many have taken up as an anarchist slogan. Image File history File links Spiegel_detail. ... Image File history File links Spiegel_detail. ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Cornelius Agrippa, as portrayed in Libri tres de occulta philosophia. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... Adam McLean is a well known enthusiast and authority on alchemical texts and symbolism. ... Look up alfa, alpha in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Ω, ω in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... AGLA is a notariqon (kabbalistic acronym) for Ateh Gibor Le-olam Adonai,The Lord is mighty forever. ... Look up Ω, ω in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (or, more commonly, the Golden Dawn) was a magical order of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, practicing a form of theurgy and spiritual development. ... Theodor Reuss (1855 - 1923) Theodor Reuss (1855 - 1923 e. ... William Wynn Westcott (November 17, 1848 - July 30, 1925) was a British esotericist and ceremonial magician. ... Lamen of the Ordo Templi Orientis Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) (Order of the Temple of the East, or the Order of Oriental Templars) is an international fraternal and religious organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The Rosicrucian Order, Ancient Mystical Order Rosæ Crucis (AMORC) is a worldwide mystical, Rosicrucian, educational, humanitarian and fraternal organization that was founded by Harvey Spencer Lewis in 1915. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947; the surname is pronounced // i. ... Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun : will, from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ...


History of Anarchist usage

The Masonic "level in a circle" at first used by the Federal Council of Spain of the International Workingmen's Association. Note the inclusion of the Plumb, one of the working tools of operative masonry, and a symbol of rectitude of conduct
The Masonic "level in a circle" at first used by the Federal Council of Spain of the International Workingmen's Association. Note the inclusion of the Plumb, one of the working tools of operative masonry, and a symbol of rectitude of conduct[3]

The first recorded use of the A in a circle by anarchists was by the Federal Council of Spain of the International Workingmen's Association. This was set up by the freemason[citation needed], Giuseppe Fanelli in 1868.[4] It predates its adoption by anarchists as it was used as a symbol by freemasons amongst others. Image File history File links Ait. ... Image File history File links Ait. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Giuseppi Fanelli (1826-1877) came to Spain in 1868 on a journey planned by anarchist Mikhail Bakunin in order to recruit members for the First International. ... Media:Example. ...


It was later used in the Spanish Civil War (19361939). There is a picture of an anarchist militia member with the circle-A painted clearly on the back of his helmet. It was adopted as a symbol of the Alliance Ouvrière Anarchiste (AOA) as its symbol at its 25 November 1956 founding in Brussels, and appears to have been independently reinvented in 1964 by the French group, Jeunesse Libertaire ("Libertarian Youth"). Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 25 is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...


Obviously, the circle-A long predates the anarcho-punk movement, which was part of the punk rock movement of the late 1970s. However, the punk movement certainly spread the circle-A anarchy symbol more widely, even among non-anarchists. The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ...


Other anarchist symbols

The circle-A and the black flag are the primary symbols applicable to anarchism as a whole. However, various anarchist groups throughout history have developed their own symbols. Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of authoritarian relationship, compulsory government (cf. ...


Red and black flag

The red-and-black flag is primarily associated with anarcho-syndicalism
The red-and-black flag is primarily associated with anarcho-syndicalism

The red-and-black flag is the symbol of the anarcho-syndicalism and anarchist communism movement. Anarcho-syndicalism, which is part of the labor union movement, draws its principles from both anarchism and more heavily from socialism than many other anti-capitalist anarchist movements. As discussed in the black flag section, black is the traditional color of anarchism, and red is the traditional color of socialism. Image File history File links Anarchist_flag. ... Image File history File links Anarchist_flag. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of authoritarian relationship, compulsory government (cf. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


The red-and-black flag combines the two colors in equal parts, with a simple diagonal split. Typically, the red section is placed on the top-left corner, with the black on the bottom-right corner of the flag. This symbolizes the co-existence of anarchist and socialist ideals within the anarcho-syndicalism movement, and to symbolize the more socialistic means of the movement leading to a more anarchistic end.

The CNT-FAI's version of the red-and-black flag
The CNT-FAI's version of the red-and-black flag

A notable anarcho-syndicalist group is Spain's Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), which still exists today. The CNT, along with the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI), a major militant faction within the CNT, was a major player in the popular anarchism movements in Spain of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... The Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI, Iberian Anarchist Federation) is a Spanish organization of Anarchist (Anarcho-Syndicalist) militants active within affinity groups inside the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) trade union. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... The Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI, Iberian Anarchist Federation) is a Spanish organization of Anarchist (Anarcho-Syndicalist) militants active within affinity groups inside the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) trade union. ... Anarchism has historically gained the most support and influence in Spain, especially in the seventy or so years before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


This group has its own version of the red-and-black flag with its initials on the flag. CNT is in the red, while FAI is in the black — the color of anarchy — as the FAI was founded in 1927 to keep the CNT dedicated to anarchist principles. Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This design influenced the flag of Spanish Falange, a right-wing, National syndicalist group that wanted to transcend the class struggle by corporatist vertical trade-unions, and which was eventually absorbed into the FET y de las JONS of Francisco Franco. Yoke and Arrows. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ... National Syndicalism is a variant of syndicalism typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become a basis of Benito Mussolini’s National Fascist Party. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, and professional groups. ... The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) was the official political party founded by Francisco Franco April 19, 1937 in the midst of the Spanish Civil War, bringing under one umbrella his Carlist and Falangist supporters. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...


Black cat

The black cat is an important symbol of anarcho-syndicalism and radical unions
The black cat is an important symbol of anarcho-syndicalism and radical unions

The black cat, also called the "wild cat" or "sabot-cat", usually with an arched back and with claws and teeth bared, is closely associated with anarchism, especially with anarcho-syndicalism. It was designed by Ralph Chaplin, who was a prominent figure in the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). As its stance suggests, the cat is meant to suggest wildcat strikes and radical unionism. The IWW (or the Wobblies) was an important industrial union, and was the first American labor union to recruit and organize women and people of color, and played a critical role in the fight for the 8 hour work day and in Free Speech fights all over the country in the early 20th century. Their most famous and influential years were from 1905 until they were largely suppressed by the Palmer Raids. Contrary to some historians' accounts, the IWW never died and remains an active labor union today. In the 1990s the IWW experienced a major revival, and is now one of the fastest growing labor unions in America, and the nation's largest explicitly anti-capitalist organization. Current campaigns are focussed mostly on low-wage service industry workers, and in 2005 the IWW became the first American labor union to successfully unionize a Starbucks coffee shop (in New York City). They embrace the black cat as a symbol of the worker's movement. Image File history File links Sabcat2. ... Image File history File links Sabcat2. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Ralph Chaplin (1887—1961) became a labor activist, when at the age of seven, he saw a worker shot dead during the Pullman strike in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... Industrial unionism is a labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union -- regardless of skill or trade -- thus giving workers in one industry, or in all industries, more leverage in bargaining and in strike situations. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Starbucks Corporation (NASDAQ: SBUX) is a coffeehouse chain based in the United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The origin of the black cat symbol is unclear, but according to one story it came from a IWW strike that was going badly. Several members had been beaten up and were put in a hospital. At that time a skinny, black cat walked into the striker's camp. The cat was fed by the striking workers and as the cat regained its health the strike took a turn for the better. Eventually the striking workers got some of their demands and they adopted the cat as their mascot.[1]


The name Black Cat has been used for numerous anarchist-affiliated collectives and cooperatives, including a well-known music venue in Austin, Texas (which was closed following a July 6, 2002 fire) and a now-defunct "collective kitchen" in the University District of Seattle, Washington. Nickname: Live Music Capital of the World Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Travis County, Williamson County Government  - Mayor Will Wynn Area  - City  296. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... University District The University District is a neighborhood in Seattle, Washington, so named because the main campus of the University of Washington is located there. ... Nickname: Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King County Incorporated December 2 1869 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Greg Nickels (NP) Area  - City  142. ...


As a symbol, the black cat has historically been associated with witchcraft, ill omens, and death. It dates back to ancient Hebrew and Babylonian cultures. The witchcraft usage has persisted into modern times; anarchism shares the black cat symbol with witchcraft and Wicca, though the latter two generally do not represent the cat with its back arched in a fighting stance. The black cat in a fighting stance is a historically important anarchist symbol. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... now. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ...


Black Cross

The Black Cross
The Black Cross

The Anarchist Black Cross organization's primary goal is to eliminate all prisons. It originated in Tsarist Russia as a support organization for political prisoners. Their symbol is a black cross, with the upwards-facing line being replaced with a 'clenched fist' 'closed fist', or 'raised fist', a symbol also associated with anarchism, defiance of authority, and personal empowerment (black power, youth power, women's liberation, American Indian Movement, International Socialist Organization, 'power to the people', etc...). The fist also represents union, as "many weak fingers can come together to create a strong fist". Image File history File links Anarchist_black_cross_logo. ... Image File history File links Anarchist_black_cross_logo. ... The Anarchist Black Cross (or ABC) is an anarchist political support organization. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous Armenian khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... A clenched fist closed fist, or raised fist, as a symbol, has been used to represent many similar ideas. ...


The cross is a modification of the Red Cross emblem used by International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (founded 1863), the world's largest group of humanitarian organizations. Originally called the Anarchist Red Cross, the name was changed around 1920 to avoid confusion when the Red Cross started organizing relief for prisoners as well. Like the Red Cross, this symbol is not intended to be overtly Christian, though it may be ultimately derived from the Christian cross. The Red Cross and Anarchist Black Cross are humanitarian symbols; the Christian cross is a religious symbol. The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The traditional form of the Western Christian cross, known as the Latin cross. ...


Wooden shoe

The wooden shoe, or "sabot" is a symbol of sabotage by workers
The wooden shoe, or "sabot" is a symbol of sabotage by workers

The wooden shoe (also known as clog) was used symbolically by anarchists in the 19th and early 20th century, although it has largely faded from use since then. The French word for wooden shoe, sabot is the probable root of the word sabotage: and refers to the tactic by early Dutch unionists of throwing wooden shoes into the gears of factory or farm machinery, effectively stopping work until the equipment could be repaired. The American analogue of this tactic is "monkeywrenching," referring to the similar practice of throwing a monkeywrench in the machinery to damage it and prevent independent contractors from being able to replace striking union members. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The word clog, as applied to footwear, has these meanings:- A type of shoe or sandal made predominantly out of wood. ... “Saboteur” redirects here. ...


In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, there is an anarchist bookshop called The Wooden Shoe, and from 2001 to 2003 there was an anarchist magazine in Denmark called Sabot. There is also an American record label focusing primarily on punk-rock and genres revolving around it called Sabot Productions, which uses the exact same sabot picture seen on the left as their logo. Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Categories: Bookstores | Stub ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment rock music genre and movement that emerged in the mid-1970s. ...


Black and purple flag

Purple and Black flag of Anarcha-Feminism
Purple and Black flag of Anarcha-Feminism

A simple variation of the red and black Anarchist flag, the black and purple is used in association with Anarcha-Feminism. Much like the pink and black flag (below) it focuses on the "struggle against sexism and patriarchy". Image File history File links Anfem2. ... Image File history File links Anfem2. ...


Black and green flag

Green and black flag of ecological anarchism.
Green and black flag of ecological anarchism.

The black and green flag is a modification to the original black and red flag of anarchism. This flag is used by social ecologists, eco-anarchists, anti-civilization anarchists and anarcho-primitivists. It is generally taken to symbolize a vision of anarchism that focuses on the self-determination of all forms of life (animals, humans, bioregions) and not just humans, hence the green. Image File history File links Green_and_Black_flag. ... Image File history File links Green_and_Black_flag. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Eco-anarchism argues that small eco-villages (of no more than a few hundred people) are a scale of human living preferable to civilization, and that infrastructure and political systems should be re-organized to ensure that these are created. ... Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ...


Black and pink flag

The Anarcha-Feminist/Queer Anarchist flag
The Anarcha-Feminist/Queer Anarchist flag

Another variation of the black and red flag, the black and pink flag is used by queer anarchists, and sometimes by Anarcha-Feminists. Unlike the black and green flag, it doesn't necessarily represent another form of anarchism, but is used to focus on (opposition to) the hierarchial patterns of heterosexism, sexism, transphobia, and patriarchy. Image File history File links Anfem. ... Image File history File links Anfem. ... The word queer has traditionally meant strange or unusual, but it is also currently often used in reference to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and asexual communities. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... Heterosexism is a predisposition towards heterosexual people, which some see as biased against lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, transgender or intersexed, people among others. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ...


Black and gold flag

The black and gold flag is used by anarcho-capitalists. Anarcho-capitalism is a view that regards all forms of the state as unnecessary and harmful, particularly in matters of justice and self-defense, while being highly supportive of private property. ...


Stars

Variations of the anarchist flags (above), only in the shape of a five-pointed star.


Variations of the star exist as adaptations of the flags, there are black and red, green, pink, purple and others.


Black Rose

The Black Rose is a little known symbol of the anarchist movement. The political origins of the Black Rose can be traced to the Irish song about their struggle against the British, “Little Black Rose”. The song is one of resistance and rebellion, and as such aligns to the general view adopted by anarchists of anti-authoritarianism. Black Roses (roses of black color) do not exist in nature as such, but nevertheless they are often featured in fiction with many different meanings. ...


Jolly Roger/Pirate flag

The Jolly Roger as a black flag with skull and bones has recently gained a popularity among anarchists. A generic version of the Jolly Roger. ...


Some claim to use the Jolly Roger as a form of appreciation for the Pirate way of life in freedom and a lack of authority. Many Pirate ships were loosely democratic and most crew mates were working class fugitives from the highly repressive societies in which they were born.


"Eat the Rich"

Eat the Rich symbol
Eat the Rich symbol

A variation of the Jolly Roger, but with a longer history among anarchists, the "Eat the Rich" symbol has been around since at least the 1980s. At first sight it looks like the Jolly Roger, but the crossed bones are replaced by a knife and a fork. It is mostly an anarcho-punk symbol. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ...


The "Eat the Rich" slogan was popularized within the anarcho-punk community by the 1987 Motörhead song by that name, and more broadly by the 1993 Aerosmith song of the same name, found on the "Get a Grip" album. A red t-shirt bearing the "Eat the Rich" symbol was distributed as a promotion for the album. Motörhead are a Grammy Award-winning British heavy metal band formed in 1975 by bassist, singer and songwriter Lemmy (real name Ian Kilmister), who has remained the sole constant member. ... Eat The Rich is a song by the heavy metal band Motörhead. ... Aerosmith is a prominent American rock band, regarded by some as Americas Greatest Rock and Roll Band. [1][2] Although they are known as the bad boys from Boston[3], none of the bands members are actually from that city. ... Eat the Rich is a song performed by American hard rock band Aerosmith. ... Get a Grip is the eleventh studio album by American hard rock band Aerosmith, released in 1993 (see 1993 in music). ...


African Anarchism

Black and Red Africa
Black and Red Africa

This symbol is used mostly by Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Federation. Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Federation (ZACF or ZabFed) is a federation of anarchist groups in South Africa. ZabFed was inspired by the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. ZabFed members share a basic agreement in terms of theoretical and tactical unity, collective responsibility, and federalism as suggests by the "Platform". In historical terms the platformist tradition starts with The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists, and includes the Friends of Durruti grouping of CNT members during The Spanish Revolution who wrote Towards A Fresh Revolution. In the post-war period many include documents like the Georges Fontenis' pamphlet Manifesto of Libertarian Communism. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... logo Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Federation (ZACF or ZabFed) is a federation of anarchist groups in South Africa. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of authoritarian relationship, compulsory government (cf. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Nestor Makhnos Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. ... Title page to Historians History Of The World. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labor organization. ... In Spanish history, there have been several revolutions. ...


The symbolism of a united Africa, displayed in traditional anarcho-communist colours, is an important one, as a mixture of different demographic groups are represented by Zalabaza in the midst of a societal environment that is otherwise tense with post-colonial racial and sexual issues.

African Anarchism

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

See also

Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of authoritarian relationship, compulsory government (cf. ... The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ... This is a list of graphical signs, icons, and symbols. ... Historically, and most generally, the red flag is an international symbol for the blood of angry workers. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... Proponents of anarcho-capitalism, also commonly known as market anarchism or capitalist anarchism, use a number of special terms, definitions and symbols to discuss and represent their ideas. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.infoshop.org/faq/append2.html#circledA
  2. ^ 'Alchemical Mandala No. 6' by Adam McLean, in The Hermetic Journal No. 6, London, 1979
  3. ^ The incorporation of a plumbline is possibly derived from Amos 7:7-9 (King James Version) where it represents a metophorical moral test. Although the plumbline, level and circle all have their place in the symbols of Freemasonry, they are not unique to Freemasonry, and there is no historical reason to associate regular or recognized Freemasonry with this crest or the organization.
  4. ^ 'La Masonería y el movimento obrero' by Alberto Valín Fernández.

This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Symbolism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (515 words)
Symbolism is the systematic or creative use of arbitrary symbols as abstracted representations of concepts or objects and the distinct relationships in between, as they define both context and the narrower definition of terms.
The term "symbolism" is often limited to use in contrast to "representationalism"; defining the general directions of a linear spectrum wherein all symbolic concepts can be viewed in relation, and where changes in context may imply systemic changes to individual and collective definitions of symbols.
Human language is based in the use of phonemes as representative symbols, and the analogous written forms are typically deferential to the phoneme.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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